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🍜 | Privately owned ramen in Yamagata Prefecture Unique vending machine situation


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Unique vending machines in Yamagata prefecture that are privately owned by famous ramen

 
If you write the contents roughly
The vending machine was set up by an apple farmer, Atsushi Sato, who raised funds through crowdfunding.
 

Vending machines are installed in various places in Yamagata prefecture, but you can shop while avoiding contact with people due to the corona virus. → Continue reading

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This is an account of "Sakurambo Television" (Fuji Television affiliate) news. We will send you the latest news from Yamagata Prefecture.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding(English: crowdfunding) Is群衆(crowd)WhenFunding(FUND) Is a coined word.It means that a small amount of money from a large number of people will provide financial resources and cooperation to other people and organizations.In modern timesインターネットOften done via.[1][2].. Also called social funding[3], In JapaneseClafanMay be abbreviated as[4].

Cloud computing (cloud computing)cloudSome people confuse it with "cloud" and mistakenly describe it as "cloud funding", but it should be correct.crowd-"(Of the crowd).

Overview

CrowdfundingDisaster prevention,Citizen journalism,フ ァ ンbyArtistsSupport ofSocial/political movement,VentureInvestment in companies[5] ,movies[6] ,Free softwareDevelopment, invention development, scientific research[7] It is used to invest in a wide range of fields, including loans to individuals, business companies, and projects.

It is also attracting attention as a method of raising funds for companies by soliciting shares from many investors. This form of crowdfunding is(English edition[Annotation 1] Recently, as there is a direct reference toThe United States of AmericaAttracted attention from policy makers[8].. The JOBS Act is waiting to be implemented,en: Mosaic Inc.Mixed models, such as, make use of existing securities legislation that qualifies licensed civilians to invest directly in clean energy projects as part of the crowd.

In addition, crowd funding isCrowdsourcingConcept[Annotation 2] Has its origin.Crowdfunding[9] Is an application of this concept of raising money from many people through small donations to fund a particular project or venture[10].. Models necessarily involve diverse stakeholders[11].. These include people and organizations that propose ideas and projects to be funded, as well as the "crowd" who support the proposals. Crowdfunding consists of an organization (“platform”) that brings together the project leader and the “crowd”.

Generally, a large amount of money is required to develop a product or hold an event, but in crowdfunding, an unspecified number of people are invited to provide a relatively small amount of money via the Internet, and the project is executed when a certain amount is collected. By doing so, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of financing. The development of social media has made it easier for individuals to launch and announce projects, and in response, crowdfunding funding is becoming active. In the United StatesKickstarterIs famous.

Sports funding specialized in the sports field has evolved into a form that refers to a wide range of support from corporate matching, media matching, and second career measures, in addition to financing from unspecified majority.

History

Crowdfunding has several origins and a long history.

EuropeIn, books have been published in a manner similar to crowdfunding since centuries ago.[Annotation 3]..With the authorInfomationWhen we develop a project to publish some kind of book,AdsI let people know and made them apply in the form of purchase reservations and subscriptions.When it turns out that the number of applications has reached a sufficient number and there are enough purchasers to recover the cost of publishing, full-scale writing, proofreading, and printing of the book will proceed and actually It will be published.Strictly speaking, the book subscription method at that time was slightly different from modern crowdfunding.In the book pre-purchase method centuries ago, the actual flow of money was due to the fact that the actual book was delivered to the prospective purchaser.Even so, there is an aspect that the pre-order purchase of books has gathered the purchasers necessary for the authors and publishers to proceed with the business of "publishing books".[12].

1884 years,Statue of libertyProduction Committee America has run out of money for the pedestal of the statue. Newspaper publisherJoseph PulitzerIs his own newspaper "New York World』, Encouraged the American public to donate money to the pedestal.Pulitzer raised $ 6 in six months.Approximately 10 people made many donations of less than $ 12 for this.[13].

1997 British rock groupMarillionFans underwent a US tour and raised $6 in donations through a fan-hosted internet campaign[14].. The idea was designed and run by the fans, regardless of the band, but Marillion has since used it as a way to fund the recording and marketing of his albums from 2001 to the present. It has been very successful.en: Anoraknophobia[15][16] ,Marbles[17],en: Happiness Is the Road[18].

For companies headquartered in the United Statesen: ArtistShare (2000/2001) was considered the first crowdfunding site for music and lateren: Pledgie (2006),en: Sellaband (2006),en: IndieGoGo (2008),Kickstarter (2009),en: Appsplit (2010),en: Microventures Sites such as (2010) followed[19][20].

LockBand-Electric Eel ShockHas taken full advantage of crowdfunding and became one of the first bands to keep up with important recording deals in advance. As an unsigned band in 2004, he raised £ 100 from 100 fans (Samurai 1) and offered them a whole life guest list instead.[21].. Two years later, they became the fastest band to collect 5 budgets at Sella Bannd[22].. They internationally licensed this album internationally in their native Japan.

A freelance writer/director in the film industryen: Mark Tapio KinesIs the first work that was unfinished in 1997 at that time "Foreign CorrespondentsLaunched the website. Around early 1997, he received over $ 25 over the internet from at least 12 fans and funded him to complete the film.[23].. lateren: Franny ArmstrongIs her feature filmen: Age of StupidMade a donation system for[24].. She raised £ 2004 million in the five years from 2009 to 5 (opening date)[25].. In December 2004, French entrepreneurs and producersBenjamin PommeraudGuillaume colbocIs their short science fiction movie "Demain la Veille (wait for tomorrow)Internet donation campaign for the masses to raise money[26] Started. Within three weeks they raised $3 and were able to make a movie.

en: Morton ValenceIs an early example of a relatively obscure band that independently started crowdfunding without using third-party websites like Sellaband[27].

Crowdfunding[28] The earliest known reference to is written by Michael Sullivan on fundavlog on August 2006, 8.[29].

In 2012, TIME published an article describing and evaluating the best crowdfunding platforms in the world.[30].

In 2012, the crowdfunding market was estimated to be 2 billion dollars, double the size of the previous year, with the investment in video games in particular showing significant growth. The investment amount in the video game field at Kickstarter has reached more than 28 times compared to 2011. With game softwareStar CitizenIs about $620 million, on game consolesOUYARaised about $860 million and became a hot topic.

Types

Crowdfunding is roughly classified into the following three types according to the form of return (reward) to the fund provider.[31][32].

  • There is no financial returnDonation type'
  • With a financial returnInvestment type'
  • Support by purchasing some rights and goods provided by the projectPurchase type'

in Japan,Fund settlement law,Financial Instruments and Exchange ActDue to restrictions on remittance and investment among individuals due to factors such as the above, the number of companies of purchase-type crowdfunding is the largest and the number of companies is high. On the other hand, the investment type (Social lending(Also said to be) is a small number of companies (in Japan, the second category of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act)Financial instruments businessRegistration required[32]), taking in investors' demand for financial returns, and has a track record of over 300 billion yen in Japan.

Incidentally,Toyo Keizai Inc.Let's start with investment-type crowdfundingLoan type""Fund type""Equity typeIs divided into[33].

Status in Japan

History

(#historyAs explained in the section, the book publishing business in Europe and the United States was often done by a method similar to crowdfunding.)Meiji 30sThe second half of the publisherMaruzenBut"Encyclopedia BritannicaStarted a project to publish the 35th edition (composed of XNUMX volumes), and accepted by the "reservation application fee" method (use the money by having people pay the "reservation application fee" in advance) Print and distribute the book, thenMonthly installmentI announced the sales method of collecting money at, accepted the application, and put it into practice.

In Japan (starting in 2000)Music SecuritiesMusic fund is said to be the first crowdfunding[34].

in Japan,First Abe CabinetIn line with the policy formulated in 1), measures to utilize crowdfunding as one of the means to “strengthen the supply of risk money” will be raised, and regulations will be relaxed.Financial Instruments and Exchange ActThe amendment such as was approved by the Diet on May 2014, 26.[35][36].

Status of self-regulatory organizations

Voluntary restrictions on crowdfunding operations are as follows.

  • The stock type isJapan Securities Dealers Association(Rules for stock investment type crowdfunding business)
  • The fund type is the Second Class Financial Instruments Business Association (Rules for electronic application type electronic offering handling business, etc.)
  • No purchase type, donation type, loan type (as of the end of July 2016)

Major crowdfunding sites in Japan

Purchase type

CAMPFIRE
The number one crowdfunding platform in Japan. A long-established service in Japan that was founded in 1 at about the same time as READYFOR.We handle a wide range of projects in all genres, including manufacturing, food, and culture. "Light a small fire"The OVERDRIVE final work "MUSICA!" development project" (as of March 1), which recorded the domestic purchase type procurement amount No. 2019 under the slogan "," Beppu City's "Yu-Senchi", by Tanita Co., Ltd. We deal with a wide range of projects from companies such as "Twin Stick Project" to challenges by students and individuals.Kazuma IiriWill be the representative. The fee is 17%.
FAAVO
A community-specific crowdfunding platform.CAMPFIRE, Inc. took over the business from Searchfield, Inc. in 2018 and operates it.
Fanbeats
GleeA fan community platform that is run by and specializes in the entertainment field. Based on SNS, in addition to crowdfunding, various functions required for fan businesses such as subscription-based monthly billing and newsletters are provided free of charge as a platform. The fee is 10%.
READYFOR
Japan's first crowdfunding service launched on March 2011, 3. Based on the vision of "creating a world where everyone can realize what they want to do," it is operated as a service that connects "people who need funds to do what they want to do" and "people who sympathize and support" through the Internet. There is.The success rate of financing for published projects is 29% (as of October 75), which is very high compared to the industry average of 2018%. In June 10, received the "Excellence Award (SPRING Award)" at the Japan Service Awards sponsored by the Service Industry Productivity Council.In May 30, he received the "Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Award (Female Entrepreneur Award)" at the 2016th Japan Venture Awards.The representative is Haruka Mera.The fee is 6%.
(Spportunity)
It is a sports-specific crowdfunding service operated by a corporation for the purpose of supporting teams, athletes, and sports. Founded in March 2016.GLOBIS Graduate School of ManagementStudents and graduates enrolled inMBA-Master of Business Administration-Born from (holder)Most of the members are MBA holdersIt has become a company.
With a strong feeling for sports and athletes, "Don't stand on the starting line before you start.Change the society where you cannot challengeBased on the philosophy, we aim to create an environment where athletes who challenge their dreams can have equal opportunities.Then all the members were listedCredoUnder the plan, development and operation specializing in sports.The features of the service are (1) generous support, (2) media development (free creation of column articles / in partnership with Yahoo! News, SmartNews, etc.), and (3) commissions from 10%.
Makuake
cyber-agentgroup. There are many projects of genres such as manufacturing and restaurants. Listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Mothers Market on December 2019, 12. 11% commission.
academist
Founded in 2013Academist Co., Ltd.Japan's first crowdfunding service specializing in academic financing. It is operated as a service that conveys the appeal of research and researchers with the mission of "researchers go, we connect" and "realize an open academic industry and contribute to the creation of a future society." ing.The success rate of financing public projects is about 20%, well above the industry standard.The fee is 3% (of which XNUMX% is the settlement fee).
Kibidango
Fine cloud
Crowdfunding platform for beginners operated by Kokusai Resources Co., Ltd.
A-port
Asahi ShimbunA crowdfunding platform operated by.
Motion Gallery
A platform with strengths in the creative field.The fee is 10%, which is the lowest in the industry. "Happy hourAnd 'カ メ ラ ラ 止 め る!We are working on crowdfunding of movies that have become a hot topic, such as "Mini Theater Aid Fund" which recently collected 3 million yen and 3000 million yen.Troupe four seasonsKnown for the project. Received the 2015 Good Design Award.
Greenfunding
sandwich
Oita Godo ShimbunBut,Oita Bank,Music SecuritiesA crowdfunding platform operated in cooperation with.
La porno
Ubugoe

Donation type

Investment type

Related laws and tax systems

Of the investment types, the loan type and fund type areAnonymous unionSince the investment act by the company falls under the category of “collective investment scheme interests”, which is a type of securities that is subject to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act, it is necessary to register the Type II Financial Instruments and Exchange Business under the Gold Commercial Law, as mentioned above. Being supervised by the Gold Commercial Code. Anonymous partnership investment is accountingliabilitiesHowever, under certain conditions, financial institutions evaluate it as equity debt.[32][35]..Loan type is even moreMoney Lending Business Law OfMoney lending businessRegistration is required.The stock type isFinancial Instruments and Exchange ActFirst-class financial instruments business registration or first-class small-amount electronic recruitment handling company registration is required[37].

The donation type and the purchase type are not regulated by the Gold and Commercial Law, but the donation type has a taxation problem that corporations can only be deducted up to a certain amount and deductions cannot be received for individuals. The purchase type is mainly because the general consumer is the provider of funds,Defect liabilityOccurs,Specified Commercial Transaction Law,Freebie display methodIt is subject to the Consumer Relations Law and depends on the price of the products offered. It causes the same tax problem as the donation type[32][35].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ A bill that allows small investors to solicit widespread investment with less restrictions.
  2. ^ A rough concept that individuals reach their goals by collecting and using small contributions from many people.
  3. ^ To explain the situation to Japanese readers at that time, it was still said that "publishing a book" centuries ago.LetterpressEach character by hand with a machineTypeAssembled, put the paper into the printing machine one by one,Buttoya apple press(pressIn an era when the handles of printing machines such as) were manually rotated to print one by one, "publishing a book" was a "business" of a certain scale, and one book was published. It takes a lot of effort and a lot of money to do it, and when a writer or a publisher prints a book without checking the intentions of the readers of the world in advance, it takes a lot of effort and cost to write, calibrate, and print. After printing, it turns out that there are quite a few people trying to buy the book, and publishers and authors can't recover the costs of writing and publishing, just making a few such misunderstandings. , There was a risk of bankruptcy or bankruptcy with stock.As a result, a mechanism has been created to avoid or mitigate that risk.

Source

  1. ^ Ordanini, Andrea; Fisk, Raymond P .; Miceli, Lucia; Pizzetti, Marta; Parasuraman, A. (2011). “Crowd-funding: transforming customers into investors through innovative service platforms”. Journal of Service Management 22 (4): 443–470. two:10.1108/09564231111155079. ISSN 1757-5818 .  (Or here too Scribd document)
  2. ^ "What IS Crowdfunding And How Does IT Benefit The Economy”(May 2012, 11). 2012/12/6Browse.
  3. ^ "What is crowdfunding? "Social funding" (crowd funding):-IT glossary binary". 2012/12/6Browse.
  4. ^ "Pavegen, which generates electricity when people walk, won over 3 million yen with Kurafan". 2019/7/18Browse., "86g waterproof and shockproof. Canon carabiner camera, Kurafan start!". 2019/7/18Browse.
  5. ^ "Welcome to The Crowdfunding Wiki!”. Michael Sullivan and pbworks consensus group. 2012/8/12Browse.
  6. ^ "Crowd funding: An emerging trend in Bollywood". 2012/8/12Browse.
  7. ^ "Crowdfunding as the future of science funding? | The Science Exchange Blog”. Blog.scienceexchange.com (May 2012, 5). 2012/8/19Browse.
  8. ^ "Inside the JOBS Act: Equity Crowdfunding". 2012/11/6Browse.
  9. ^ "Crowd funding and ICO list”. Icotokennews. 2017/8/12Browse.
  10. ^ "Crowfunding in a Canadian Context”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
  11. ^ "Crowdfunding: Transforming Customers Into Investors Through Innovative Service Platforms”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
  12. ^ BBC The Statue of Liberty and America's crowdfunding pioneer
  13. ^ "Joseph Pulitzer”(May 2013, 2). 2013/2/28Browse.
  14. ^ "The Marillion story and what we can all learn from it". 2013/2/28Browse.
  15. ^ "guitartabsexplorer.com". 2013/2/28Browse.
  16. ^ “BBC article, May 11, 2001”. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1325340.stm 2013/2/28Browse. 
  17. ^ "OHM Review". 2013/2/28Browse.
  18. ^ "Calling the faithful for Album 15". 2013/2/28Browse.
  19. ^ "Wharton". 2013/2/28Browse.
  20. ^ "Inc.com". 2013/2/28Browse.
  21. ^ "Drownedinsound.com "Wanna Go VIP? Electric Eel Shock'll show you the way...", Dec 2nd, 2004". 2013/2/28Browse.
  22. ^ "itsallhappening, June 24th, 2008". 2013/2/28Browse.
  23. ^ Andrew Rodgers (June 1999, 6). “Filmmaker Uses Web To Help Finance, Cast Movie”. Chicago Tribune. 2013/1/7Browse.
  24. ^ Kate Bulkley (November 2012, 11). “funding models for film making | Sheffield Doc / Fest 2010 | guardian.co.uk”. Guardian. 2012/12/13Browse.
  25. ^ "Crowd-Funding FAQ”. Spanner Films (July 2009, 7). 2012/12/13Browse.
  26. ^ Christina Warren (January 2011, 1). “A Guide to Kickstarter & Crowd Funding [INFOGRAPHIC]”. Mashable.com. 2012/12/13Browse.
  27. ^ "blog entry by Morton Valence "Nothing Like Sellaband", May 22, 2008". 2013/2/28Browse.
  28. ^ "Crowdfunding and ICO Listing”. Applancer. 2017/8/12Browse.
  29. ^ "Crowdfundings earliest citation". 2013/2/28Browse.
  30. ^ "How to Pick the Right Crowdfunding Site". 2012/10/22Browse.
  31. ^ "Crowdfunding: a new form of community on the web”. The Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence. May 2,2013Browse.
  32. ^ a b c d "Law on crowdfunding (basic edition)”. AZX Law Office Attorney Nobuhiro Ikeda. 2016/5/10Browse.
  33. ^ ""Investment-type crowdfunding" begins to move". Oriental economyOnline (August 2014, 8). 2016/5/10Browse.
  34. ^ "Furusato Investment" Liaison Conference (2015). "Hometown Investment" Guide: 12. https://www.chisou.go.jp/tiiki/tiikisaisei/furusato/kaigi/tebiki_honnpen.pdf. 
  35. ^ a b c "Promote utilization of cloud funding". Osaka (September 2016, 2). 2016/5/9Browse.
  36. ^ "Financial Services Agency-related bill at the 186th Diet". Financial Services Agency (September 2014, 5). 2016/5/9Browse.
  37. ^ "Crowdfunding". Kakaku.com. 2021/1/1Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク

vending machine

vending machine(I'm sorry,British: vending machine) Means that an unspecified number of peoplecurrency(currency) Or by inserting a card etc. that replaces it and paying the price automaticallyProducts(Of goods)BuyTo be able to receive services and servicesmachine[1][2].Vending machine(Jihanki) is also abbreviated.ticket,food voucherFor machines that sell tickets such as(Automatic ticket vending machineAlso says.

Overview

Vending machines are when you pay money (for example, cash (coins and banknotes))Electronic moneyTouch the card in)push buttonIt is a machine that can automatically purchase goods (goods, information, services) by operating it.With a machine that has a mechanism to receive goods and prepare fishing if you pay for it and operate the machinechangeCan be received.

However,Public telephoneAnd entertainment machines (jukebox,arcade gameMachines, etc.) are generally unmanned and automatically provided, but are generally not included in the category of vending machines.[3].

From the point of view of the seller of the product, it is a machine that sells it automatically. Lack of manpowerPersonnel expensesIt is effective as a measure against soaring,Days Off,NightHas the advantage that[3].. Vending machineMech robotIt can be said that it is a kind of. From the product buyer's point of view, the vending machine provides the product even on holidays and nights when manned stores are closed.

The oldest vending machine in the world is said to have been the ancient Egyptian holy water vending machine described in Hero of Alexandria's book.The 1615 British vending machine for buying cigarettes with coins still exists today.In Japan, in 1890, Shuzo Ono and Takashi Tawaraya each obtained a patent for a vending machine.

Vending machines can be broadly divided into goods vending machines and vending service machines.

Modern vending machines are generally composed of "money equipment", "instruction equipment", "storage / processing equipment", and "sales equipment".

Most vending machines operate electrically or by the weight of coins or a mechanism operated by the purchaser.[4].

in recent years,Electronic moneyOr at the time of purchasePointSome have the function of adding.Also recentlydisasterSometimes drinkGratisFunctions provided byAutomatic external defibrillator(AED) storage,無線 LANSome have added special features such as the access point function of.

Vending machines consumeelectricitySize,Light pollutionproblem,Minor Ofsmoking,DrinkingImpact ontheftWe have faced various problems such as problems, but measures have been taken to deal with the problems, and new models that have evolved have been repeatedly introduced.Even nowCashless paymentThe development and introduction of models corresponding to the above are gradually being carried out.

Corresponding coins and banknotes (in Japan)

The following coins and banknotes are supported by general vending machines located on the street corners of Japanese cities:

History

First vending machine

The world's first vending machine is a device for selling holy water installed in ancient Egyptian temples.[5].. This device had a structure in which, when 5 drachma coins were inserted, the stopper was opened by the weight of the coins and water came out from the faucet.[5].. This descriptive illustration isHeron of AlexandriaIn the book "Pneumatika" (the original is lost, but the 1587 manuscript is in the Italian National Library)[6]..However, it is not known whether it was Heron's own invention or a description of his teacher's invention, and the inventor of this device is unknown.[5].. Also, it is not clear how widely used the device is.[5].

United Kingdom

The oldest existing vending machine is1615 In a British cigarette vending machine,Japanese cuisine tavernAnd was installed in an inn[5]..It is a mechanism that the lid can be opened and the product can be taken out by inserting a half-pence coin from the coin slot at the top of the box, but after the lid is opened, it is necessary to close it manually, and the innkeeper or servant closes the lid. It wasn't practical because it was closed[6].

In the UK1857 To DenhamPoststampFirst time for a vending machinePatentWas granted[7].

America

The United States of AmericaThen.1884 Granted patent for Fluen's automatic withdrawal device[7].

1888 Thomas Adams developed a machine to sell his own gum and installed it at the station[6]..Also, the idea of ​​adding gameplay to promote sales to vending machines is1897 Small by Pulver Manufacturing CompanyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfbonusThe one with the attachment was installed.This idea spread as a new mechanism known as the trade stimulator,Slot machine,PinballWill lead to the birth of.

1925 Has developed a cigarette vending machine that can sell a wide variety of products at different prices, and it is generally said that this started the history of modern vending machines.[8].

Japan

In Japan, it is not a vending machine for goods, but in 1876 (Meiji9 years)Ueno Onshi ParkThere is a record that an automatic weight measuring device was installed in the newspaper reading center inside, but the manufacturer and installation period are unknown.[6].

As a vending machine for selling goods,1890 (Meiji 23), two patents were granted: a vending machine patent (filed in March 1888, patent No. 3) and a vending machine patent (filed in December 848, patent No. 1888). Patent[7][9].. Of these, Takachika Tawaraya made equipments upon request from the post office.Choshu clan(CurrentYamaguchi )ofShimonosekiAs a joiner, and exhibited at the 1890rd National Industrial Expo in 3.[9]..The vending machines in Tawaraya are already equipped with slag ejector (elimination of counterfeit coins) and coin return (return of coins when sold out) functions, which is a pioneer that was not found in Western equipment at that time. there were[10].. "Automated postage stamps," invented by Tawaraya in 1904 (Meiji 37)postcard"Selling machine" is the oldest existing vending machine in Japan,Communication MuseumThe name of Tawaraya is widely known as the first vending machine inventor in Japan because it is held in the exhibition and the above-mentioned cigarette vending machine was exhibited at the exhibition.

Meiji EraVarious vending machines were manufactured in Japan, but most of them were sporadic and experimental, and were not at a level that was generally established.[11].

1924 (TaishoIn 13) Koichiro Nakayama entered the bagConfectioneryProduced a vending machine of the type, which is considered to be Japan's first popular vending machine.[12].

1951 OfAsahi ShimbunThen, as an article by an American correspondent,The New York TimesThe cup-type soft drink vending machine that existed in the office of Japan is featured. It is reported that if you insert 25 cents silver coins, 5 4 cents bronze coins will come out as change, and that the cup will be set automatically and a fixed amount of soft drink will come out, and it is reported that it is dull at the same time. Can be seen that this type of vending machine did not exist or was uncommon[13].

ShowaIn the early 30's, vending machines moved from rare machines to full-scale commercialization.[14].

Vending machines rapidly spread in the 40s. As a factor,1967 (Showa 42)100 Yen-50 YenNew coins (White copperIs issued.[15].

In particular1967 ToNational railwayIn urban areas as part of streamliningShort distance ticketIt is said that the introduction of a vending machine for issuing tickets had a major impact.

The number of vending machines installed all over Japan is20st centuryThe inside continues to increase,2000 (HeiseiIn 12, it reached a peak of 560 million units.21st centuryAfter entering, it started to decrease,2007 At the end of (19)Japan Vending Machine Manufacturers AssociationAccording to a survey of 540 units, 5,300% of which are for beverage sales,2008 (20)OctoberAt the end, the trend continues with 526 million units[16].. Sales from vending machines also start at 2000 trillion yen in 72008 (20) decreased to 5 billion yen[16].. The ratio of buyers in Japan is 9: 1 for men[16]..The highest shipment value of industrial products for vending machines in Japan isMieIs[17]..The largest number of vending machines producedYokkaichi[Note 1]So, about 12 units are produced annually.

stationThen.KioskIn many cases, the kiosk is replaced with a vending machine in order to reduce the inconvenience of customers after the store is closed or to cut labor costs.Also in recent yearsSuicaVending machines dedicated to payment of electronic commerce for transportation such as these have also appeared.This contributes to lowering the maintenance cost of the machine by omitting the moving parts that handle money.[18].

Classification/Type

Vending machines can be roughly classified into goods vending machines and automatic service machines.[3].

Internationally, vending machines are mostly classified as vending machines for goods (847619), vending machines for beverages, other vending machines, and parts (the following are heating or refrigerating functions). It is only classified whether to self-collect).

Is classified very finely, and is classified as a vending machine (58) among vending machines and automatic service machines (581). Vending machines are roughly classified into goods vending machines (5811) and service information vending machines (5812), and further detailed classifications are provided below.

Vending machine for goods

Generally, various containers that have been chilled or warmed (can-bottle-PET bottles・Beverages containing paper packages/cups,Cup noodle,Sweet bread-Confectionery,tobacco,magazine-News (Chinese)Many of them are easy to save.Also, in special places, it is ground and extracted from beans each time.coffee,Frozen foodBuilt-in (fried rice balls, fried noodles, etc.)microwaveThere is also a vending machine that is warmed up and offered. As for noodles, there is a type in which boiled noodles are boiled and then served with soup. In the case of cup noodles, some are served with hot water and come with chopsticks.

Transportationticket,Limited express ticket,amusement park,Theme parkAdmission tickets, etc.prepaid cardSuch as those that sell products in the form of tickets,Automatic ticket vending machineAlso called.

In recent years, customers have adopted a method called "self-service" in which customers themselves place orders for oils and fats such as gasoline with a refueling machine and perform all operations up to refueling themselves.gas stationHas increased. Again, the refueling machine itself is a kind of vending machine.

The products handled by manual vending machines areChewing gum,チ ョ コ レ ー トSuch as sweetsNews (Chinese)And so on.

Newspaper vending machines (see the image above) are a method in which the case is unlocked when coins are inserted for the amount of money, the case is manually opened, and a part of the newspaper is grabbed and taken out from the bundle of newspapers.In order to display one side of the newspaper, only a part is placed so as to cover the transparent window of the case from the inside, and the last purchaser takes out the newspaper.After that, it becomes clear that the inside of the case is empty.There is no mechanism to prevent fraudulent activity of taking out multiple copies at once.Since it does not require electricity, it costs little to manage, and because the vending machines and product costs are low, it is not affected much by theft damage. It is one of.

Service information vending machine

In the Japanese standard merchandise classification, the vending machine (581) is classified into an article vending machine (5811) and a service information vending machine (5812), and the service information vending machine is a kind of vending machine. There is. Employment information vending machines and PC software vending machines are exemplified in the Japanese standard product classification. The international HS Code does not have such a detailed classification.

  • Employment information vending machine
  • PC software vending machines-onceSoft vendor TAKERU(Formerly "Takeru"). Blank the software downloaded or read from the built-in optical disc media.Disk media,Rom cassetteI wrote it on and sold it.

Automatic service machine

Like a vending machineTangible thingInstead of providing intangibleServicesEspecially the machines that provideAutomatic service machineCall[19]..The international HS code is in the category of "vending machines for goods (for example, for postage stamps, tobacco, food or beverages, including money changers)" (8476), such as money changers. Although it is not distinguished from the above, the vending machine (581) and the automatic service machine (582) are classified as different devices in the Japanese standard product classification.

Classification of automatic service machines according to Japanese standard product classification (numbers are product codes)

Fine classification and handling items in Japan

Basically,1990 (Heisei 2) Enter according to (partly added) revised in June. In the case of goods, it is divided into food type (food/beverage) and non-food type.

convenience storeAnd open 24 hourssupermarketThe number of items to sell has decreased compared to a year ago due to the increase in the number of stores. Currently, the most common vending machines in Japan areTicket-vending machineDrinks and ice cream that are in high demand, difficult to buy face-to-faceコ ン ド ー ム.

Unusual vending machine

  • The founder of the movieKinetoscopeThere was also a coin-operated one in Japan, but in Japan8 mm filmmoviesThere was a playground equipment and a vending machine for Glico.
  • い く つ か のCrepeSpecialty stores have installed vending machines.However, since it does not last for a long time, it must be replenished and discarded every morning, and it may not be sold on closed days of the parent store.
  • (I.e.The only canned beer in JapanCase sellingThere are vending machines.
  • People's Republic of ChinaNanjingIsShanghai crabThere are vending machines. You can buy live crabs for 1-10 yuan, which is cheaper than the market price. The inside is kept at 50-5℃ to keep the crab fresh, and when replenishing it is checked for dead crabs. Should a dead crab come out, provide 10 live crabs free of charge[21].
  • 2011 May 1ToKasumigaseki StationAn apple vending machine has appeared in.It is cut to a size that is easy to eat, and you can choose with or without skin[22].
  • Don QuixoteFor example, there is a store with a vending machine for discriminants that will engrave on the spot if you select a typeface.[23].
  • In the past, pachinko and pachislot stores used to have vending machines that used pachinko balls and medals to buy cigarettes and beverages instead of banknotes and coins, but the lending face value has changed since the spread of 1-yen pachinko machines. Due to the frequent use of pachinko balls and medals for purchase, they are rarely used at present except for some privately owned stores.

Declining vending machines

The types of vending machines that have not completely disappeared, but are rapidly disappearing, include the following.

  • Liquor vending machine ――Vending machines for alcoholic beverages are the same as cigarettesPurchase / drinking by minorsIn addition to causingDrunk drivingThe number of fatal accidents caused by社会 問題Due to the change, it is currently declining rapidly.You will also need it when purchasing from a cigarette vending machine.TaspoNo special card for liquor vending machines such as[24]..In addition, due to the balance with drunk driving, many of the devices used for adult identification in liquor vending machines are in the form of inserting a driver's license.[25]..Most of the places where they are installed are the storefronts of private liquor stores.
  • Large-capacity PET bottle handling vending machine ――Many of the vending machines for beverages used to be filled with large-capacity PET bottled beverages such as 1.5 liters and 2 liters and sold, but they are open 24 hours a day.Convenience store,SupermarketHas declined as the number of people has increased so much that it has become easier to buy affordable ones.Currently, there are only a few left in Shibuya, Tokyo.
  • Bottled beverage vending machine ――Before the spread of PET bottles, most of the beverages were in glass bottles, and when you insert coins and select a product, the door is unlocked and the automatic vending machine that takes out the bottled beverage from inside was the mainstream. ..Bottled beverages are sealed with a so-called "crown" lid, which needs to be opened with a bottle opener, so the bottle opener was fixed to the vending machine.Even now, private liquor storesMom-and-pop candy storeIt may be placed at the storefront of the store, but it is rare to see it because the stores are closing in recent years.At major retailersDon QuixoteIt may be installed in such places.
  • Battery vending machine ――Currently a convenience storeConsumer electronics store-Home center-100 Yen shopIt is sold in various places such as, and among them, it can be purchased at a low price at 100-yen shops, so it is not meaningful to purchase at a fixed price, so it has rapidly declined and is almost extinct, but some are still in operation. doing.
  • Adult magazine vending machine ――It used to be installed in the city, but it has been banned from being installed around the school and in the area of ​​the school road due to concerns about the impact on students and children, and it has been declining since then. Follow.Currently, it is almost extinct, and only a small amount remains along the roads and vacant lots in rural towns where there are no private houses or schools around.

Sales restrictions and installation restrictions

Some products have restrictions on vending machines. in Japan,tobacco,beerな どAlcoholic beverageFor vending machines of this type, there are restrictions on the sales time and the place of installation. In addition, the paper cup type beverage vending machine,Water supplyIt is directly connected to theHealth centerBusiness license (business of coffee shop) is required. The same applies to water vending machines installed in supermarkets in recent years. For milk and other dairy products, the business license from the public health center (dairy sales business) is still required.

Composition and structure

Constitution

In the "Dainippon Encyclopedia", the composition of the vending machine isMoney device,Pointing device(Control device),Storage/processing equipment,Vending equipmentIs described as consisting of[3].

  • Money device: A device that determines the authenticity of the inserted currency, sorts the denomination, counts the amount, and issues change as needed. Also known as the "heart of vending machines."It is explained that coins are checked for their diameter, thickness, weight, material, etc., and banknotes are comprehensively discriminated by combining external elements such as vertical and horizontal dimensions with portraits, patterns, watermarks, and colors of printing ink.In the case of a card, the card is collated and the amount is confirmed.[3].
  • Pointing device: When you select a product with the push button, the sales instruction is issued.[3].
  • Storage/processing equipment: Store products and process such as cooking as needed[3].
  • Vending equipment: Receives the sales instruction issued from the instruction device and sends the selected product to the "outlet".[3].

"20 Year History of Vending Machines" explains that the basic functions of vending machines (and the units that carry them) are mainly composed of the following:[26].

  • "Selector(Also called “acceptor” and “accepted coin”) and “Rejector"(Also called "counterfeiting"): Check the authenticity of the coins inserted and determine the type of currency.[26].
  • "changer: Sending the coefficient of input coins, sending of sales signals, discharging change, etc.[26].

Structure for delivering products to customers

There are many types depending on the item, and this is not the only vending machine.

A structure in which the product falls

Can and PET bottle beverage vending machines

There is a stock of products on the back side of the main body and product shelves.If you insert a coin and press the button, the electromagnetic coil inside will be energized and the product will be released.There are also vending machines that have a belt attached to the bottom to make it easier to take out products that have been dropped once.However, this belt type is a method that opposes the gravity of carrying an object that has fallen down once again, so there are no end to failures from the beginning of development.

Previously, it was necessary to adjust the machine side according to the product to be sold, but recently there is also a non-adjustment mechanism that automatically performs the adjustment. With this method, even if a product is mistakenly introduced, the product is delivered without being jammed, which helps to reduce breakdowns.

In addition, small PET bottle containers have appeared, and the material of the PET bottle itself has the negative effect of being easily clogged when it is put in.However, from the perspective of being able to cover and carry it, its demand is still growing rapidly.

Normally, in a vending machine located outdoors, the take-out port is pulled forward. This is a hygiene consideration to prevent ingress of rainwater.

Bottled beverage vending machine

There are vending machines similar to canned drinks. The mechanism is almost the same as the vending machine for canned drinks, but it has the drawback that it is easily clogged like a PET bottle. Unlike cans, the bottle does not slide sideways, but rather toward the buyer.

General-purpose vending machine

In the case of bread and confectionery vending machines, the front is a show window, and when you press the switch, the spiral rack on which the selected product is placed rotates and the product is dropped into the front outlet. There is.In other cases, the bucket goes to pick up and scrapes the goods on the conveyor into the bucket.These are highly versatile and are used in addition to breads and confectionery.A peculiar example is hospitalization.

Structure that pulls out products

Bottled beverage vending machine

Although rarely seen in recent years, some have a structure in which coins are inserted and the buyer pulls out the stocked bottle.By inserting money, the product that has reached the amount of money is unlocked and can be withdrawn.Prior to the widespread use of canned beverages, this type of beverage vending machine was the mainstream.The bottle opener is fixed to the front of the vending machine,crownIt is a mechanism that the crown comes off by hooking and lowering the bottle by the principle of leverage.In addition, the detached crown is automatically dropped into the crown holder.

Currently someDon QuijoteBesides, privately runLiquor store,Mom-and-pop candy storeTo some extent, it is rarely seen at stores such as.

In addition, a vending machine with a structure similar to that of the former bottled beverage vending machinehotelYou can see it in the refrigerator. In this case, the post-payment method is adopted. Basically, the stocker of stocked beverages has a switch, and by pulling it out, the switch works. The refrigerator has a communication function, which is detected by the computer of the accommodation facility and settled at checkout. In addition to bottled beverages, we sell a wide variety of beverages such as canned beverages according to the shape of the stocker.

A structure that opens the door and pulls out the product

It is used when selecting products that cannot be given a shock such as dropping, or when selecting various products, or when handling large products.

Items on a disk

In the structure, products are lined up on shelves on several discs, and the products are separated by a partition plate. About 1 to 6 products are lined up on one disk, and the products circulate by pressing the rotation button.When the desired product comes to the front, the rotation button is released, the door is opened, and the desired product is taken out.It is used to sell side dishes and snacks, and potted flowers at popular cafeterias, drive-ins, student cafeterias, and employee cafeterias.

Coin locker type

For unmanned sales stands for agricultural products, the front door is made of transparent resin.Coin lockerA cabinet like this is installed, and products (vegetables, fruits, chicken eggs, etc.) are put inside and "locked by paying the usage fee". I'm taking the method.However, it is not possible to check the freshness by picking up the product before payment.

Multifunctional

Point addition function

When you purchase the productPoint CardAndSmartphone appThere are vending machines that have the function of adding points such as ,.

etc.

Disaster / emergency response

In the event of a disasterCookingAs a kind of the above, the introduction of a free bend function that can provide drinks in vending machines free of charge has started. This is in the areadisasterA person who returns home on foot when the situation is based on an agreement between the local government and the installer (→People who have difficulty returning home) AndWater outageBy etc.Drinking waterIt meets the urgent needs of the local residents who have been cut off, and the internal beverage can be provided free of charge by switching the internal switch manually, remotely or automatically.[38].. InsideElectronic bulletin boardThere is also a type that has been installed, it is possible to change the message via the Internet line, so that information can be provided in the event of a disaster[38].. Regarding the method of offering products, unlike normal sales, the product is only released by pressing a button without throwing money, basically,power failureIn this case, since the vending machine itself does not operate, it is difficult to provide the beverage.

However, the products in the vending machine stopped due to such a power outage may be provided to the victims by the favor of the maintenance company and the store side.Nankai Electric RailwayIs 2007May 9Among the vending machines managed by the company,Namba CITYIn addition to installing 13 units with a free bend function, the company has announced its intention to provide a total of about 1 beverages, which are in stock at each shop as a product, in the event of a disaster.[39]..Also, as a free bend compatible model for installation in facilities other than facilities with private power generation equipment,batteryThere are also vending machines that have an internal power supply, and when the external power supply is cut off, the cooling and heat retention of beverages that consume a lot of electricity and the display lighting are stopped, and only the beverage serving function is operated.[40].

Since January 2005, a sticker with the address of the installation location has been affixed to beverage vending machines.This does not necessarily know where the caller is in an emergency, so the purpose is to convey the current location.National Firefighting CommissionStarted by asking the vending machine industry to "display the address of the vending machine"[41][42].

Automatic external defibrillator

Automatic external defibrillatorThe number of vending machines equipped with (AED) is increasing.

Wireless LAN access point

Public wireless LAN access pointThe number of vending machines equipped with is increasing.Aichi Expo[43]Has been tested in and is named Free Mobile.Asahi BeverageWe are recommending the installation of a wireless router in the vending machine.

surveillance camera

TokyoAdachi-kuThen,surveillance cameraBeverage vending machine is built in to shoot the streets.Kirin Beverage Metropolitan Police DepartmentNishiarai Police StationOperates in cooperation with[44].

Problems and countermeasures

Standby power

Beverage vending machines consume a large amount of power and require as much power as a single household.Energy ConservationSince there is a problem from the perspective of, energy efficiency improvements are being continued.

On top of the casesolar panelSet up during the daySolar powerThere is also a vending machine that supplies electricity for night lighting.

Landscape problem

Light pollutionProblems andLandscapeThe negative impact on In the vending machine for a specific product, the design tends to be elaborate in terms of color and form because it also serves as an advertisement of the product, but this design may spoil the landscape. For this reason, there are vending machines that take the landscape into consideration, and in some cases they are designed to be inconspicuous when installed.

Passage obstacle

The vending machine may be installed outside the private land on a road that is a public land, which may obstruct traffic. In response to this, installers have responded to this and device manufacturers have also developed and introduced thin vending machines.

Garbage problem

Beverage vending machines have a problem that empty cans are scattered around.It is very important to improve the morale of users as well as install and manage the collection of empty cans.

Tobacco/liquor sales

Sales by vending machines for tobacco are regulated in almost all countries except Japan and Germany.In addition, there are few examples in the world where sake is sold at vending machines, and it can only be seen in Japan.[45].

In Japan, cigarettes,beerな どAlcoholic beverageThere are restrictions on the sales time and installation location of various types of vending machines. Tobacco and alcoholic beverage vending machinesNational Tax AgencyAuthorization and license are required,Adult identification vending machineFor vending machines other thanvoluntary restraintsIt has been on sale from 23:5 to XNUMX:XNUMX the next morning, and at the level of municipalities and prefectures.MunicipalitiesThe regulations often place restrictions on the installation location and sales time.

アルコール飲料の自動販売機の場合、成人識別自動販売機以外の自販機については、深夜から翌朝の間の販売停止については罰則がある。タバコの自動販売機は2008年7月以降、全部成人識別自動販売機となったことで、1996年4月1日より行っていた屋外設置のたばこ自動販売機の深夜(午後11時から午前5時まで)稼働自主規制について、2008年8月1日から解除された[46]..When the sale was stopped, all the push buttons were lit with "".

Proposal was made to prohibit the installation of cigarette vending machines[47].. To address these issues, JapanWHOCigarette vending machines have been criticized by name since 2008CorporationJapan Tobacco Association(TIOJ) and otherstaspobyAdult identification vending machineThe introduction of. However, there is also the possibility of borrowing or lending the card or using it without permission. The effect of the card has been questioned because the number of guidances decreased and increased in Tanegashima, which was introduced experimentally.

For cigarette vending machines,Local tax lawAbove is from the installerJapanese tobacco industryAnd its affiliates receive orders and the location of the installer (whether a store or vending machine)MunicipalitiesAgainstMunicipal tobacco taxIs to be paid. about this,OsakaIzumisanoSome local governments,CompanyAttractionOrdinanceBased on the above, a vending machine installer operated a large amount of cigarettes sold in another municipality as if ordered from a cigarette vending machine installed in the administrative area, and obtained a large amount of tax revenue. Is known.It has also been found that the municipality in question is paying incentives to vendors in return.Under the Local Tax Law, there are no penalties for this kind of document manipulation,Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsSays, "It deviates from the purpose of the local tax law," and wants to conduct a fact-finding survey.[48][49].

Theft problem

When vending machines became popular, we targeted themtheftAlso appeared. Psychological barriers to theft of vending machines are low because the victim cannot see the victim's face. Theft is divided into intelligent theft that causes the machine to misidentify and violent theft that destroys the machine.

1990 eraIn the first half, the high frequency of the self-defense stun gun was abused, and the coin sorting device inside the vending machine malfunctioned to steal coins.Currently, countermeasures are being taken and it is impossible.In addition, various attack methods such as inserting detergent from the coin slot to damage the internal circuit have been attempted.

In addition, South Korea500ウ ォ ンFalsified coins500 Yen coinAbuse as事件One after another, 500 yen coinsForced to recast.. A 500 won coin, which was about one-tenth the value of a 10 yen coin at the time (issue date:1982 May 6) Is a 500 yen coin (issue date: 1982May 4), The weight was only about 0.5g, and the mixing ratio and outer diameter of the material metal were the same.Therefore, if the weight was adjusted by making a hole or scraping off the surface so that it would not penetrate, the vending machine mistakenly recognized it as 500 yen.In the case of banknotes, if you can insert banknotes to reduce crimeBill validatorIs installed.

For mechanical destruction, physical measures such as installing a sturdy key and door may be taken. This is only a time consuming task until it is completely destroyed, and in the meantime, the expectation is that the crime will be detected or the crime will be abandoned. In addition, at presentMobile phone-PHS-無線 LANThere is also one that has the function of managing inventory information and making an emergency call for the destruction of machines using. To prevent such criminal activity, vending machines are usually installed in places where people can see. Exceptionally, outdoor installations are widespread in Japan, which is one of the characteristics of Japan's landscape.

2000 eraEnter cash (bill-coin) AndCredit card,Cash cardSuch asForgerySince the number of bills has increased, the ability of the discriminator (banknote sensor, coin sensor) has been strengthened.

From around the 2000s, some electronic prepaid cards, and vending machines (also from around the 2010s) that only accept cashless payments on mobile phones have been installed. These also have the side effect of making it harder for thieves to get targeted by not putting money inside the vending machine. However, the cashless payment method itself is still in a hurry to spread, and at the present time, it has a demerit to drop customers who have only small change.

On the other hand,2010 From around the end of the generation, theft of new tricks to steal change by giving a shock to the machine and causing the equipment to malfunction has become one after another.[50].

Supporting various payments and cashless

(Although it also serves as a countermeasure against theft for cash) Since the 2010s, as a payment method other than cash and credit cardsMobile phone,FeliCaPayment method usingCmodeAndEdy-SuicaElectronic money, such asiD,PiTaPaSuch asPost payThere is also a vending machine that pays at. Especiallyliqueur,tobaccoVending machines with age verificationElectronic moneyThe exclusive use also has the effect of preventing sales to children under the age of 20.

In China in the latter half of the 2010s, vending machines (not only manned sales)CashlessThe number of vending machines that do not accept cash has increased.

Other

In addition to the above crimes, there have also been murder cases in the past in which bottled beverages in which the contents of sold products were replaced with poisonous substances were taken out and left in the mouth.

Main manufacturer

  • Fuji Electric ――Originally, the subsidiary Fuji Electric Retail Systems (formerly Fuji Electric Cold Machinery) was in charge, but it was absorbed and merged and became directly managed.Sanyo ElectricThe vending machine division (formerly Sanyo Electric Vending Machinery) was also acquired and made a subsidiary (Fukiage Fuji Vending Machinery), and then integrated into the former Retail Systems.In addition, the business withdrew at the end of 2017KubotaAfter-sales service and succession of overseas manufacturing subsidiary[51].. No. 1 in the industry.
  • Sanden -Acquired the cup machine business of former Toshiba equipment. Independent.
  • Panasonic Industrial Equipment Systems - Panasonicsubsidiary.The organization is under the umbrella of Panasonic Appliances Company. Withdrew from manufacturing in December 2020.
  • -Former vending machine department of Shibaura Works,Shibaura MechatronicsSubsidiary of. Also of Toshiba seriesToshiba equipmentIs disbanded.
  • Glory -Old Glory Industry. Merged with sales subsidiary Glory Trading Co., Ltd. and renamed it.
  • NEC Magnus Communications - Former Toyo Communication EquipmentOf the vending machine departmentNets S eye ToyoAbsorbed and merged.NEC Group(NEC Nets SIIsubsidiary).
  • Fujitaka --Commonly known as Fujitaka Corporation, formerly Fujitaka.2010 In March, the company name of the Kansai area service company "Kansai Fujitaka Service Co., Ltd." was changed to "Fujitaka Co., Ltd.", and in April of the same year, all the former Fujitaka businesses and service subsidiaries nationwide were consolidated into "Fujitaka".[52]..Restart as a new corporation.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ No. 1 in Japan for beverage vending machinesFuji ElectricThere is a Mie factory, which is the manufacturing base of (vending machines and other various electric appliances for foods).
  2. ^ recent years[When?] TheDriver's licenseIt is equipped with a function that requires proof that you are over 20 years old, such as by holding down.

Source

  1. ^ Kurosaki (2012), p. 1.
  2. ^ Design classification definition card (J5) Patent Office
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Shogakukan "Venue of Vending Machine", "Encyclopedia of Japan". Written by Sado Victory.
  4. ^ Manual vending machine DF-8 (PDF) Daito Corporation
  5. ^ a b c d e 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 20.
  6. ^ a b c d Yoshihiro Higuchi. “Technology systematization survey report "Beverage vending machine technology development systematization survey"”. Industrial Technology History Information Center. 2021/1/28Browse.
  7. ^ a b c 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 19.
  8. ^ 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 26.
  9. ^ a b Manufacturing that will be passed on to the next generation Part 2 – Creativity that created “automatic” Yamazaki Mazak, viewed May 2017, 5
  10. ^ 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 21.
  11. ^ 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 22.
  12. ^ 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 23.
  13. ^ "America, this is the story of robot vending machines. The dullness of coin change civilization." "Asahi Shimbun" October 26, 10, 21rd page
  14. ^ 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 5.
  15. ^ 2 National Life White Paper A rich society friendly to people Part II Technology and Life
  16. ^ a b c I can't sell even 100 yen anymore... Is there a way out for the vending machine depression? 1 / 2 Business Media Makoto 2009/11/19
  17. ^ Kanagi (2014), p. 150.
  18. ^ Cheap cash vending machine "Cash Refusal" JR Higashi is slumping Nihon Keizai Shimbun January 2015, 8
  19. ^ "Japanese standard product classification (PDF)”. Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau (June 1990). 2013/9/16Browse.
  20. ^ Available on iPod and vending machines -ITmedia News, October 2005, 10
  21. ^ Narinari dot com. "The world is paying attention to the “Shanghai Crab Vending Machine”, and the Japanese news video introduced is also a hot topic.". 2010/10/26Browse.
  22. ^ FNN News: Japan's First Cut Apple Vending Machine Appears at Kasumigaseki Station in Tokyo
  23. ^ An authentic stamp with a vending machine Every day jp Retrieved September 2013, 9.
  24. ^ Some liquor vending machines are equipped with a function that allows adults to be identified by Taspo.
  25. ^ Some models have a function to record in detail when, where, who bought what liquor.
  26. ^ a b c 20 Year History of Vending Machines (1983), p. 127.
  27. ^ About the transition of "CLUB DYDO" points to "DyDo Smile STAND"(2017.1.31 Dy Drinco)
  28. ^ CLUB DYDO | DyDo DRINCO
  29. ^ Deploying "T point vending machines" that collect "T points"(2011.11.28 Kirin Beverage
  30. ^ You can also earn Suica points at Matinaka's Suica beverage vending machines!(2012.9.24 JR East Water Business PR TIMES)
  31. ^ [https://prtimes.jp/main/html/rd/p/000000001.000011877.html You can get a gift with the points you have accumulated! "World's First" Smartphone App and Beverage Vending Machine Collaboration "TenTen Point" Campaign Starts Only in Osaka from Saturday, November 11th] (15 [1]/PR TIMES)
  32. ^ With a vending machine that connects you, "I look forward to tomorrow every day." DyDo introduces a new service, "Smile STAND"!(2016.3.30 Dy Drinco)
  33. ^ [Announcement of new digital marketing platform "Coke ON"] (2016.4.7 Japan Coca-Cola)
  34. ^ First in the industry!Developed "Suntory GREEN +", a point service that links vending machines and smartphones to support corporate "health management"(2016.7.26 Suntory Beverage International)
  35. ^ Beverage vending machine in Meitetsu Nagoya Station ★ Start of granting Mustar points ★(2016.9.1 Meitetsu industry)
  36. ^ A new vending machine service "Tappiness" utilizing "LINE" will be launched in the spring of 17!(2017.1.19,LINE Corporation
  37. ^ WAON point service started at beverage vending machines "XNUMX point present for each bottle" (2017.9.1 AEON Delight)
  38. ^ a b When switching to a "disaster response" vending machine Excite News 2008/10/21
  39. ^ Nankai Electric Railway/Disaster Prevention Day Press Release (PDF)
  40. ^ Fuji Electric Retail Systems Press Release (PDF)
  41. ^ Japan Vending System Manufacturers Association "Safety Measures"
  42. ^ Address display sticker on the vending machine.How did you go about it?When has it been posted again?
  43. ^ What happens when a vending machine becomes a wireless LAN spot? ITmedia Lifestyle 2004/05/31
  44. ^ [Scope] Looking at a vending machine / For crime suppression in Adachi Ward Built-in camera Clear facial expression even at midnight"Nihon Keizai Shimbun" evening edition December 2018, 8 (social aspect) September 27, 2018 reading.
  45. ^ Maloney, Maggie (October 2019, 10). “Moet & Chandon vending machines are now available in NY!”(Japanese). Harper's BAZAAR. 2021/1/24Browse.
  46. ^ About "Release of Tobacco Vending Machines Installed Outdoors at Night", National Federation of Tobacco Sales Cooperatives
  47. ^ Achieving a tobacco-free society (PDF) Science Council of Japan March 2008, 3
  48. ^ Izumisano City, Osaka One cigarette vending machine with tax revenue of 1 billion yen. Sankei Shimbun March 2009, 11
  49. ^ Cigarette tax revenue, 1 billion yen for one vending machine Asahi Shimbun November 2009, 11
  50. ^ [Original] Vending machine trolls, new tricks... XNUMX cities, malfunctions due to shock Steal change Yomiuri Shimbun May 2019, 12
  51. ^ Notice Regarding Withdrawal from Vending Machine Business(Kubota Co., Ltd. September 2017, 9, browsed September 12, 2017)
  52. ^ From the press release on the company website in April 2010

References

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