Recommended for souvenirs!3 "Special Breads" You Want to Eat Once in Kyoto
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The standard menu "Kyoto Nekoneko Bread" (1,200 yen, tax included) is a Danish pastry made with fermented butter from France.
Kyoto where many bakeries form a line.If you can feel luxurious at home, there are various things since the "luxury bread" boom. → Continue reading
"Lifestyle magazine to enjoy Kansai more" of Yomiuri TV. Every day, we will provide you with useful information from Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Shiga, Nara, and Wakayama, where women in the Kansai region would want to talk to someone, “Ah!
Wikipedia related words
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|saturated fatty acid||51.368|
|4:0 (Butyric acid）||3.226|
|6:0 (Caproic acid）||2.007|
|8:0 (Caprylic acid）||1.19|
|10:0 (Capric acid）||2.529|
|12:0 (Lauric acid）||2.587|
|14:0 (Myristic acid）||7.436|
|16:0 (Palmitic acid）||21.697|
|18:0 (stearic acid）||9.999|
|Monounsaturated fatty acid||21.021|
|18:1 (oleic acid）||19.961|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acid||3.043|
|18:2 (Linoleic acid）||2.728|
|18:3 (α-linolenic acid）||0.315|
Butter is a cream separated from milkcoagulationIt is a food that has been made (hardened by kneading),Dairy productsKind of.Normal temperatureThen slightly黄色TastefulWhite Ofsolid.. Is fat (milk fat).Vitamin AAnd variousvitamin,NutrientsIs abundantly contained. 100GRaw milk is about 4.8 to get butterliterNeeded.
Means butterEnglishof"butterIs something in a broad sensemilkIn the milk, get the creamfatIt broadly refers to solidified minutes. However, it is the etymology of the Japanese word "butter".English"butterIs the wordLatin"butyrumIs derived from cow (cow)ofcheeseMeansGreek language"boutyronIs the origin. AlsoChinese languageThen.Beef dairyIs. As is clear from these notations, butter is bovine.MilkIt is common to use (milk) as a raw material. Although some butter is made from milk other than cow, this paper describes butter made from milk unless otherwise specified.
In recent years, low-fat milk has become popular in Japan, and it has been said that the by-product milk fat is overproduced, but for a while from the end of 2007,Dairy cowDue to adverse conditions such as production adjustment, butter shortage occurred. For more informationLack of butterchecking ...
|Salted butter||Fermented and salted butter||Unfermented and salted butter|
(Butter usually sold in Japan)
|No salt used|
(Old unsalted butter)
|Fermented and salt-free butter||Non-fermented, salt-free butter|
Raw milkLactic acidfermentationMake it after letting it "Fermented butter"(Fermented cream butter) and" made as it is without fermentationUnfermented butter"(Sweet cream butter), and each oneSaltThere are "salted butter" with added butter and "salt-free" butter without added, and it is divided into 4 types.
Salt-free butter was once called "unsalted butter", but even if it is manufactured without salt, it contains a small amount of salt derived from raw milk.Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare OfNutrition labeling standardsDemanded regular labeling of foods, and the word "unsalted" could no longer be used.
Most of the butter sold in Japan is "non-fermented, salted" or "non-fermented, salt-free". Fermented butter is laborious and often expensive, so the distribution volume is small.
- Included in butterfatty acidThere are various types (Melting pointContains disparate fatty acids). However,Palmitic acidIs less than 3%,oleic acidIs a little less than a quarter,Myristic acidとstearic acidAccounts for more than 1%, and the above four species account for almost 4% of the fatty acids contained in butter. Therefore, it has the following properties.
- OxidationDeteriorated by.
- Refrigerator When cooled with etc.Butter knifeIt becomes hard enough to require some force to cut with.
- 15℃Before and afterPlasticityIt becomes a state with.
- At room temperature (about 20 ° C)Solid fat indexApproaches 15% and becomes sufficiently soft.BreadTo paintWestern confectioneryThis state is often used when making.
- At around 30 ℃MeltingBegins.
- When approaching 40 ° C, the solid fat index is 0%, or completelyliquidWill be. This liquid butter is called "drawn butter".
- If the drawn butter is left at a temperature that does not coagulate, other than milk fatproteinEtc. () sink to the bottom. The supernatant has a clear yellowish color, which is called "Clarified butter". Clarified butter is used when regular butter is too flavorful.
- It has a unique scent. As a scent component of fermented butter,DiacetylEtc. are known. The diacetyl content of butter isYogurt,Lamb,Red wine,cognacSecond only.margarineOf diacetyl to resemble butterspicesIs used.
- The pale yellow color of butter is cowfeed(grass)includeCaroteneAccumulated in milk fat. The butter of cows that ate green grass in summer becomes more yellowish, and the butter of cows that ate hay in winter becomes whiter..
- Creaming property.The property of agitating butter to allow it to contain air.By adding air to make sweets such as pound cake, the texture becomes plump.
- Shortening property.Shortening is the creamy butter that stretches into a thin film.When the butter spreads thinly in the dough, it prevents the formation of excess gluten and makes the dough crispy.On the contrary, if the butter melts and the shortening property is lost, the melted butter will soak into the dough and it will be overcooked.To prevent this, always check the temperature of the dough by touching it, and if it is not cold, return it to the refrigerator.
- Separate the cream from the milk.
- Put in a stirrerStirAnd make a lump of fat.
- Rinse with cold water, non-fatButtermilkTo remove.
Animal cream etc.bottlePut it in and shake it for a while to separate the fat.
- "Homogenization" that prevents milk fat particles from sticking to each other and separatingHomogenizationThe cream cannot be separated for milk that has undergone the process of). Milk commercially available in Japan can be made from milk at home if it has a label such as "non-homogeneous", and milk without that label undergoes this homogenization. It is difficult to make.
- mixerStirring with is quicker than putting it in a bottle and shaking it. Also, whipped cream (Chantilly cream) May harden due to excessive agitation during production with a mixer.
It should be noted that at home, commercially available animal products are produced by the above method.Fresh creamIt is possible to make it from, but it is more expensive than commercial products.
It is desirable to store at 10 ° C or lower. It will last a long time if you put it in the freezer. In restaurants, etc., they are sometimes served on the table in containers such as butter dishes and butter coolers.
Put in a containerRaw milkHowever, the origin is unknown because butter can be produced just by accidentally shaking. at leastMesopotamian civilizationIt existed in the era (around the 5th century BC). "BibleAnd 'Mahabharata』(As milk fat) also has a description, so it is said that it existed at that time.
When butter was first made, it seems that it was made by putting raw milk in a leather bag, hanging it on a tree, hitting it with a stick, and shaking it. Then the butterCeltic,Viking,Bedouin such asLivestockIt was transmitted to the prosperous ethnic groups.
ButterThe Ancient GreekIn the ageScytheからMediterranean world"Butrum" which means "cow cheese"Was called. What was seen as barbarian food,Olive oilBecause of its widespread use and its lack of preservability unlike cheese, it is a drug that is applied to hair and body., Used as a cosmetic and lubricating oil in a small part.
Southern EuropeThen.中 世Little is known about butterイタリアIt wasn't until the 15th century that butter appeared in the cooking books of.Pyrenees-AlpsWith the Vikings northNormanButter began to take root in the conquered areas of the country until the 14th century. Netherlands,スイスSpread to, but not Norman貴族For him, the view of "barbarian food" remained unchanged and was regarded as the food of the poor.FranceWhen it was used for food in earnest, the aristocrats finally started eating butter.
HistorianDefined the butter oil sphere in Europe in the 14th and 17th centuries, and even today there is a clear distinction between "olive oil mainstream regions" and "butter mainstream regions" in Europe.Basically, it can be seen that butter is widespread in cold regions where butter is easy to store.Therefore,ScandinavianThen, butter exports began at least around the 12th century.
In the 12th centurySaint-Denis Ofキ リ ス ト 教PriestByLunar seasonEating butter during the period of "meatFor the first time, the question was raised as to whether or not to violate the ban on "cutting off." Then, in the 14th century, it was officially decided to be guilty. Local aristocrats and wealthy people who are already familiar with butter eat butter on abstinence daysAtonementAnd donate for itCatholic churchWas greatly moisturized. Jean-Louis Flandran is a 16th centuryReformationPointed out the relationship on the map of the Butter Oil Cultural Area.
Also, butterlampIt was also used as a substitute for oil.RouenIt is inRouen CathedralThe "Butter Tower" is said to have been named because it actually used butter as the oil for lamps during the Lent of the 16th century..
JapanThen.Edo PeriodToTokugawa YoshimuneBut,Meiji EraToEdwin DunIs making a prototype of butter. It was produced in very small quantities during the Edo period,DutchDerived from "Boutoro, Or "White beef dairyIt is called by the name, and the purchaser shave it and eat it, or dissolve it in hot water and drink it... The reason why butter spread in Japan in earnestMeiji RestorationAfter that, because the government supplies dairy products to foreignersdairyAfter instructing the spread of.
seasoningBesides, bread etc.Spread,ソ ー スMaterial,Edible oil(SauteIt is widely used for applications such as baking oil and stir-frying oil. EspeciallyWheat flourVery good compatibility with. It is suitable for almost any food or dish made from wheat flour, but it may have different uses depending on whether it is salted or salt-free. Salt-free butterWestern confectioneryOften used for.Toast,PancakeMost of the products used for such purposes are salted, but some people, such as those who are refraining from salt, and some cultures do not use salt.
In addition, various ingredientsSpicesThere is also butter with added. For example in butterRaisinsPutRaisin butterThere is also.crackerIt is used when eating the lump on top of it.parsleybutter,Lemonbutter,GarlicThere is also butter,Hors d'oeuvreIn addition to thesteak,Curry and riceIt is attached to such as. Anno potatoes in Japansweet potatoA kind of),UniVarious types of "eating butter" blended with marine products such as these are manufactured and sold..
Butter cream was often used until refrigeration and freezing facilities became widespread and it became easier to decorate with fresh cream. However, instead of genuine butter, margarine andshorteningSome were processed into cream using.
"margarineIs Vegetable oilIt is made from other ingredients such as, and may be used as a cheap alternative to butter.Margarine has the property of not hardening even at low temperatures such as in a refrigerator, and is easy to use.For many margarinesspicesIs used, and when heated, the flavor is lost, but the butter is rather flavorful.SpokenThen, margarine is sometimes called butter, but it is misused.
peanut butterFoods that are similar in use and appearance but do not contain butter, such as butterPeanutsEtc. actuallyPalm oilIs used, but the name is sometimes used for foods that have a flavor similar to butter. To distinguish it from margarine etc., the original butter is "Book butterIt may also be called.
Production area and production volume
Lack of butter
In Japan, butter shortages have occurred in various manufacturers in the industry since the end of 2007 due to a decrease in the production of raw milk (milk squeezed from cows by dairy farmers), which is the raw material for butter. This is due to the fact that dairy cows have been reduced due to production adjustments from 2006 due to the previous surplus milk, as well as the heat wave in Japan and the import source.AustraliaAnd europedroughtThis is because production decreased due to this. Each manufacturer limits the shipment quantity and revise the price.
At retail stores, general consumers are also affected, such as a decrease in bargain sales, restrictions on the number of purchases per person, and discontinuation of sales due to out of stock. There was also the effect of raising the price of cakes using butter.
For these butter shortages at that timeMinister of Agriculture, Forestry and FisherieswasMasatoshi WakabayashiRequested dairy manufacturers to increase butter production. Also,Agriculture and Livestock Industry Promotion OrganizationHas taken measures such as accelerating the import of frozen butter for commercial use and making additional imports (butter is used in Japan).Tariff quota systemDesignated goods). As a result of these measures, the butter shortage has subsided, although it took some time.
After that, butter shortages occurred sporadically depending on the year, and emergency imports were carried out each time... Due to a serious shortage of butter in 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has set the amount of butter imported in 2017 to 2 tons, which is about double the previous year..
World War IDuring,Neutral country OfデンマークStrengthens butter exports to warring states.As a result, xerophthalmia due to lack of milk fat occurred frequently in the country, especially in children.
ノルウェー,フィンランドEtc.NordicPrices have soared in various countries since the fall of 2011 due to a shortage of butter supply.Due to the long rains of the summer of the year, the production of raw milk fell and the supply of butter decreased... in additioncarbohydratewithoutdiet(Atkins diet) Is in winterChristmasBecause it hit the season directly..In Scandinavia, it is customary to make a large amount of baked goods at ChristmasHowever, if you do not eat a high-calorie diet, you will not be able to survive the cold of winter, and butter consumption will increase.In these countries, the dairy market is oligopolistic by certain companies and imports butter.TariffThere is no prospect of eliminating the shortage due to the height of..ButtersmugglingSome people were detained trying to.
In the West, the word "butter" is sometimes used as a symbol of life. The word "cannon or butter" is used to mean whether military (cannon) or life (butter) is prioritized.
Butter was considered a sacred, magical food. FolktaleLittle Red Riding HoodJust like you bring a butter jar to your sympathyBrittanyThe butter was said to have the power to absorb the disease, and the butter was placed beside the patient's bed. And when the patient died, it was customary to bury butter in the soil. "Rig Veda』In the fire, butter was burned and prayed to the god. RancidyakMade from butterTibet OfButter teaIs also drunk as a sacred drink.
It is also a symbol of fatty things, for example.PecanIs likened to a "butter tree" because it produces fatty nuts... Other,AvocadoIs characterized by the fact that the flesh contains about 16% fat, but it is rare for the flesh to be so rich in fat as a so-called "fruit"... For this reason, it is also metaphorically referred to as "butter fruit" or "forest butter."
In Japan, "butter" is treated as a symbol of Western style, and "butter" is treated as a symbol of Western style and Western rash.It smells fluffyIt may be described as.
- ^ USDA National Nutrient Database
- ^ a b デ ジ タ ルDaijisen
- ^ About the safety of fragrance diacetyl Japan Fragrance Industry Association September 2007, 9
- ^ What is butter | Butter Lab Snow Brand Megmilk
- ^ "Butter Lab Research Edition", a mass of milk umami ｜ Let's eat! Dairy products ｜ Knowing food ｜ Meiji food education Meiji Corporation
- ^ Greek romanization: buturum
- ^ Fuji Television Trivia Dissemination Committee "Trivia Fountain: Hee no Hon 5" Kodansha, 2004.
- ^ Toussaint-Sama 1998, pp. 118–122.
- ^ Soyer, Alexis (1977) . The Pantropheon or a History of Food and its Preparation in Ancient Times. Wisbech, Cambs .: Paddington Press. P. 172. ISBN-0 448-22976-5.
- ^ A meeting to explore the mysteries of history, ed., "Edo Dining Table," p. 61,Kawade Shobo Shinsha.
- ^ [Food Frontier] "Eating butter" with rich flavor of ingredients Anno potatoes, sea urchins ... Vivid appearance "Nikkei MJ] December 2020, 3 (food side)
- ^ British: buttercream
- ^ "Butter-cream" "Daijisen"Shogakukan.
- ^ "Bútter crèam" "Random House English Dictionary"
- ^ "Butter cream" "Information and knowledge encyclopedia imidas"Shueisha.
- ^ From the butter lamp ignition ceremony sponsored by His Majesty to the march of elementary school students-Supporting the victims of the Bhutanese people-
- ^ USDA FAS "Dairy: World Markets and Trade"
- ^ Emergency import of agricultural water is a serious shortage of butter"Weekly diamond(March 2014, 11) Read March 4, 2017
- ^ "Butter imports to 1 tons, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries FY3 plan Double policy due to lack of domestic production"Doshin web ・Hokkaido Shimbun(April 2017, 1) Viewed June 27, 2017
- ^ Koshi Shimokawa "Environmental History Chronology Meiji / Taisho Edition (1868-1926)" p322 Kawade Shobo Shinsha November 2003, 11 National bibliographic number:20522067
- ^ a b c "Christmas can't come!”(May 2021, 12). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b c d e "Is Norway's butter shortage crisis caused by the epidemic of the new diet law?”(May 2011, 12). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Toussaint-Sama 1998, p. 123.
- ^ Supervised by Toshi Innan, "Cook Cooking Complete Works Separate Volume Ingredient Encyclopedia" p.141 Senshukai Published in 1979
- ^ Supervised by Toshi Innan, "Cook Cooking Complete Works, Separate Volume Material Encyclopedia" p.143 Senshukai, published in 1979
- Magronne Toussaint-Sama, translated by Toyoo Tamamura, "World Food Encyclopedia" Hara Shobo, 1998.ISBN 4562030534.
- Dairy products
- shortening --Compared to butter, it has no scent.
- lard ――It is used not only for cooking but also for sweets (Chinese school,Sata Andagi,Mooncake,Malasada,Polvoron,CannoliSuch).
- Cocoa butter --Butter-like food
- Shea butter --Butter-like food
- Butyric acid
- Butter knife
- Ghee --Further refined butter dairy products from India and Afghanistan
- Yak butter