Music Festival and Beer "Interview with Michael Kaneko" from High Life Yatsugatake AID Radio
If you write the contents roughly
He likes craft beer such as IPA and pale ale as well as draft beer from a pub.
For those who find it the best time to give in to their favorite music and drink beer at festivals and live venues, it's a little more. ... → Continue reading
Japan Via Journalists Association
There are over XNUMX types of beer that can be called the most popular of all liquor. Such beer has come to be called craft beer, and it is loved by young people to elderly people, and the movement of local beer is occurring all over the world. For the time being, beer is not fun! Do you have an adventure to find your favorite beer? We publish articles to help you in your beer adventure. Enjoy our articles to get a glimpse of the beer world today.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Craft beer (English: craft beer) IsEnglishso"CraftsmanIt is an expression that means “technical beer” and “handmade beer”, and is a concept that is used in comparison with beer produced by major beer companies in mass production.JapaneseThen.Craft beerIt is sometimes expressed as.Local beerAlso called.
"Craft beer" in the United States
The United States of AmericaSmall brewery in (Micro brewery) Industry group (BA) isCraft brewery (craft brewery) is defined as "small, independent and traditional".. Specifically, annual production is 600 millionbarrel(US beer barrels) (approximately 70 kiloliters) or less, less than 25% of the capital (equity) controlled by other liquor makers who are not craft brewers, raw materials and fermentation incorporating innovations in traditional methods Crafting is a condition of craft brewery.
The definition of the Brewers Association is2011 Until January, the annual production limit was set at 1 million barrels. It was the largest craft brewerySamuel AdamsTo manufactureStandards were raised in response to the fact that.. Due to this cap increase, it was not considered a craft brewery on scale until then.InglingBecame the largest craft brewery.
Craft beer produced by Craft Brewery is called craft beer.While traditional raw materials and methods are respected in their production, various flavors and the like are devised by the additives to be combined and various products are produced. Being born is also a characteristic of craft beer.
The Brewers Association offers a tentative definition, but on the other hand, ``The Brewers Association doesn't define a definition of craft beer because it's up to the drinker to think what craft beer is, but beer. As long as brewing is the main business, there is no distinction between what type of beer a craft brewer brews (Since the Brewers Association doesn't define craft beer — that idea remains up to the beer drinker — the definition doesn't differentiate on what type of beer craft brewers brew, as long as the majority of what they make is beer.)..
Examples of brands produced by major beer companies using methods similar to craft beer include (MillerCoors) Produced byblue Moon,Anheuser-Busch OfSiegenbock, Shock Top etc. An example of an originally independent brewery that came under the umbrella of a major beer company is Miller Coors.Of Anheuser-BuschGoose Island BreweryThere are examples such as.カナダ OfQuebecIs produced inOriginally, it was an independent brewery, but after that,Sapporo beerIt has been placed in the same position as it has become a member of.
In the United States, regulatory approval is required to ship alcohol, including beer, out of the state. Also, the beer manufacturerUS TreasuryThere are restrictions on manufacturing and distribution, such as the need to obtain label certification from the Liquor Tobacco Tax Trade Control Bureau, and the burden on small-scale craft beer manufacturers increases.2018 From the end2019 For a long time until the beginningGovernment closureAt the time of the event, some craft beer manufacturing companies could not obtain government certification and could not ship..
Craft beer and craft beer in Japan
JapanThen,1994 OfLiquor tax lawWith the revision, the minimum beer production standard was reduced from 2,000 kiloliters to 60 kiloliters,Micro breweryA small brewery company equivalent toLocal beer", and once there were more than 300 craft beer companies.. The initial boom2003 Around that time, the number of craft beer companies settled down to about 200,, Hereafter, instead of "local beer", "beer crafted by a beer craftsman in a small brewery", "beer crafted by hand crafted beer craftsmen with an emphasis on quality" "craft With the keyword "beer", efforts to bring small-scale beer producers to the market have expanded,Yahoo brewing 2004 Started fromE-commerceThe craft beer market has begun to grow due to the successful scale expansion centered on.. Especially2010 eraIt is said that craft beer became even more popular once it entered the market, and depending on statistics, there was a year when it grew more than 10%..
In the Japanese context, there was a terminology to regard this as the same as "craft beer" from the early days when the name "brew beer" was dominant, and craft beer companies that included "craft beer" in the company name and brand name,,Tsukiyono Craft BeerSuch,1990 eraExisted from.Japan Breweries AssociationAlso had the official name in English as "The Japan Craft Beer Association (JCBA)" (later renamed "The Craft Beer Association")... 『Shinmei Solution Japanese DictionaryIs1997 From the 5th edition of "The Beer" is included as a vocabulary, but the explanation is "Beer produced in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, etc. for the purpose of satisfying the demand of the land (a relatively small production amount)." (In parentheses deleted in the 6th edition), etc., and supports the terminology that equates "brew beer" with "craft beer" by referring to cases from other countries... In addition, the Japan Brewers Association (JBA) said, "Beer of a maker that produces a small amount of unique beer is called "brew beer", but it is not a term specified by laws such as the Liquor Tax Law. .. Sometimes called craft beer, neither has a clear definition. Although these two terms may be interchanged with the same meaning, there is no “clear definition” in both terms, suggesting that there may be ambiguous deviations in meaning..
However, based on the shift from craft beer reflections to the decline of craft beer to craft beer with a focus on quality, Highlighting the difference between the two2004 The difference in the bearers of the craft beer boom that followed may be emphasized., As described further below2015 The difference in players may be emphasized based on the fact that a major beer company entered the craft beer market in earnest from around that time..
The definition of the Brewers Association in the United States is believed not to apply to Japanese breweries as it is.. Not considered a craft brewery in JapanOrion beerWill meet the size criteria in the Brewers Association definition. Also,Local beerInsideYellow cherry tree"Kyoto beer",Kiuchi Breweryof"Hitachino Nest BeerExamples of products produced by large and small sake makers such asThere are quite a few cases in which sake makers and major beer companies have invested, and the capital independence of the business is not emphasized.
In addition, in JapanLiquor tax lawHas several liquors with different tax rates depending on raw materials, and among craft beers, fruit beers are not beers under the tax law,Low-malt beerWas supposed to be.2017 ToLiquor tax lawHas been amended to reduce the ratio of malt recognized as beer under tax law from 67% or more to 50% or more, and to use fruits and spices as auxiliary ingredients at a ratio of 5% or less to the weight of malt. Has been approved, and some craft beers that were previously classified as low-malt beer can now be officially called beer..
For taxation on craft beer,2003 As a time-limited measure, a measure to exempt 20% of the original tax amount was taken from2010 This incentive was reduced to 15% in principle.. This measure only applies to beer under tax law and does not apply to happoshu under tax law..
Entry of a major beer company
On the other hand, major beer companies are interested in craft beer, and there are quite a few initiatives to partner with and acquire craft breweries in Japan and the United States, and to embark on in-house production.
Kirin Beer(Kirin beer)2014 It announced the "Craft Beer Strategy" in July, and is the largest craft brewery in Japan during the same year.Yahoo brewingFormed a capital and business alliance with,2015 Has a pub "Spring Valley Brewery" by a subsidiary companyDaikanyamaTo open,2016 In the United StatesBrooklyn BreweryHas formed a business alliance with the company to acquire a 24.5% stake that does not violate the definition of the Brewers Association..
SuntoryIt is,2015 Launched the "Craft Select" brand of canned beer as "for those who are interested in craft beer but are not familiar with it."2016 からPale ale, Golden Ale and Weizen are supplied as year-round products..
Sapporo beerIs also a subsidiary of Japan Premium Brew,2015 Has entered the craft beer market from, And as mentioned above,カナダIs under the control of the capital. Controls the Sapporo GroupSapporo HoldingsAnnounces acquisition of Anchor Brewing, a US premium beer company, in August 2017"Nippon Keizai Shimbun" reported, "Sapporo acquired US craft beer".
さ ら に,Orion beerAlso2015 Began supplying seasonal products "Orion Craft Series" as "Orion Craft Beer".. The second item, "Ryukyu White," is not beer because of the ingredients.Low-malt beerWas released as.
Since the entry of major companies became popular, beer manufactured with emphasis on quality is made into craft beer regardless of the size of the producer,Micro breweryThere are also small businesses other than major companies that are equivalent to the above and their use as local beer.
Examples of craft beers that are easily available in Japan
The craft beers listed below are also sold in can packages that are easy to distribute, and it can be said that they are relatively easy to obtain at convenience stores and supermarkets.
- Yona Yona Ale(Yaho Brewing Co., Ltd.)
- Indian blue demon(Yaho Brewing Co., Ltd.)
- Wednesday cat(Yaho Brewing Co., Ltd.)
- White ale(Kiuchi Sake Brewery Limited Company)
- Wheat beer(Ginga Kogen Beer Co., Ltd.)
- ^ a b c "Craft Brewer Defined”. Brewersassociation.org. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "What qualifies as craft beer?”. USA Today. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ a b c Hiroyuki Fujiwara (October 2012, 10). “Definition of craft beer. What is craft beer?". Japan Via Journalists Association. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ Brewers Association Lists Top 50 Breweries of 2015,, Brewers Association, (March 2016, 4) October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Brewers Association updates'craft beer' definition; focus on ownership, adjunct acceptance". Craft Brewing Business. CBB Media LLC (March 2014, 3). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ Tuttle, Brad (December 2012, 12). “Trouble Brewing: The Craft Beer Vs.'Crafty' Beer Cat Fight”. Time Inc .. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ a b c Hernalsteen, Brian (December 2013, 12). “10 Crafty Beers Made By Big Beer Companies”. Paste Media Group. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Is beer wasted due to US government closure? Brewing company sues Trump administration”. AFP (July 2019, 1). October 2019th, 3Browse.
- ^ Teikoku Databank announces the results of a survey of business conditions of 141 craft beer makersNihon Keizai ShimbunPress release reprint site (August 2018, 8) Read September 8, 2018.
- ^ a b c "<Craft beer market> Signs of a re-boom centered on EC / 4 major companies, one by one”. Japan Distribution Industry Newspaper (May 2015, 5). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ a b "What is craft beer?”. Craft Beer Tokyo (December 2016, 12). October 2017th, 2Browse. -The content was written in 2013.
- ^ Kazuki Kunio (January 2015, 1). “Why was craft beer so popular?”. HARBOR BUSINESS Online / Fusosha Publishing. October 2017th, 2Browse. “While shipments of beer-based beverages from the five major domestic beer companies have continued to decline for 5 consecutive years, according to the“ Overview of Craft Beer / Happoshu Production Survey ”released by the National Tax Agency at the end of last year, the manufacturing company 10 The average sales amount of the company is close to 25 million yen, which is a 166% increase from the previous year and remains strong. ... Mr. Kawano says that Japanese craft beer "has changed its direction from around the summer of 8700 and became popular from 14 to 2012." ”
- ^ “September opening of a German craft beer restaurant in Kakuda 9 agricultural cooperatives built”. Asahi Shimbun, morning edition, Miyagi(July 1997, 7) -View on Kikuzo II Visual
- ^ "Raw craft beer, sold in bottles Tsukiyono Town". Asahi Shimbun, Morning Edition, Gunma(July 1997, 11) -View on Kikuzo II Visual
- ^ "Craft Beer Association”. The Craft Beer Association. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ a b "What is craft beer?”. National Craft Beer Brewers Association. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ Mika Omura; Mitsuko Nagasawa. “Craft beer An evolution of local beer that competes for individuality”. Asahi Shimbun / morning edition: p. 18. "Ryoji Oda, chairman of the Japan Craft Beer Association (Ashiya City, Hyogo Prefecture), says," A new maker has appeared in Japan since around 2004. "The craft beer maker that survived the boom and continued to make it has also been activated. " -View on Kikuzo II Visual
- ^ a b Shingo Takano (July 2015, 7). “(Be report) Foaming Craft Beer”. Asahi Shimbun, morning edition, weekend be: p. 4. "Craft beer, which is particular about manufacturing methods and raw materials, is gaining in popularity.In addition to the manufacturing companies from the time when it was called local beer, major beer companies have entered the market one after another.The momentum is that people concerned say, "2015 is the first year of craft beer." ... Craft beer companies will meet you. "There is a distance between the big guys and our products. Consumers want them to drink without cluttering."Naoyuki Ide, 10, president of Yo-Ho Brewing, which has been the top craft beer company for 47 consecutive years of sales and profit growth, said, "It is very good that the market is booming." " -View on Kikuzo II Visual
- ^ The annual production capacity of Orion beer is said to be 72,000 kiloliters. :"Orion Brewery Co., Ltd.”. Job offer Okinawa. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Craft beer ■ Kyoto beer ■”. Kizakura Sake Brewery. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Kiuchi Sake Brewing Home Page”. Kiuchi Brewery. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ a b "Did you know? In Japan, all fruit beers are [Happoshu]”. Sankt Gallen (June 2011, 6). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. National Tax Agency / Tax Office. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. National Tax Agency / Tax Office. 2017-02-14) Browse.
- ^ "Renewal of directly managed restaurant that brewed the first craft beer in Tokyo Launched a project in collaboration with customers and proposed new appeal of beer and food”. Asahi Breweries (July 2015, 7). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ a b Kazuki Nakayama (October 2016, 10). “Why Kirin eats "craft beer" Will New York beer win the hearts of young people?”. Toyo Keizai online. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Spring Valley Brewery Tokyo”. Japan Beer Times (March 2015, 3). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "By making beer interesting, there is a future that can be seen-Craft beer strategy-". Giraffe. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Kirin Holdings (October 2016, 10). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "<Extra edition> Feel free to enjoy craft beer! -Suntory "Craft Select"”. Tokyo Beer Garden Information Center (March 2016, 3). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Entry into the fast-growing craft beer market through a specialized subsidiary-Launch of "Craft Label Citrus Fragrant Pale Ale"-”. Sapporo Beer (March 2015, 3). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ Acquired all equity interest in Anchor Brewing Company, Inc.Sapporo HD Press Release (August 2017, 8) Read December 3, 2017
- ^ Sapporo acquires US craft beer"Nihon Keizai Shimbun" morning edition August 2017, 8 (Comprehensive corporate view) December 4, 2017 Read
- ^ "Launched the first Ryukyu Pale Ale in the Orion Craft series.”. Orion Beer (September 2015, 9). October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "Ryukyu White Ryukyu White”. Orion beer. October 2017th, 2Browse.
- ^ "[Yokohama Hammerhead] Seven-Eleven's beer is too fulfilling!Purchase Yokohama beer & snacks | Hama no Kuma Yokohama walk". hamakuma3.com. October 2021th, 8Browse.
- "Craft Beer Revolution: America's Small Craft Beer Business"2015 July 7 Publisher:DU BOOKS Author: Steve Hindi (Brooklyn Brewery Founder) Translation: Yuko Wada ISBN 978-4-907583-54-5
Ale(British: Ale) IsbeerKind of.Top fermentationでbrewingIs done.barleymaltUseyeastIn a short period of time at room temperaturefermentationA beer that has a complex aroma, deep richness, and fruity taste.Style.
Disaccharide(Melibiose) Cannot be used for fermentationSaccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) And the trisaccharide maltose (Maltose) AndMaltotrioseHigher-order polyploid strains that can be used for fermentationFermentation is carried out in a short period of time at room temperature (around 15 ° C to 20 ° C).Activelycarbon dioxide gasIt is called top fermentation because the yeast finally floats and forms a layer on the top surface.The unique flavor is due to the action of strains that can be used for fermentation other than disaccharides and fermentation in a low nitrogen state.It is believed that.
In general, top fermentation is easier to brew.19st centuryAnd laterLagerUntil the explosive spread of beer, beer was ale.Also,OrientalThanteaBefore enteringThe United KingdomThen,hopAle withoutWedIt seems that it was the most daily drink along with..For the common people of England at that timeWine,Cider(Cider) was not an everyday beverage (these were expensive and at the same time were monopolized by aristocrats and other upper class people).
History of ale
hopIn the 15th century NetherlandsからEnglandUntil it was introduced to, the name "ale" was used only for brewed liquor without hops, and "beer" was used to refer to brewing with hops, but this distinction is no longer used.
Ale中 世It was an important drink to drink with bread, which is the staple food.
Modern ale is generally defined by the yeast strain used and the fermentation temperature.Ale is usually brewed by top fermentation, but many British breweries, including Fullers and Welton, use ale yeast strains with less pronounced top fermentation characteristics.An important factor that distinguishes ales is the high temperature of fermentationLagerTo ferment faster.
Ale is usually 15-24℃ (60-75° F) To ferment.At this temperature, a large amount of yeastesterAnd the accompanying flavor and aroma, resulting in a "fruity" productApple,Pear,pineapple,banana,Plum, ま た はpruneIt has a scent similar to.A typical ale is sweeter and richer than a lager.
Some are difficult to distinguish between ale and lager. (Steam beer) ,Kölsch, And the current British Golden Summer Beers use both lager and ale elements.Baltic Porter and Bierre de Garde are made with either the lager and ale technique or a combination of both.However, lager has a cleaner, crisper, lighter taste than ale.
United States states,In particularWestern partThe state law defines "ale" as a fermented grain drink that has a higher alcohol content than "beer" regardless of the fermentation method or yeast used. 
In many countries, ale has become less popular as the variety of alcoholic beverages, especially lager and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic beverages mixed with fruit juice and spices), has increased..
Type of ale
Pale ale (Pale ale) It is,Brew using.A traditional example is the British pub "bitter』(English: Bitter).Alcohol degreeIs 4.4% -5%.The degree of hops varies, from a level that is almost unnoticeableIndia Pale Ale100 as in the example of IBU Wide range to super.India Pale Ale (IPA) was initiallyThe United KingdomからAsiaStrengthen hops and darken to prevent rot while transporting to the colonyproportionBrewed in.However, the term today refers to "session bitter" or super premium pale ale.Amber AleShows a slightly darker styleNorth AmericaAnd this name isFrench Of amber It is said to be derived from.
In England, light ale is the basic bitter for bottling.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThen, "light" refers to barreled beer with the lightest specific gravity, and is often dark in color.Neither is a word for "low calorie".
Red ale is a reddish liquid-colored ale.アイルランドOrigin,ベルギーOrigin,AmericaThere is something that originated.The ones originating in Belgium have a sour taste, and the ones originating in the United States have a stronger bitterness than those originating in Ireland and Belgium.Generally low alcohol (generally around 4%), but originated in the United StatesImperial Red AleSome have a high alcohol content (8% to 10%).
Brown ale uses dark barley malt.BritishMild aleとベルギー OfOud bruinIs an example.The hops are light and have a fairly palatable flavor, often with a nutty taste.In southern England, it is dark brown with an alcohol content of 3 to 3.5% and is very sweet.In the north, it is reddish brown with 4.5-5% and less sweet.British brown ales appeared in the early 1900s, with Man's Brown Ale and Newcastle Brown Ale being the best known. In the early 1980sNorth America OfLocal beerSo this style became popular.Peat's Wicked Ale (en: Pete's Wicked Ale) Is an example, similar to the English original, but with a good deal of hops (Peats Wicked Ale is a recipe for reducing hops, not using chocolate malt, and increasing caramel malt during the 2000-2001 brewing season. Due to the changes, the taste is quite different from before).
Dark ale is brewed using thick roasted barley malt.Porter was a London style and declined, but in recent years it has revived, especially in North America's Sierra Nevada.Porters come in a wide range of colors from brown to black, and those with a strong alcohol content are known as "stout porters" or "stouts".Various stouts were brewed in England.Sweet typified by Maxison brewed with 3.7% alcohol and lactose addedSweet stoutFrom stouts with a strong alcohol content of 10% to exports with a maximum alcohol content of XNUMX%.アイルランドThen,GuinnessNot sweet likeIrish stoutBecame popular. "Imperial stoutOr "Imperial Russian Stout" is also a "strong" 8-10% style, initially to warm up in the winterロシアIt was exported to the palace.
Scottish ales are generally malt.Although all types of ale are made in Scotland, "Scotch ale" is used worldwide as a malted, dark beer.The malt is slightly roasted or smoked (like whiskey) and flavored with toffee.
England's old ale (Old ale) Is a strong beer that has traditionally been stored for about a year to give it a sharp, sour flavor.The term now refers to a slightly stronger dark beer and is treated in the same way as traditional old ales.AustraliaIt is used as a general name for dark beer without distinction.Belgian oud bruin is similar to traditional British old ale.
ベルギーIn, various specialty ales are produced and it is difficult to classify them easily.In addition to the production of light ales of various colors, allTrappist beerAnd most of Abby beer is ale.Most Belgian ales have a high alcohol content, but because they contain a lot of sucrose, they are light and basically maintain a natural flavor and increase the alcohol content.
Trappist beer is brewed in the monastery.Only seven of the 171 Trappist monasteries around the world brew beer, six in Belgium and the other in the Netherlands.Abbey beer is brewed by private breweries using the name of the monastery, but many monasteries do not exist and the name may be licensed to the brewery.
German ale tends to ferment at relatively low temperatures and is richer than British and Belgian ales due to differences in wort production.More with traditional German maltose saccharification techniquesoligosaccharideIs generated and produces the body of beer.ColognePale ale,KölschとAlto beer(DusseldorfIs famous, but it is also produced in other parts of western Germany).HefeweizenAnd Berliner Weiss (Berliner Weisse) Wheat beer is made by ale, but it has a different flavor.Especially Hefeweizen resembled a bananaesterIt is characterized by its flavor.
Cream ale is associated with American style lager.It is generally brewed with a light and refreshing flavor and is pale yellow to pale golden.Hop and malt flavors are usually subdued, but some breweries give more positive traits.Genecy Cream Ale and Little King Cream Ale are examples.Cream ale is top-fermented, but usually has a refrigerated storage or storage period after the primary fermentation is complete.This reduces fruity esters and gives the beer a refreshing flavor.In some cases, lager yeast is added during the refrigerated storage phase and is even blended with lager beer.Corn flour and rice are added to lighten the body and flavor, but there are also examples of 100% malt.
Style belonging to ale
- Alto beer (Alt Bier):Dusseldorf,MunsterMade of strong bitterness
- (Amber Ale)
- India Pale Ale (India Pale Ale)
- Wit (Wheat): Weizen'sAmericaVersion
- Weizen (Weizen):BayernMade locallyCarbonic acidThose with a high content.It has a slightly whitish golden color and a sweet and unique fruity scent.
- Kölsch: In pale yellowGermany OfCologneMade around
- stout (Stout)
- (Dark Ale)
- Burley wine (Barley Wine):barley Ale with high alcohol content in the sense of wine made with (Barley)
- Brown ale (Brown Ale)
- Belgian style white
- Pale ale (Pale Ale)
- ポ ー タ ー (Porter):The United KingdomNative.It got this name because it is black and popular with cargo-carrying porters.
- ^ a b Haruhiko Arimura, "Beer yeast"Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan," 2000, Vol. 95, No. 11, p. 91-802, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.95.791
- ^ Heito Kondo, "Yeast response and flavor formation in beer fermentation and low-malt beer fermentation"The Journal of The Brewing Society of Japan," 2005 Volume 100, Issue 11, p.787-795, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.100.787, Brewing Society of Japan
- ^ "World History of Tea"
- ^ WordNet
- ^ “Bid to make ales'women-friendly'”. BBC. (December 2007, 8) October 2007th, 8Browse.
- ^ "Q. I've noticed a change in Pete's Wicked Ale. Did you change the recipe?", PETE'S WICKED FAQ, en: Pete's Brewing Company.
- Sakae Tsunoyama "World History of Tea: Green Tea Culture and Black Tea Society" Chuokoronsha〈Chuko Shinsho>, November 1980.ISBN 4-12-100596-1.