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🍺 | Birth of “Sake” with Imo Shochu What is the new manufacturing method that adversity sake breweries challenge?


Birth of "Sake" with potato shochu What is the new manufacturing method that adversity sake breweries challenge?

If you write the contents roughly
"It's the first time in Japan, so I'm looking forward to seeing what happens. Under the Liquor Tax Law, what you put in at this stage (moromi) is sake.

Niigata's representative salmon and sake.A new sake brewery in Joetsu City is being exposed to headwinds due to the cancellation of banquets and shortened business hours at restaurants. → Continue reading

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Liquor tax law

Liquor tax law(Shuzeiho) isLiquor taxCharge collection,Alcoholic beverages OfManufacturing and sales licenseEtc.Japan Oflaw.. The competent authority isNational Tax Agency.Law numberIs Law No. 28 of 6,1940 It was enacted in the form of amending all the old liquor tax law (Law No. 15 of 35) enacted in1953 (Showa28 years) April 2AnnounceWas done.Beverages with an alcohol content of 1% or more (1% by volume)[Annotation 1]Is defined as "liquor".度数90度以上で産業用に使用するアルコールについてはFor alcohol used for industrial purposes at XNUMX degrees or higherAlcohol Business LawTreated in.


  • Chapter 1 — General Provisions (Article 1-Article 6-4)
  • Chapter 2 - Alcoholic beverage manufacturing licenseandLiquor sales licenseEtc. (Article 7-Article 21)
  • Chapter 3 — Taxation Standards and Tax Rates (Article 22)
  • Chapter 4 — Tax exemptions and tax credits (Article 23-Article 30)
  • Chapter 5 — Declaration and payment, etc. (Article 30-2 --Article 30-6)
  • Chapter 6 — Tax Payment Security (Article 31-Article 36)
  • Chapter 7 — Deleted (Article 37-Article 39)
  • Chapter 8 — Miscellaneous Provisions (Article 40-Article 53-2)
  • Chapter 9 — Penalties (Article 54-Article 62)

Tax rate policy

Once ancient in JapanDistilled spiritsIs positioned as "popular sake" and the tax rate is low.whisky,BrandyWestern liquors such as these were regarded as "luxury sake" and had a high tax rate.About this, from the Western liquor producing countryNon-tariff barriersIn response to the criticism that "is", 2008 (HeiseiThe tax rate was revised in 20 years), shochu and whiskey, brandy,Spirits TheAlcohol degreeIf the temperature is 37 degrees or higher, the same tax amount is levied.[Annotation 2].

Once againSakeWas classified into special grade, first grade, and second grade by the fair, and the higher the grade of sake, the higher the tax rate was levied.But,Sake class systemWas applied by the producer and was treated as "second-class sake" unless it passed the grade examination.As a result, the number of companies that do not dare to apply for examination of liquor of quality equivalent to special grade or first grade and sell it as unexamined second grade liquor has increased. As of 2016, a uniform tax rate is levied on sake.

2017 (29) CurrentlybeerDeveloped to avoid high tax rates onLow-malt beerOr "Third beerThe tax rate tends to be raised. Due to the tax reform in 2018 (Heisei 30)2020 (ReiwaFrom 2 years)2026 It has been decided that the tax rate for beer will be unified by gradually lowering the tax rate for beer and raising the tax rate for low-malt beer and third beer toward (Reiwa 8).


According to Article 3 of the Liquor Tax Law, it is classified into 17 types.The tax rate takes into account not only the alcohol content but also the ratio of raw materials and the manufacturing method.In addition, the legal production quantity of brewing licenses differs depending on the classification.

SakeAlthough there are detailed regulations such as the specific name sake system,whisky,WineThere are only rough rules for alcoholic beverages that were not originally in Japan.Also,Scotch whiskey,French wineThere is no provision regarding the protection of the place of origin like, even if the raw sake is an imported productJapanIt was imported because it can be described as "domestic" if it is bottled and blended in.Grape"Domestic wine" using concentrated fruit juice was on the market. From 2018 (Heisei 30)Japanese wineThe definition of "" has been tightened, but with regard to whiskey, simply bottling imported bulk whiskey in Japan "Japanese whiskeyIs in a state where you can call yourself[1].

またbeerWas initiallywealthy classThe tax rate was high because it was supposed to be drunk,Refrigerator It has spread to the general public due to the spread of the standard of living and the improvement of living standards.However, since the high tax rate was maintained after that, the brewerJapanese beerUsing the definition ofLow-malt beer,Third beer"Tax-saving beer" such as was released.Due to the revision of the law to secure tax revenue, the definition of liquor has become more detailed, and tax distortions such as a heavier liquor tax burden have occurred.

Restrictions on liquor production

In Japan, the production of alcoholic beverages containing 1% or more alcohol without a license to produce alcoholic beverages is basically prohibited by the Liquor Tax Law.In violation of this, the manufacturer is punished by imprisonment with work for not more than 54 years or a fine of not more than 10 million yen according to Article 100 of the Liquor Tax Law.かつては家庭においてOnce at homeLiqueurIt was a strict law that could not even be made, but some were deregulated.


1961 (Showa36), at that timeIshibashi CabinetUnderPublic relations counselorWas servingYomiuri ShimbunOriginally from Minori IshidaNihon Keizai ShimbunOn paperPlum wineRelated toessaySince he contributed, there is a riot over the Liquor Tax Law.This is because the content of Ishida's essay violated the Liquor Tax Law at that time.Until then, in ordinary householdsPlum wineHomemade products such as liqueurs and liqueurs were widely used, but in the end, the circumstances of this riot were the decisive factor, and the next day.1962 The law was officially amended in (Showa 37), and it became possible to make liqueurs such as plum wine at home.[2][3].

However, the conditions were strict, such as setting the alcohol content to be pickled to 20 degrees or higher, and it was a remarkably exceptional rule.As an example,2007 (Heisei19 years)May 6,TV program"Today's dishes』(Japan Broadcasting Corporation) "Special feature ★ Pickles and preserved foods that are handed down to my home-Umeshu-"sweet sakeHow to make plum wine usingbroadcastBut thatRecipesWhen an individual makes plum wine according toIllegalIt turned out that, at a later date,Apology broadcastThere was a situation where it was done.

In order to protect existing retailers and ensure a stable liquor tax levy, new entrants were subject to strict restrictions under the Liquor Tax Law.しかしHowever1998 (10) in AugustSecond Hashimoto remodeling CabinetCabinet decisionWas doneDeregulationBased on the promotion 3-year plan2001 (13) In January, the distance standard (regulation to keep a certain distance from the existing sales floor) was abolished.2003 (15) Population standard in September (for each fixed populationLiquor sales business licenseRegulations to grant) have been abolished.This effectively "liberalized" the sale of alcoholic beverages,TaxWith collectiontax evasionTo prevent this, a "liquor sales license" is still required to sell liquor.

At the same time as "liberalization" of liquor sales, the purpose was to protect existing companies.Legislator(Emergency Measures Law Concerning Improvement of Management of Liquor Retailers) Was enacted, and there are now areas (special adjustment areas) where regulations have been tightened.同法は2年間のThe law is for two yearsTimed legislationBecause it was2005 (17) It expired on August 8, but the regulation was tightened by the revision before the expiration.2006 (18)May 8Survived.

注意 点

Under the Liquor Tax LawLiquor manufacturing licenseThose who do not havePlum wine,sangriaWhen making mixed sake such asAlcohol degreeThe Liquor Tax Law stipulates that liquor with a temperature of 20 degrees or higher should be used.そのため通常、レシピのサングリアはワインが20度もアルコール度数がないため、酒税法違反となるTherefore, the recipe sangria usually violates the liquor tax law because the wine has no alcohol content of XNUMX%.[Annotation 3][4]..If you offer it at a store,Tax officeNotification to and over 20 degreesDistilled liquorIs stipulated by the Liquor Tax Law.サングリアを提供する店舗をStores that offer sangriahyperlinkTo introduceWebsiteThere is, but you need to be careful[Annotation 4][5]..If you really want to make it, just before drinking, from Article 43, Paragraph 10 of the Liquor Tax Law, "When mixing alcoholic beverages with other goods (including alcoholic beverages) immediately before consumption, it does not apply when specified by a Cabinet Order". Will be mixed.

Distilled commercial alcoholic beveragesethanolThe act of extracting liquor is also regarded as the production of alcoholic beverages, and is often used in basic science experiments such as science in junior high school.sweet sake,WineDistillation experiment[6][7][8]Add additives so that they cannot be used in beveragesAlcohol Business LawIt is illegal if you do not take care not to violate the limit (90 degrees) of[9]..However, the NTA has not conducted an audit before the construction that "industrial alcohol" is used at the educational site, and it is left unattended.[9].

Classification under the Liquor Tax Law

Due to law revision2006 The classification and items have changed since May, and some definitions have also changed.

Definition before revision

For reference, the classification and definition before the revision are described.

Rice, Water and sake grounds, rice jiuqu and other items specified by Cabinet Order are fermented and rubbed.
Synthetic sake
alcohol,Let's go,Sake,GlucoseAlcoholic beverages manufactured from sake, etc., whose flavor, color, etc. are similar to sake
Let's go(Shochu)
Shochi Yu shellfish (white liquor (1))
Alcohol-containing substances in a continuous stilldistillationAlcohol content less than 36 degrees
Shochi Yu Otsu (white liquor (2))
Alcoholic beverages obtained by distilling alcohol-containing substances with an alcohol content of 45% or less (Shochiyu other than Shochiyu shellfish)[Annotation 5]
sweet sake
Rice, rice jiuqu, squeezed with alcohol or alcohol
malt,hopAnd fermented from water
Fruit liquor
Fruit wine
fruitOr fermented from fruits and water (WineSuch)
Sweet fruit wine
A mixture of fruit liquor with sugar, brandy, etc. (fruit liquor other than fruit liquor,Sherry,Port wineSuch)
Distilled fermented alcohol-containing material by saccharifying germinated grains and water as raw materials
Distilled alcohol-containing substances fermented from fruits and water (whiskeys other than whiskey)
Alcoholic beverages that do not fall under any of the categories from sake to whiskey and have an extract content of less than 2 degrees (spirits other than alcohol for raw materials,vodka-ginSuch)
Raw material alcohol
Distilled alcohol-containing material with an alcohol content of over 45 degrees
Made from alcoholic beverages and sugars, etc. with an extract content of 2 degrees or more
Miscellaneous sake
Low-malt beer
Alcoholic beverages made from malt that have effervescent properties
Powdered sake
A powder that can be dissolved to make a beverage with an alcohol content of 1% or more
Other miscellaneous liquor
Alcoholic beverages that do not fall under any of the categories from sake to powdered sake
Other miscellaneous sake (1)
Among alcoholic beverages that do not fall under any of sake to powdered sake, those with similar properties to mirin (Ash mochiWait)
Other miscellaneous sake (2)
Among other miscellaneous alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages that do not fall under other miscellaneous alcoholic beverages (1) (Yellow wine,Mead,etc)

注 釈

  1. ^ Beverages that can be diluted to make beverages with an alcohol content of 1% or more (Among alcohols with an alcohol content of 90% or more, those who have obtained a license to manufacture alcoholic beverages pursuant to the provisions of Article 7, Paragraph 1 are applicable as raw materials for alcoholic beverages. Includes powdered beverages that can be dissolved to make beverages with an alcohol content of 1% or more) (excluding those manufactured at a licensed manufacturing plant).
  2. ^ Article 23. The liquor tax per kiloliter is 1 yen for distilled liquors containing shochu below 21 degrees, and 20 yen for frequencies above that, but for whiskey etc., it is uniformly 1 yen for 37 degrees or less.However, except for some 37 degree whiskey, it is generally 35 degrees or higher, so the actual amount is the same.
  3. ^ There are recipes for sangria, but most of them violate the Liquor Tax Law.In many cases, sake sangria is also a violation because few sake has a temperature of 20 degrees or higher.
  4. ^ Since wine is not distilled liquor and has an alcohol content of 15% or less, it is virtually impossible to serve it in stores.
  5. ^ Generally written as "Shochu Otsu". The expression "genuine shochu" is also used so that it is not misunderstood that it is inferior to "shochu shells", but while it is possible to add sugar etc. less than twice to shochu B, full-scale shochu is additive-free. There are differences such as being limited.


  1. ^ Too sad reality of "Japanese whiskey" - 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン
  2. ^ Akemi Hongo "Doha Doburoku Throat Visiting Lost Sake" Kodansha
  3. ^ MSN Sankei News --Sankei Extract --December 2011, 12(As of January 2011, 12Archive
  4. ^ "Is there a problem for consumers to make plum wine at home?". NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ "Is there a problem with serving homemade plum wine as an apéritif at an inn?". NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ Experiment 2002 Mirin, wine distillation / XNUMXst year science "chemistry" / taka class record XNUMX --Record of an experiment in which a junior high school teacher distills alcoholic beverages brought to students
  7. ^ Extract ethanol by distillation - Ochanomizu University Junior High SchoolA case where a teacher introduced a simple experimental procedure for junior high school.sweet sake,WineThere are also notes on using.
  8. ^ Alcohol Distillation Humanities Student Experiment - Keio UniversityBasic chemistry training conducted by the Center for Natural Sciences Research and Education for undergraduate students in the cultural field.Distilling wine or shochu.
  9. ^ a b If you don't have rubbing alcohol, try making it legally from red wine.薬剤師 植芝亮太Pharmacist Ryota Ueshiba - pharmacistFrom wineRubbing alcoholAn example of inquiring to the National Tax Agency, etc. to manufacture.

Related item

外部 リンク

Japan's first list

Japan's first list(Nihonhatsunoichiran) is the first thing in Japan (or by Japanese people) regardless of whether it exists or not.List.


DateAs a rule when expressing in detail,New calendar introductionBefore(1872 Before) date isJapanese CalendarbyOld calendarIn the parenthesesAD(1581 PreviouslyJulian calendar,1582 LaterGregorian calendar) Is attached (* In principle,Foundation DayIn some cases, conventions do not apply to this). April (April) of the same year is April (New yearApril), April of the same year (April or May) means April of the lunar calendar (may be May in the new calendar).


  • Facilities/structures related to transportation (airports, railways, roads, ports, and structures incidental to them) are#trafficSee section.
  • Facilities and structures related to plants such as power plants#IndustrialSee section.
  • For retail facilities and structures (shopping centers, etc.)#EconomySee section.
  • For facilities and structures related to food (restaurants, etc.)#Food cultureSee section.
  • Facilities and structures related to sports are#SportSee section.
  • Facilities and structures related to amusement are#amusementSee section.
  • Facilities/structures related to education/research#AcademicSee section.





Epidemics and medical care other than humans


全 般

Space probe

Artificial satellite

Observation equipment


Computer related

プ ラ ン ト



Politics/Military, etc.




Non-profit service




Postal service

Commercial service

Retail facility


Patents/trademarks, etc.


Trademark registration/design registration



全 般

General remarks


Earth science


Education and research facilities

Exercise, sports

Martial arts-martial arts-Fighting sports,Physical trainingAnd so onmotionGeneral and physical sports (Mind sportsJapan's first on general physical sports that are distinguished from [brain sports].




Hit chart

Japan(Japan Record Association) Million seller certification inAfter May 1989, 1Limited to those achieved by (Gold discSee).




Broadcasting station/Broadcast license


Infrastructure/technology related to radio broadcasting
Radio broadcast format
Radio program genre

tv set

Infrastructure and technology related to TV broadcasting
TV broadcast format
TV show genre


News (Chinese)





Amusement park


全 般

Customs, special events

*Sources outside the commentary relate to the whole.

Festivals, special events with religious colors

Festival(ReligiousAnnual eventEtc.) and religious event-style entertainmentEvent (event)(The boundary between the two is not clear).

  • BuddhaBirthday celebrations- Emperor Suiko14 years(606 )Asuka TempleIt is said that it was done in (1st)Buddha societyOr
  • Cherry-blossom viewingAssociation-Unspecified
    Before cherry blossom viewing spread,ChugokuFrom the influence of cultureplumCherry blossom viewing was common. However, there is no historical record of when the cherry blossom viewing began.
  • Christmas - astronomical21 May 12(1552 May 12)ofNativity festival OfMass
    The strangeness of DaningujiAfterSuoYamaguchi (currentlyYamaguchi CityIn Takimachi)JesuitsMissionaryCosmetics de TorresThey invited Japanese congregations to the priest's house.
  • Snow festival -It is an event that has been held since ancient times, it is not possible to identify for the first time in Japan
    As shown below, limitation is possible if certain conditions are imposed. In addition, the snow festivalMemorial serviceIt may have aspects of festivals, etc., and be distinguished from events without religious colours. In addition, we call it "Snow Festival",Local governmentIt is not lexical and it is avoided here to arbitrarily distinguish and define contemporary events held by etc. separately from past snow festivals.
    • ConventionForm of modern snow festival[Note 4]
    • snowball fightA tournament-style modern snow festival
      • Ichinakayuki Senkai: Same as above.
    • skateA tournament-style modern snow festival
    • Snow statueexhibitionA tournament-style modern snow festival[Note 5]
      • Snow festival at Kitatemiya-Hinjo Elementary School (present) in Otaru
        It is "the oldest extant modern snow festival in competition style in Japan".1935 (10)May 2Held the first time. The school erected the "Snow Festival Birthplace Memorial" on September 1, 1988 (Showa 63), but as mentioned above, it is actually a limited condition such as "mainly for the snow statue exhibition". With[87]
    • residentsA modern snow festival in the form of an event, which was started by the organizer and mainly consists of a snow statue exhibition.[Note 6]
      • Tokamachi Snow Festival[88]
        The second time1950 (25)May 2・5th, Niigata PrefectureNakauonuma-gunTokamachiSponsored by the Tokamachi Cultural Association, the main events were a snow art exhibition, a snow carnival that dances Tokamachi Kouta around a fire of snow equipment memorial, and a ski relay relay race.[88].. Tokamachi proclaimed "the birthplace of the modern snow festival" and advocated that the Tokamachi snow festival was "the first snow festival in Japan".[88]Since it is widely used in the general public, it is described here, but as mentioned above, it is actually subject to limited conditions such as "mainly for snow statue exhibition" and "started by residents".
  • バ レ ン デ ー -Theories stand side by side, no dogma
    The earliest confirmed sales promotion activity is Kobe Morozov Confectionery (currentlyMorozov)by1936 (Showa 11) February 2, the theory of origin. For more information"Valentine's Day #History"checking.
  • Halloween -Unknown
    The earliest confirmed sales promotion activity isKiddy LandHarajuku store1970 eraStore sales of Halloween related products started in[89].

Religious events

Events such as commercial events that have no religious significance.




Food culture:


  • Folding fan-Foldable folding fan is an invention of Japan due to the lack of paper, which was found in the late Nara period. The oldest fan in Japan is Kamigyo Ward.
  • WesternBarber shop -Hair Dressing and Shaving Salon:Bunkyu3 years/MotoharuNew Year (1864 ), Ferguson opens at Yokohama Hotel.
  • Tailor -"(Fri) Shibata Otoyoshi Clothes Store" (Kobe City):1883 , Otokichi Shibata, the first Japanese tailor, opens in Motomachi[2].
  • Permanent wave -"Oriental HotelHairdressing Club" (Kobe City):1923 (12th year of Taisho).

Accident/crime cases


注 釈

  1. ^ There is a strong criticism that there is no "" book against this theory. In the first place, the book is "Japanese later"Postponement18 years(799 ) February Otomi (2st) Article "(Hiroki Wake) University society various Confucian lectures Yin Yang book Shinseng Yakukei Taitai etc.UniversityTo meet various Confuciuses陰陽Of the book, and newly scrutinize Yakuei Taito, etc.”. However, there is a theory that says that "they will meet with the university and lecture on "Yin and Yang books," "Shinsen Yakukei," "Taisho," etc.MythIs. The details of "Yin-yosho" are unknown, but such as ""Way of yin and yangIt is thought to refer to the basic book of. In addition, "Shinsen Yakukei" refers to the pharmacy diagram/Zukkei (abbreviated Yakukei) of other "Sai", and "Taishin" refers to Saku "Yellow Emperor Sutra』, both books are considered to be the basic books of medicine at that time. Therefore, the book "Yakukei Tai" is a fake book ("Sequel to document"Yakukei Taisho" was recorded inKanbunFirst year [1661 ]-EnpoFirst year [1673 ] It was thought that it was made in>)), and currently there is no theory to support its existence.
  2. ^ Yawata Works started operation in 1901, but the initial condition was unstable, so it stopped operation in 1902 the following year. Full-scale operation started in 2, two years later. In that case, we are seeking the cooperation of Noro Kageyoshi, a former advisor of the Tanaka Works of the Kamaishi Mine. The Kamaishi Mine Tanaka Steel Works started operation in 1904, and has been operating as an integrated iron and steel plant since 1887.
  3. ^ Including married women and menBeautiful woman"Contest (in a broader sense than "Miss Contest").
  4. ^ It is a "competition style" and does not include the ones in which personal play has become large-scale. It is "modern" and does not include extensions of traditional snow play. The same applies below.
  5. ^ Not only was the event "sponsorship sponsored", but also "CorporationIncluding those that were sponsored.
  6. ^ It is “sponsored by residents” and does not include corporate sponsorships such as schools.
  7. ^ The "five continents" in this case areContinental europe,Eurasia,African continent,North America,South AmericaRefers to. In addition, European continentMont BlancClimbed.
  8. ^ "Japan official recognition" here means "thenJapanese ArmyIt is the argument that December 12th is the day of Japan's first flight even today.
  9. ^ Kyoko ShiraseMagellan StraitSome sections, including, are not on board. For this reason, Shirase has not achieved the full sail around the world.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Baekje Daiji is the first government temple under the request of the imperial family, and Kibiike Abandoned Temple in Sakurai City is designated as the temple site. See references below.
    • Hisashi Kano “Asukaji and Ikarugaji” (Mitsusada Inoue and Sadaji Kadowaki, “Asuka to Think about the Ancient Ages”, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, 1987), p.115
    • Masao Tanabe"Miyakonojo Daiji Daikan Daiji and Yakushiji" (Kano Hisashi, "Ancient Temples for Thinking Ancient", Yoshikawa Hirofumikan, 1999), p.166
    • Masafumi Kinoshita “Asuka Phantom Temple, Mystery of Daikandaiji” (Kadokawa Selection 369), Kadokawa Shoten, 2005, p.231.
    • Kiyoshi Owaki "Ohgaku/Buddhism/Kanji Soken: Discovering the remains of Baekje Daiji Temple and its significance" p.20, "Weekly Asahi Encyclopedia Japan's National Treasure Separate volume National Treasure and History Journey 1 Asuka no Hoto Tenpei no Hoto", Asahi Shimbun , 1999
  2. ^ Historical Changes in Building Height (Part XNUMX)-Height and Height of Buildings in Japan- Land Comprehensive Research Spring 2008
  3. ^ Railway fan October 2011 issue p10
  4. ^ Showa Mainichi Showa News 12-story building in Umeda, Osaka Mainichi Shimbun. (May 1953, 05)
  5. ^ Mie Kotsu Co., Ltd. 50th Anniversary Business Promotion Committee, “Ayumi, 50 Years of Mie Kotsu” Mie Kotsu, March 6, 3, 1pp. (From page 302)
  6. ^ Toshiba Science Museum. “Toshiba Museum of Future Science: Japan's first fluorescent lamp". NovemberBrowse.
  7. ^ 11th year of the Taisho era, Ministry of Communications Notification No. 332, “Gazette” No. 2871 (March 1922, 3) p1
    Wavelength 200-230m (1.3-1.5MHz), Wavelength 1500-1650m (182-200kHz)
  8. ^ 12th year of the Taisho era, Ministry of Communications Notification No. 708, “Gazette” No. 3209 (March 1923, 4) p14
  9. ^ 15th year of the Taisho era, Ministry of Communications Notification No. 1986, “Gazette” No. 4247 (March 1926, 10) p19
  10. ^ Electronic Publishing Timeline (1985-1994),Japan Electronic Publishing Association.. (Viewed December 2010, 12)[Broken link]
  11. ^ Tomioka Silk Mill World Heritage Evangelist Association "Tomioka Silk Mill Encyclopedia" Joge Shimbun <Silk Country Sosho>, November 2011, 11, p.15
  12. ^ Masao Sakamoto, Arnold Gtic, Hiroshi Nishito and others,Discovery of Japan's first meteorite crater (Oikeyama crater) - Geological Society of Japan 117th Scientific Congress (2010 Toyama Congress), two:10.14863 / geosocabst.2010.0.188.0
  13. ^ a b c d "How long has the old-age pension system established by Masayuki Hoshina, the lord of Aizu, established in 3 (1663)?". Reference cooperative database (official website). National Diet Library (September 2010, 3). NovemberBrowse.
  14. ^ a b Minamiboso City Tourism Association. “social welfare". Minamiboso resource dictionary (official website). Minamiboso. NovemberBrowse.[Broken link]
  15. ^ The XNUMXth edition is "Easing" The ancient naturalized Koguryo destroyed Korean home-cooked restaurant "Fly pen"
  16. ^ "Birth of the first female captain in Japan". Yomiuri Online (Yomiuri Shimbun). (November 2010, 7). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/komachi/news/20100709-OYT8T00740.htm NovemberBrowse. [Broken link]
  17. ^ "Elite Forces JGSDF Edition [Part 1]"Hobby Japan p151 ISBN-4 89425-360-7
  18. ^ "It is a challenge to the citizens of the prefecture: Futenma Alternative Self-Defense Force shared citizens "discrimination" and protests". Okinawa Times (Okinawa Times). (May 2010, 5). http://article.okinawatimes.co.jp/article/2010-05-23_6694 NovemberBrowse. [Broken link]
  19. ^ a b "Japan's first weather forecast". Bio weather/weather tips (website)IDEA Consultants Co., Ltd. (June 2003). NovemberBrowse.
  20. ^ Although it is simply called "alert" in the laws of modern Japan, in this section that focuses on the entire history of Japan, it is limited to "weather warning based on modern science".
  21. ^ Reference cooperative database
  22. ^ The Mitsukoshi kimono store (now Mitsukoshi) is the first department store in Japan to be declared as a department store.[Broken link]
  23. ^ Company Profile-Beckame Internet
  24. ^ "The story of a man who was the first Japanese to obtain a US patent-Jinta Hirayama, again- (PDF)". Special skill (website) (September 2007, 11). NovemberBrowse.
  25. ^ "What is a trademark?". Trademark registration application .net (official website)Kojima Patent Office[1]. NovemberBrowse.
  26. ^ a b "History of industrial property rights system". (Official website). Patent Office. NovemberBrowse.
  27. ^ Ibaraki Shimbun Volume "Encyclopedia of Ibaraki Prefecture", Ibaraki Shimbun, October 1981, 10, 8pp. (from page 1099)
  28. ^ Tsukuba Town History Compilation Special Committee EditionTsukuba TownHistory Vol.” Mayor Tsukuba, Hiroshi Kurata, March 2, 3, 25pp. (From page 697)
  29. ^ Kuroda Isamu "Birth of Radio Gymnastics" <4>,AOYUMA<Aoyusha Library>, November 1999, 11, pp. 30-11.ISBN 978-4-7872-3165-9.
  30. ^ Kobukuro New DVD Oricon 1st place certain,Daily Sports, August 2007, 6[Broken link]
  31. ^ Hebirote reproduction The first Japanese to exceed 1 million times! Yuko "Very happy", Sponichi Annex, October 2014, 2.
  32. ^ Spitz, "Robinson" MV playback count exceeded 1 million times, BARKS, September 2019, 9 3:12.
  33. ^ Amatsuki-Amatsuki's "I tried to sing" video, thanks to the fans who are the "driving force" of Japan's first 1 million playback breakthrough activity, ORICON NEWS, November 2021, 3.
  34. ^ Amatsuki's "Small Love Song", the first Japanese cover song to be played XNUMX million times,Sports report, August 2021, 3.
  35. ^ Pico Taro "PPAP" is the number one YouTube video player in the world, the first Japanese achievement, Musicman-net, October 2016, 10.
  36. ^ Pico Taro, “Pen Pineapple Appo Pen” is the number one YouTube viewer in the world. Played over 4 million times, E-TALENTBANK co., Ltd., October 2016, 10.
  37. ^ The music of ONE OK ROCK has exceeded 1 million views on Spotify. First domestic artist, AV Watch, May 2017, 5.
  38. ^ ONE OK ROCK “First Japanese artist” Spotify has played over 10 billion times in total, ORICON NEWS, November 2021, 8.
  39. ^ A feat! "Shape of You" is the first single song to be played over 1 million times on a streaming service in Japan!,Warner Music Japan, August 2019, 2.
  40. ^ Aimyon, "Marigold" Streaming Tops 1 Million Reproductions for Domestic Artist, Tower Records Online, September 2019, 9.
  41. ^ Mr. Children "HANABI" Streamed over 1 million times, the first song released in the 00s, Billboard JAPAN, May 2021, 8.
  42. ^ "Forgotten pianist Chieko Hara shines again before the war". Asahi Shimbun: p. 29. (September 2003, 3) 
  43. ^ "Koda Nobu”. Shinsen Performing Arts Encyclopedia Meiji-Heisei (Kotobank). NovemberBrowse.
  44. ^ "Nogizaka46, the first ever live at two venues co-located at the same time. Saito Asuka Center's 2st single universe unveiled & "Zambi Project" started-TOWER RECORDS ONLINE". tower.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  45. ^ STU48 goes into service 300 people are enthusiastic about Japan's first dedicated theater ship! Tokyo Chunichi Sports (April 2019, 4)
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