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What day is it today? [September XNUMX]

 
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Italian food such as pizza and pasta that is popular in Japan.
 

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 TABIZINE

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Through travel information and small stories from all over the world, we propose a lifestyle that makes you feel like traveling.


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Italian food

Italian food(Italy,Italian: Italian cooking) IsイタリアOriginated inCuisineBy law, it is preferred and cooked in many parts of the world.

2010 years,Greek food,Spanish,Moroccan foodWith, Italian food is "地中海As a "meal"United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)Intangible cultural heritageRegistered in.

Overview

JapanThen "Italian""Ita rice(Stir-fry)[Note 1]It is popular with names such as ".One of the characteristics recognized in Japan isOlive oil,olive,TomatoCan be mentioned frequently.But this isNaplesSuch asSouth ItalyIs a feature ofNorthern ItalyThen adjacentFrance,スイスAs wellバ タ ー,Fresh creamThere are many dishes that use.In eastern Italyオーストリア,スロベニアThe influence of is seen.AlsoSicilySuch asNorth africaIn areas close toArab,BerberInfluenced by the cuisine ofCouscous,Arancini(Spry) And other dishes can be eaten.

地中海There are many dishes using seafood in the area facing the sea, other than the Mediterranean countries.EuropeCan't be eatenOctopus,squidIs used as an ingredient.On the other hand, in the northern and inland areas, many dishes using meat and dairy products can be eaten.As a whole, there is a tendency for many simple dishes to make the best use of the ingredients.

In this way, Italian cuisine has its own characteristics in each region. There is also a view that "Italian food does not exist"[1][2]..This is because Italy, which is long from north to south, has various geographical features.Italy kingdomMany until unification byIndependent stateThere are, and each country has completely different characteristics, for example,Neapolitan food, Genoese food, etc.local cuisineIs well developed.

pastaIs popular throughout Italy and is cooked in various forms.One of the characteristics is the heavy use of tomatoes, but tomatoesLatin AmericaIt was native and spread to Italy16st centuryAfter that.As a feature before thatAnchoviesIn the form ofFish sauceWas used a lot, and the appearance was simple.The influx of tomatoes increased the variety and made the colors brighter, but it has been pointed out that many of the characteristics before that were lost.Tomato sauceUsed forイタリア OfTomato TheJapan OfTomatoUnlike,acidityIt is a variety that is not suitable for raw food.Japan OfTomato TheCookingBecause it is not suitable forJapanThen.Tomato OfcanningTheイタリアImported from.

History

The foundation of modern Italian cuisine is very oldAncient Roman EmpireIt goes back to.Romans at that time valued the time they spent eating very much, and from that time they had a habit of taking three meals a day, making one meal a course meal and spending two to three hours eating.Also, when they are full, they stimulate the throat with bird wings, artificially.VomitingHe said that he ate again when he was hungry.セ ネ カ"Romans vomit to eat, eat to vomit," he said.It was fashionable among the wealthier Romans to invite skilled cooks to show their food to their guests.As the chefs competed to improve their skills and work hard to create new dishes, an excellent food culture unrivaled by the surrounding countries was born, which spread throughout Europe with the development of the Roman Empire.To give a few specific examples, it was carried as a source of stamina for Roman expeditionary soldiers and spread throughout Europe as well.cheese,melon,OysterAnd so on.

Italian foodFrench cuisineIt is also the prototype of.1533 ,FlorenceIs a prestigious aristocratMedici family OfKaterina France OfHenry IVMarried toParisWhen I moved to Italy, I took a lot of Italian chefs and perfumers to cook Italian food.Frozen dessert,knife-forkBrought to France such as the use of.With that as a trigger, the crude French court cuisine and table manners at that time were refined.By the wayforkThere are 4 claws, but this isKingdom of NapleskingFerdinand IAt the courtpastaIt is said that the number of claws has been increased to make it easier to eat.

Thus, on behalf of the WestThe world's three major dishesFrench cuisine, which is counted in the list, grew under the influence of Italian cuisine.It can be said that this history is the reason why the Italian food culture that has continued since Roman times is said to be the mother of Western cuisine.

The tomatoes used in spaghetti sauce and pizza sauce are native to Mexico, and it is said that tomatoes were introduced to Europe in the 16th century, and they began to be commonly used for food in the 18th century.Before that, spaghetti was eaten with cheese.

Dietary manners

The act of taking out the seeds and skins of the fruit once put in the mouth is bad impression.

It is also bad manners to eat by clinging to fruits and bread, and watermelons served in large chunks are cut into small pieces with a knife before eating.

Bread is served for retouching when eating and wiping the sauce on the plate.Generally, pizza is not included in course meals, and bread is not served when eating pizza.However, there are many restaurants that have both pizza and course meals on the menu below the trattoria rating, and customers can freely ask the waiter which dish to eat and in what order they want to be served.

Restaurants[3] So you don't have to order all of these.In restaurants, it is common for waiters to come back to order desserts and coffee after meals.

There is a traditional order in which dishes are served in the Italian cooking course.Menus are also generally listed in this order.

1. aperitivo
食 前 酒..To increase appetiteAmaroSake with herbs, such as (Italian for "bitter")Campari,SpumanteDrink (sparkling wine) etc.Before going to the restaurantbarIn many cases, beer etc. is taken to Aperitivo.
2. Antipasto (antipasto)
AppetizerThere are many pre-made dishes.Ham,cheese,Smoked,CarpaccioSuch.It can be said that it is a time-saver until the Primo Piat is made.
3. Primo Piat (primo piatto)
Main dish.Translated literally, it is the first dish, but it is not limited to just one dish.Salad andpasta,risotto,Polenta,SoupEtc. are classified.SardiniaThen.CouscousIs also served as Primo Piat.
4. Second Piat (secondo piatto)
Main dish.Translated literally, it is the second dish.It is roughly classified into two types, fish dishes and meat dishes.fish dishes,Meat dishIf both are included in the course, the fish will be served first.
5. Contrno (contorno)
side dish(Non-staple food), Side dish.minisaladAnd vegetables (grilled vegetables and boiled vegetables).Garnish.Normally, second piat dishes don't come with vegetables like Japanese garnish, so if you want to get vegetables, you need to order Contrno separately.Many of them are simply cooked, such as boiled, baked, fried, boiled, and marinade.On the traditional menu with Second PiatsaladIs supposed to come out.Some items are on the same plate as the Second Piat.
6. dolce
Dessert(sweet taste). fruit,Dolce (confectionery),cheeseIs offered.
7. caffè
coffee.. fundamentallyespresso・ Coffee.If you order Cafe Lungo (long coffee), you will get something that is divided with a little hot water (about the same strength as Japanese blended coffee).CappuccinoMilky foods such as (espresso coffee topped with frothed milk) and latte makiat (stained milk, non-whipped warm milk topped with espresso coffee) mean that you are not full. It's safe to avoid.Italians don't drink cappuccino after a meal, but Cafe Machiat (stained coffee, espresso coffee with a small amount of frothed milk) is often ordered after a meal.
8. Digestivo
After dinner drink.Grappa,LimoncelloSuch asLiqueurA small glass is served.

Relationship with the day of the week

Especially in Rome, there is still a culinary tradition to eat depending on the day of the week.In particular, the customs of Thursday, Friday, and Saturday are still unevenly distributed, and some restaurants in the city adhere to them.The same can be said about Friday customs throughout Italy.

Types of restaurants

There are various types of Italian restaurants, and the order is roughly as follows, starting from the high-end restaurants.

リ ス ト ラ ン テ(Ristorante)
A high-class restaurant that focuses on course meals.Today, although it is a luxury restaurant in the Ristorante class, Osteria Trattoria,EnotecaSometimes they call themselves (Izakaya) and give them a casual impression, making it difficult to judge by the store name alone.
Trattoria(Trattoria)
Popular dining room.A privately-owned or home-owned restaurant that serves local and home-cooked dishes.You can also enjoy alcoholic beverages, mainly à la carte dishes.
Osteria(Osteria)
A light dining room, izakaya, and a high-class restaurant with a long history.You can also enjoy alcoholic beverages, mainly à la carte dishes.
Bettola (tavern)
Almost the same as Osteria, it means dining room and kitchen in Italian.
Taverna(Taverna)
Almost the same as a trattoria.There is also a simple store that serves cooked menus.
(Locanda)
All stores
In addition to the following pizza, pasta and wine specialty stores, there are also beer, cocktail and gelato specialty stores.
Peatzeria(Pizzeria)
A specialty store centered on pizza.
(Spaghetteria)
A specialty store centered on pasta.
Enoteca(Enoteca)
A wine-centered specialty store.Izakaya. Also called "Enoteca".
(it: Bacaro)
(Paninotec)
Sandwich shop
(it: Birreria)
Beer bar
(it: Tavola calda)
A side dish shop where you can eat and drink in the store
bar(Bar)
A light meal restaurant with counter seats.Not limited to alcohol, there are also shops that serve light meals, espresso, bread, gelato, etc.
cafeteria(Caffetteria)
Coffee shop.Some forms are mixed with crowbar[4].

Regional classification

Classification and list of Italian food

pasta

pastaThe dishes are classified in the first dish.With various forms of noodles (pasta) made by kneading wheat flourソ ー スThe combination of is basic.Pasta is also used in salads and as a soup ingredient.Gratin is also a type of pasta dish.Some desserts have the name "pasta", which means pasty confectionery (pastareference).

pizza

pizza(pizza= Pizza) is a dish that is baked with ingredients placed on a flat dough.Light mealIn Italy, there are many restaurants that are not commercialized as restaurants.Speaking of cheap, easy and quick meals in ItalyPeatzeriaIt is common to eat pizza at.The most traditional pizzaNeapolitan pizzaIs.There are differences in seasoning and dough throughout Italy, and Milan's pizza is the thinnest.RomePizza is often half-thick between Naples and Milan.In addition, it should be notedAmericaThe seasoning and ingredients of this pizza are very different from those of Italy.

Rice dishes

Risotto is famous when it comes to rice dishes, but rice is often treated like small pasta.It is also common to use rice for dessert.Italy is the best rice in Europe, and the best type of rice is used for each dish.

Bread

Bread

It is used to relieve hunger until the food is served, to retouch with meals, and to wipe the sauce on the plate.As a light meal, you may put ingredients on it or sandwich it and eat it as a single dish (Panino).

Bread dishes

Soup

Meat dish

Meat products such as salami and ham

fish dishes

Vegetable dishes

Other dishes

cheese

Dessert (sweets)

Alcoholic beverages

Wine

sparkling wine

Distilled liquor

Liqueur

beer

Other alcoholic beverages

Cocktails

drink

coffee
Mineral water
Naturale without gas, Frizzante with gas.
Soft drink

Italian cook

Italian food researcher

Italian food in Japan

History

The oldest Italian restaurant in Japan was in 1880NiigataPietro Miriore opened inItalia KenIs.The Italia Ken is considered to be the oldest existing Western restaurant in Japan.Also, for the first time in the late Meiji eramacaroniThere is also a record of imports.However, the spread of authentic Italian cuisine was carried out by former Italian soldiers and civilian employees left in Japan after World War II.They opened a restaurant when they married a Japanese and lived permanently in Japan.[5]..It is said that pizza and pasta became popular nationwide as Italian food from the 1970s, when it became popular with Japanese noodle tastes.[6].Bubble periodWas sometimes commonly referred to as "Italian food". "Italian food" was the first appearance of the later slang term "OO meshi".[7].

Italian restaurant chain in Japan

More

Related item

reference

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Hanako"ButCommonly knownNamed as.

Source

  1. ^ Nobuo Nishimura, ed. Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 216, 1990.ISBN 4-309-47194-3. 
  2. ^ "Encyclopedia of French Food (Popular Edition)" edited by the French Cuisine Association Baishuishe, 2007, 45 pages.ISBN 978-4-560-09202-6. .. “There aren't many dishes that can be called'Italy'.”
  3. ^ Restaurante in Italianrestaurant).It has the same etymology as the English word "restaurant".
  4. ^ Fumiyo Kawakami (2007-07), Ichiban kind Italian cooking textbook, Shinsei Publishing, ISBN 4405091528 
  5. ^ Keiichi Sawaguchi (2012) "Industrial History of Italian Cuisine in Japan and Life History of Cooks: An Introductory Consideration", Bulletin of Taisho University, 97: 143-154
  6. ^ Hoshi Satoshi Kido (1988) "Italian Cuisine" "Encyclopedia of the World" Heibonsha
  7. ^ "[Heisei history of fashion food] The real reason why "Italian food" was popular with Japanese people | citrus”(Japanese). citrus. October 2021th, 5Browse.

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