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🍴 | I can eat happiness ...!Kentucky's "230 Yen Sweets" The mouth is heaven.


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You can eat happiness ...!Kentucky's "230 Yen Sweets" The mouth is heaven.

 
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The dough mixed with sweet potato paste and dice is characterized by its rich sweetness and moist texture, and has a rich flavor.
 

Kentucky's new sweets are amazing!That is this "sweet potato pie".The price is 1 yen per piece ... → Continue reading

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Sweet taste

sweet potato

Characters contained in this item"Satsu'It is,operating system,ブ ラ ウ ザThe display varies depending on the environment such as.

sweet potato(sweet potato[3],scientific name: Ipomoea batatas) IsBindweedSweet potato OfPerennialplant.. Or its edible portiontuberous root(Enlarged roots that store nutrients,potato).By another nameSweet potatoIt is also called Kansho or Karaimo.Originally from Central and South America, it has spread to Europe, China, Japan, etc. and is cultivated in various places.Edible bulbs are rich in starch and vitamins and are also used as raw materials for shochu and feed.It also has a lot of dietary fiber and is useful for improving constipation.

Name

Japanese namesweet potatoIt is,Ryukyu Kingdom(CurrentOkinawa)Satsuma country(CurrentKagoshima), And it comes from the fact that it was often cultivated there.[4][5]..Sweet potatoes are "Satsuma DomainMeans "potatoes that have spread all over the country"[6].. As an aliasSweet potatoThere is (sweet potato)[3], Chinese plant name is also sweet potato[7]..Sweet potato means "sweet potato"[6].

EnglishThen. Sweet potato(Sweet potato)[3],FrenchThen potate douce[8],ItalianThen, it is called patata dolce, and both have the meaning of "sweet potato".Also expressed in Italian as potata americane (American potato)[8], There is also another name for "American potato" in Japanese name[1]..In some English-speaking countries, sweet potatoes "sweet potatoToYamIs called by another name such as "(Yam)"[9][Annotation 1].YamWas raisedAfrican descentslaveBut,The United States of AmericaThe water-like "soft sweet potato varieties" made in Japan was called "Yam" because it resembled yam. In the United States and elsewhere, the original yam is only placed at imported food stores, so if it says yam, it means "soft" sweet potato unless there is a "note on the label".[10][11].

The name has changed from region to region and historically. For example, in mainland Japan, “karaimo” and “ryukyu yam”,Noguni Sokan Okinawa main islandAt the time of its introduction, it was called "Bansho, Hanusu, Hansu, Hantsu".It is also called "Ton" or "Umu (pronounced Imono Ryukyu)".Karaimo includes the meaning of "potato from China"[6]..China(), Especially in Kyushu, it is often called "Karaimo".[12].

Features

Vine cultivated in various placesPerennial[7]..It is resistant to high temperatures and dryness, and is durable enough to grow well even in thin areas.VegetablesSo, make potatoes (tuberous roots) edible[13].flower ThepinkIn colorMorning glorySimilar to but insensitiveShort-day natureBecauseJapan OfHonshuな どTemperateIt is difficult to bloom in the area,VarietyIt rarely blooms depending on the cultivation conditions. Also, the number of flowers is smallPollinationIn addition to being difficult to do, they often die in the cold after pollination,Breed improvementThen.seedFor several kinds of closely related plants such as morning glory in order to efficiently harvestGraftingAnd the nutrients sent from the rootstockPlant hormoneTechnology that promotes flowering is used by such functions.

1955 (Showa30 years)Nishiyama City San メキシコHit an ancestor withDiploidFind the wild species of Ipomere trifida (Ipomoea trifida).Later by other scholarsLatin AmericaWas the origin. youngleafStemThere is also a dedicated variety that usesStaple food,VegetablesIs edible as.

The color of the potato skin is red or magenta, as well as yellow or white.[3]..The contents of potatoes are mainly white to yellow, and some varieties turn orange or purple.[3]..Especially sweet potatoes with purple potatoesPurple sweet potatoI call it (Murasakiimo).

History

The place of origin isCentral america OfメキシコFrom the centerEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe theory that it goes to[3][6]..It is believed to have been cultivated in the Mexican region since before 3000 BC.[6].. After thatSouth America OfペルーIt is thought that it became an important crop because the leaves and flowers of sweet potatoes, earthenware with roots and cotton cloth were discovered in the ruins of ancient Peru.[6].

At the end of the 15th centuryChristopher ColumbusDiscovered the New World,スペイン OfQueen IsabelIt spread from the Americas to Europe as a result of the donation to[3][6]..However, since it was originally a tropical crop, in EuropepotatoDid not spread like[6].The United KingdomThen.ElizabethanAt that time, it was well received for its sweetness.EnglishmanCalled the potato patate from the word batata, which means tuber in Peru.18st centuryAs unsweetened potatoes became more common at the end, sweet potatoes came to be called sweet potatoes.[14].

Age of DiscoveryIn 1498, ColumbusベネズエラSince visiting1519 ToPortugal OfFerdinand Magellan スペインLead the fleet at the southern endMagellan StraitDiscovered.16st centuryFrequently came to South AmericaSpanishOrPortugueseBySoutheast AsiaWas introduced in.Luzon(フィリピンFrom)ChugokuThrough17st centuryAround the beginning ofRyukyu,KyusyuWas transmitted to.AsiaInOutpatientIt is a plant.

New ZealandTo10st centuryIt was spread around this time and is widely consumed under the name "kumara".WesternersBefore the arrival ofPolynesiaSince it was widely cultivated in the region, it was ancientPolynesianWas suspected to have been sailing to South America.

To JapanChugokuからMiyakojimaThere is a theory that it was the first time to go to, but it is a different system from the beginning of the 17th century.RyukyuBrought toSatsumaIt was transmitted to Kyushu and cultivated in the southern part of Kyushu as "Satsuma potato", which spread and became established all over the country.[3][6]..Since no one died of starvation in Kagoshima during the great famine in western Japan, the harvest can be expected even in the year of bad harvest.Rescue cropWill be emphasized as[6][15]..The 8th Shogun of the Edo Shogunate, who was enthusiastic about famine countermeasuresTokugawa YoshimuneBy the life of 1735,Dutch scholar OfAoki KunyoFrom SatsumaEdoI ordered seed potatoes from Koishikawa Goyakuen (currently:Koishikawa Botanical Garden), Etc., and the cultivation of sweet potatoes spread throughout eastern Japan.[6][15].. 20th centurySecond World War(Pacific War) During the period, sweet potato cultivation was greatly encouraged due to serious food shortages under military control.[6].

Cultivation

Cultivation method

Sweet potatoBreedingHigh abilityNitrogen-fixing bacteria(Klebsiella Oxytoca (Klebsiella oxytoca), Pantoea Agromelans (Pantoea agglomerans) )Such[16][17] WithSymbiosisByNitrogen fixationBecause it can be done, it grows even on thin land.In fertile lands with a lot of organic matterVineIt may become a "vine" where the bulbs grow and the leaves grow thick and the bulbs do not get fat.[15]..Therefore, use very little fertilizer to prevent "vine blur" due to excess nitrogen.[15].Continuous cropping disorderIs less, but try to leave 1-2 years in the same field[13]..The soil acidity suitable for cultivation is pH 5.0 --6.0, optimum temperature for growth is 25-30 ° C, optimum temperature for germination is 20-30 ° C.[13].

Instead of planting seed potatoes, sweet potatoes are planted by sprouting from the seed potatoes, raising seedlings, cutting vines (stems: cuttings) with 7-8 leaves, and inserting them into the soil.[Annotation 2], Get out of the sapling sectionAdventitious rootGenerate[15]..After that, the adventitious roots grow sufficiently and become potatoes.[18],this収穫The method of doing is common.There is also a way to germinate from seeds,Morning glorySince the vines are stretched and grown like this, potatoes cannot be removed very much.FarmerThen, the seed potatoes harvested the previous year are laid down on a hotbed, and the vines that grow from the seed potatoes are cut out to make seedlings.[15].Kitchen gardenIn spring ifGardeningShops andHome centerIt is easy to buy vines and grow them at such places.

Grow in high ridges about 30 cm high to prefer a well-drained and well-ventilated environment[13]..The ridges raise the temperature in the ground and for weedingmulchingSometimes do[18].Spring:, Open the seedlings horizontally or diagonally in a high-ridged field and plant them in 30-40 cm increments.[19]..Topdressing after planting is generally unnecessary[18]..When the vines grow in all directions, they also take root in the surrounding soil, so to prevent the potatoes from sticking from the rooted parts in all directions, and then to suppress the vegetative growth and enrich the potatoes, hold the vines and pull the roots. Peel it off and place it inside out.[19].late summerからFall:Cut the vines on the ground, dig and loosen the surrounding soil so as not to damage the potatoes, grab the root of the plant and pull it out to harvest.[18]..Be sure to finish the harvest before the frost, as the sweet potatoes will rot and become less storable when exposed to frost.[20].

fertilizerIf the leaves and stems grow too much by giving too much (especially nitrogen fertilizer), the root quality (appearance and taste) deteriorates due to overgrowth. Also, in extreme casesphotosynthesisThe nutrients produced in the potatoes are wasted on the growth of stems and leaves, which reduces the yield of potatoes.Sweet potatoes grow on lean lands, so in the case of the fields where the vegetables were grown in the previous crop, there is no need to fertilize them at all.[21]..Seedlings are plantsウ イ ル スWhen infected withVirus freeSometimes seedlings are used[22][23].

The following is a description of special cultivation methods.

  • (I.e.Since the survival rate of vine seedlings is poor in the ground, seed potatoes may be directly planted (direct sowing) in the field like potatoes, either directly or by dividing the seed potatoes into appropriate sizes.Technology development of agricultural machinery for direct sowing of seed potatoes is being carried out with the aim of saving labor in cultivation.[24].
  • For the purpose of obtaining many seedlings from a very small amount of seed potatoes such as rare varieties, there is also a method of cutting the seed potatoes into round slices and causing adventitious shoots to emerge from the cut surface.[Source required].
  • Some of the lines that are likely to flower are grown from seeds (intrinsic seeds).HeredityAlthough there are large variations, it is easier to maintain and manage seedlings than seed potatoes, so it can be cultivated in a poor environment.Rescue cropIt is expected as.

Diseases and pests

Although pests and pests do not occur much[21], If it occurs, there are the following.

sick
pest

All over Okinawa,Amami archipelago,Tokara Islands,Ogasawara IslandsThen the weevil[27], Sweet Mono Monoga[28] Although the damage caused by the disease has become a problem, measures to prevent eradication have been taken by the method of releasing infertile insects.[29].

Variety

It is said that there are 4000 varieties in the world, but only about 40 varieties are cultivated in Japan.[8]..Beni Azuma, Beni Komachi,Red and red(Beniaka), Anno Beni, Anna Kogane, Beni Haruka, Silk Suite,Money timeSuch asVarietyThere is.Among them, Beni Azuma is the mainstream in the Kanto region, and Kokei No. 14 is the mainstream in the Kansai and Kyushu regions.[8].StarchFor raw materials, Shiroyutaka, Shirosatsuma,Koganesengan(Golden Sennuki) and so on.Natural coloringFor varieties that are also used as raw materials for[30], Seven fortune ginseng (Carotene pigmentIs extracted. ), Ryukyu purple (Anthocyanin pigmentIs extracted. ), Purple sweet road (extracts anthocyanin pigment).

  • (Benizuma) --A popular variety in eastern Japan.The outer skin of the potato is deep magenta and the inside is dark yellow.There are few fibers and the sweetness is strong.Characterized by a powdery and chewy texture[3]..Suitable for home cooking in general, as well as ingredients for roasted sweet potatoes and sweets[6].
  • (Koukei 14 Go) --A popular variety in western Japan.The outer skin of the potato is reddish brown, and the inside is pale yellow.The sugar content is about 8% and the sweetness is strong, and it is a little sticky.It is ideal for roasted sweet potatoes, and is shipped and distributed under unique brand names such as "Naruto Kintoki," "Tosa Beni," and "Chiba Beni" at each production area.[6].
    • Naruto Kintoki(Naruto Toki) --A variety of Naruto, Tokushima Prefecture, which is popular in western Japan.It has a strong sweetness and a chewy texture.Suitable for tempura, university potatoes, and confectionery ingredients[31].
    • Beni Haruka(Haruka Beni) --The same high-grade No. 14 variety as Naruto Kintoki.It has a strong sweetness and a lot of water, and it is delicious when steamed or dried.[31].
    • At the time of Sakaide withdrawal(When you can't do it) --High system No. 14 systemKagawaVariety.It has a powdery, chewy texture, moderate sweetness, and is suitable for cooking and confectionery.[31].
    • Gorojima Kintoki(Gorojima Kintoki) --High system No. 14 systemIshikawaKanazawaVarieties cultivated in the dunes of Gorojima[15]..A traditional variety that is said to have been cultivated by bringing back seed potatoes from Kagoshima to Kaga during the Genroku period of the Edo period.It has a powdery and chewy texture[31].
  • Red and red(Benika) --Once a typical variety in the Kanto region, it is characterized by its bright reddish-purple skin and elongated skin.There are many fibers that are too thin.When heated, the inside turns dark yellow and has a strong sweetness, making it popular for roasted sweet potatoes and kuri kinton.[32].
  • Beni Satsuma(Beni Satsuma) --The most cultivated fruits and vegetables in Kagoshima prefecture, potatoes for processing.The skin is dark red and the inside is yellowish white.From the end of May every year, it will be shipped as the earliest "new potato" in Japan.It has a chewy texture and sweetness, and is suitable for roasted sweet potatoes, sweet potatoes, tempura, etc.[32].
  • Osumi sweet(Osumi Amaimo) --A small, dark-colored variety from Kagoshima prefecture.It has a sticky texture when heated and has a strong sweetness.[31].
  • Ayakomachi ――The inside is a dark potato that is close to orange and contains a lot of carotene.Suitable for roasted sweet potatoes, steamed sweet potatoes, and salads[31].
  • Izumi potato --A potato with a whitish outer skin and a dark yellow inside.It has a strong sweetness, a rich and sticky texture, and is popular as dried potatoes from Ibaraki prefecture.[31].
  • Silk suite --Registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, registered name HE306.The outer skin is reddish brown and the inside is pale yellow.Has a silky smooth texture and strong sweetness[13].
  • (Hayatoimo) --A native species of Kagoshima prefecture, also known as "carrot potato" and "pumpkin potato".The outer skin is light brown-orange, and when heated, the contents turn orange like carrots.It has a high carotene content and is very sweet and soft.In addition to making steamed sweet potatoes and roasted sweet potatoes, it is also used as a raw material for shochu.[31][32].
  • Beni Hayato(Beniyato) --The skin is purplish red, and the inside is orange with a high content of carotene.Because it is soft and has few fibers, it is used for university potatoes, sweets, sherbet, etc.[32].
  • (Tanegashima Murasaki) --A native species of Tanegashima, often found in Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures.Purple sweet potatoA kind of.The outer skin is white and the inside is bright purple.It has a chewy texture, strong sweetness, and contains a lot of starch.In addition to roasted sweet potatoes and steamed sweet potatoes, it is also suitable for confectionery processing, and it is also processed into taro with an elegant sweetness peculiar to purple sweet potatoes.[31][33].
    • Tanegashima Gold(Tanegashima Gold) --A variety that was cultivated by selecting varieties from "Tanegashima Purple" in 1999. It has a white skin and a bright purple color with variegation inside.It has a sweet taste among purple sweet potatoes, and is suitable for roasted sweet potatoes, sweet potatoes, tempura, and is also used as a material for Japanese and Western confectionery.[33].
    • Tanegashima romance(Tanegashima Roman) --A variety that was cultivated by selecting varieties from "Tanegashima Purple" in 1999. The skin is purplish red and the inside is pale purple.Good appearance, suitable for puffy potatoes and tempura[33].
  • Anno(Annoimo) --A native species from Tanegashima, Kagoshima Prefecture.It has a strong sweetness and a sticky texture when baked, and is also called "honey potato".In addition to dried sweet potatoes and roasted sweet potatoes, it is also used as a raw material for desserts.[31].
    • Beni Anno(Annoubeni) --The variety was selected from "Annoimo" in 2000, and it is superior to the native variety.The skin is reddish brown and the inside is pale yellow.High viscosity and strong sweetness.Steamed sweet potatoes and roasted sweet potatoes are delicious[32].
  • Golden Sennuki(Koganesengan) --A variety that has a yellowish white rind and contents, was originally cultivated as a raw material for starch, and is mainly used as a raw material for potato shochu.It has a chewy texture and a light sweetness, and is also suitable for tempura, roasted sweet potatoes, and fried sweet potatoes.[31][32].
  • Chestnut kogane(Kurikogane) --The skin is light tan and the inside is yellowish white.Popular in Kyushu, it has a chewy texture and a strong sweetness.Used in various ways of eating, including tempura and roasted sweet potatoes[32].
  • Koganemurasaki ――A variety of purple potatoes that have been cultivated in Tanegashima for a long time and have a good taste.The number of production is small and it is prized as "phantom sweet potato".The skin is grayish white and the inside is light purple.When heated, it turns deep purple.The meat is dense and has an elegant sweetness like Japanese sweets.Suitable for tempura, sweet potato, and roasted sweet potato[33].
  • Yamakawa purple(Yamakawa Murasaki) --A variety introduced from overseas and cultivated in the Yamakawa region of Kagoshima prefecture.The skin is red and the inside is dark purple.Instead of being unsuitable for fruits and vegetables due to its low sugar content, it is used as a coloring agent for ice cream and potato candy by taking advantage of its deep purple color.[33].
  • --A variety grown as purple potatoes for fruits and vegetables with a reddish purple or dark purple outer skin and a deep purple content.It has a chewy texture and moderate sweetness, and is widely used in cooking, sweets, and other uses, in addition to roasted sweet potatoes and sweet potatoes.[31][33].
  • Eimurasaki - Kagoshima prefectureEimachiIt is a native species produced in Japan, and has a deep purple color with a red outer skin and a slightly marbling inside.With a refreshing sweetness, it is used as a raw material for confectionery, as well as steamed potatoes and tempura.[33].
  • Red potato(Beniimo) --Okinawa's specialty purple potato.The meat is fine and has a moderate sweetness, and is processed into sweets and soft serve ice cream in addition to sweet potatoes and roasted sweet potatoes.[33].
  • Tamayutaka(Tamatoyo) --- "Kansho Norin No. 22" is a variety for dried potatoes, starch raw materials, and feed. The potatoes are short-spindle-shaped, and the outer skin is yellowish white and the contents are white.Freshly dug has less sweetness, but it can be sweetened by processing it into dried potatoes.[13].
  • velvet --A variety cultivated in Kagoshima, which was introduced from the United States to Japan in the Taisho era.The skin is crimson, the contents are orange, and the surroundings are purple.Sticky, made into tempura and dried potatoes[32].
  • Simon potato --White sweet potato native to South America (English:Ipomoea batatas) Is also called "Simon potato" in Japan.

Production area

世界

Top 2019 countries for sweet potato production in 10
CountryProduction volume (t)share
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku51,793,91656.4%
Malawi flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu5,908,9896.4%
Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu4,145,4884.5%
Tanzania flag Tanzania3,921,5904.3%
Uganda flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1,949,4762.1%
Indonesian flag Indonesia1,806,3392.0%
Ethiopian flag エチオピア1,755,8551.9%
Angola flag アンゴラ1,680,1461.8%
United States flag The United States of America1,450,2501.6%
 Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1,402,3501.5%
World total91,820,929

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) announcedstatisticsAccording to the material2019 (ReiwaWorldwide production (first year) is 9182 millionTAnd in the potatoes that are the staple foodpotato(3 million tons)CassavaThis is second only to (3 million tons). The production area isPeople's Republic of ChinaAre extremely concentrated inAlcoholic beveragesFor processing to.However, in the People's Republic of China, cropping is progressing, and the acreage and production volume are declining. Until 2005, the production volume exceeded 1 million tons, but since 2012 it has fallen below 6000 million tons.As a result, global production is also on a downward trend, with yields of 2005 to 1 million tons until 2000, but about 1 million tons in 5000. It has continued to decrease since it was recorded, and has remained at around 2006 million tons in recent years.Japan's production in 1 will be 1000 tons.

Since it is not suitable for long-term storage, most of its production and consumption is in its own country, and the total trade volume in the world is extremely small, about 30 tons per year.[34]..Major exporting countries areThe United States of America,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Laos,EgyptIn particular, the United States accounts for about two-thirds of total exports.On the other hand, the major importing countries are英国, Netherlands,カナダ,France,JapanIs[35].

Japan

サツマイモは、比較的痩せた土壌でも生育が可能であるため、肥料流通や土壌改良が進まない中では作付けが容易であったため、1960年代初頭には年間600万トン程度の収穫量があったが、1960年代から1970年代前半にかけ土壌改良等により商品価値の高い作物への転作が急激に進み、1974年には140万トンまで減少した。それからも、緩慢に減少を続け200年代に100万トン代、2010年以降は100万トンを割る生産量となっている。

Main producing areas in Japan

Kagoshima,Ibaraki,Chiba,Miyazaki,TokushimaIs the top 5 prefectures in Japan.Of these, the top four prefectures account for 4% of the national total, and Kagoshima prefecture in particular produces about 8% of the national production of about 69 tons.In the prefecture, there are many plants for starch raw materials and sake brewing raw materials.There are several reasons for the uneven distribution of production areas.First of all, many areas in the prefecture are well-drained and suitable for growing sweet potatoes.Silas PlateauTo be. In addition, since the sweet potato is an underground "potato",typhoonIt is hard to be harmed even if it is attacked by.

In 2020, the total national yield is 687,600And the yield of the main production area is as follows[36].

Yield of main production area
RankingName of prefecturesYield
1Kagoshima214,700
2Ibaraki182,000
3Chiba90,200
4Miyazaki69,100
Brand origin

Besides this,NiigataNishi-wardProducers trying to brand local varieties, such as "Imojenne" whose main production area isMunicipalitiesThere is[37].

In addition, sweet potatoes, which are a local specialty although the production volume is small,Arai Oshima(EhimeNiihama) "Seven fortune potatoes".Appearance is whiteWhite tooso,MeijiIt was imported from the United States in 33.If you grow it on the same islandsugar content15%Sweet chestnut pasteBecomes moderately sweet[38].

Quarantine within Japan

Plant Protection LawIn order to prevent the spread of harmful insects such as weevil and sweet potato monogae,quarantineIs done[39], All over Okinawa, Amami Islands,Tokara Islands, The removal of fresh stems and leaves and fresh bulbs of Convolvulaceae plants such as sweet potato and Ipomoea pestis from the Ogasawara Islands is regulated.[40].. If the amount of baggage is about the amount of personal baggage, you can take it out of the restricted area by applying in advance using the prescribed method. However, it cannot be taken out from the area without the facility because it uses steam heat treatment that disinfects with steam.[41].. There are no such restrictions on processed products.

Local port and空港There are signs and posters that call attention to these, so please refer to them when visiting the area.

Cultivation and diffusion history in the Japanese archipelago

It was transmitted from the south or China to Ryukyu Kingdom, and that wasSatsuma DomainCultivated in the territoryYoshimi JiroSpread as a salvage crop by their hands,The Great Famine of KyohoBy the order of the Edo Shogunate who noticed its usefulness at the timeAoki KunyoIt is a well-established theory that has started cultivation in various parts of Japan.However, it was transmitted from ChinaNanban tradeThere is also a consideration that things brought from the south are different varieties and different lines.

In the Japanese Islands, especially in Honshu, it was originally called "Ryukyu-imo (Ryukyu-imo)" or "Karaimo (kara-imo)" or its color due to its history.Edo ShogunateObtained from the Satsuma domain and encouraged cultivation nationwide. Since then, the name "sweet potato" has become widespread and is used more often than the previous name.Even now, dialects such as "Akaimo", "Karaimo", and "Toimo" remain in various places.[Annotation 3].

Arrival to Ryukyu

  • 1597 ToMiyakojimaThere is a theory that it was introduced to. Mr. NagamasaFamily historyaccording to,1594 , The Ryukyu Kingdom, where Miyakojima's village official, Mr. Nagama, was under the control of Miyakojima.Shuri Imperial GovernmentHeading back to China, I was hit by a headwind in China.1597 I left China forKyusyuAnd finally returned to the island. It is assumed that the seedlings were brought back to Miyakojima at this time. Ikuya tried to spread cultivation and spread to the point that it became a staple food on the island. After death, as Lord Nune (God of potato)PrisonIs enshrined in. However, sweet potatoフィリピンSince it was introduced to Fuzhou, China in 1594, and since 1597 was only three years later, this theory has been questioned over time. 』Is rejected the description of the family history as an error, and the introduction to Miyako1618 Is trying[42].. From MiyakojimaOkinawa main islandDid not propagate to. On Sakishima1612 OfYonaguni Island,1694 OfIshigakijimaFor example, each island was introduced from China separately regardless of the main island, and although it was rapidly spread within that island, it was reluctant to convey it to other islands. As of 2013, Oza on MiyakojimaChopsticksThe god of sweet potatoes is worshiped at[43].
  • 1604 Or 1605[44], Was transmitted to the main island of Okinawa in the then Ryukyu Kingdom (present-day Okinawa Prefecture).LightWas the chief executive officer of the tribute ship toNoguniA person named (Yonaha Matsu)Fujian etc.(Today's ChinaFujian ProvinceOn the way back from (the neighborhood)ChatanPauseNokuni Village (Present Okinawa PrefectureNakagami-gunKadena Town) To the ground of Gima villageGima MasanoriWas successfully cultivated by having seedlings separated from the general tract, and it grew even in lean areas.TanegashimaIt is this line that was introduced to the mainland.
  • In the 1713 book of origin from Ryukyu, there are different types of bush, and four types are classified according to the color of the skin and fruit.
  • 1609 years(Keicho14 years) by the Satsuma DomainRyukyu invasionAt that time, the possibility that sweet potatoes were brought back cannot be denied.Also, when the Satsuma domain army withdrew in 1611,King NangServed sweet potato dishes at the banquet and presented sweet potatoes at the request of the Satsuma clan samurai who enjoyed the deliciousness.
  • 1698 (Genroku(11 years) In March, transmitted to Tanegashima. Lord'sHisamoto Tanegashima(Mr. TanegashimaThe 19th generation head, Subayashi, is interested in sweet potatoes as a rescue crop,SadaoWith the donation of Ichigo Amago, he ordered his vassal Nishimura Tokinori to train on the cultivation method. It is said that Ozekyu Saemon made a prototype at Shimoishi Temple and succeeded in cultivation.Nishinoomote"Japan sweet potato cultivation first place monument" is built under Shimoishi Temple[45]..The potatoes at this time are called "Karaimo".Nishimura is not only cultivated, but also powdercandy, Confectionery, shochu, etc.It is said that this has promoted widespread use.

Arrival on the mainland

As mentioned above, in generalJapanese archipelagoIt is said that it was transmitted in order from the south.Muromachi Period,Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodDirectly from China and Southeast Asia, to trading ports around KyushuKinai OfSakaiIt is no wonder that it has been brought to such places.As described below, there are multiple introduction routes.Most of them have not been successfully cultivated and have not been established.It is said that the Satsuma domain was the first to settle sweet potatoes on the mainland.

  • It was compiled by the Satsuma Domain in posterityFarm book-HerbalismAccording to the book "Molding Illustrated", from KeichoGenwaDuring the year (1596-1623)Bozu PortAtPortugalIn trade with people,LuzonIt is said that sweet potatoes had already been brought as a trade item from.
  • 1614 (19th year of Keicho), Hizen countryHirado OfBritish trading house[Annotation 4]longRichard CoxReceived the life ofWilliam Adams (Aura Miura)Stood on a voyage for trade from Hirado towards Siam (Thailand). But used ChinaJunk shipSea Adventure, which is a modified version of theNaha PortCalled at the port.Adams obtained the local potatoes while repairing the ship, and in 1615 the following year (GenwaI brought it back to Hirado in the first year).Cox is in Hirado because it resembles a potato that was eaten in EnglandfieldIt was rented and cultivated in the form of being outsourced to farmers, Cox's diary says. Cox describes this as "Ryukyu-imo".
  • Dingshan, who was also a monk from Satsuma during the Genna period,Kii countryIt is said that it was brought to.
  • 1692 (5th year of Genroku),Iyo countryImabari DomainTamenobu Ejima, the chief vassal of Tsugaru Tamenobu, transferred seed potatoes from the Hyuga province to the Imabari domain.However, subsequent records have been cut off, and it is believed that cultivation failed.[46].
  • 1697 (Genroku9 years),Miyazaki YasadaBut"Agriculture complete book]. Although the book describes sweet potatoes, it is speculated that Miyazaki had never seen sweet potatoes themselves. In addition, "SatsumaNagasakiIt is widely cultivated in the surrounding area as "Ryukyu-imo" or "red-potato", but it is not known in other areas." Had a friendship with MiyazakiKaihara Ekiken Of1708 (5th year of Hoei)Yamato herb, "Kaihara observed that it was actually observed, and it is also divided into two types, "蕃芑(Ryukyuimo, Akaimo)" and "Ganmai". Kaihara says, "There are a lot of sweet potatoes in Nagasaki, and they are sweet." "Amato was introduced from Ryukyu to Satsuma during the Genroku era."
  • 1704 (HoeiPublished in the first year)Ukiyo SoshiIn "Shinju Daikan" (Shinjuken), "Hachirihan (described later) Toifuimo,ChestnutWith a flavor similar toShikokuIt is presumed to be sweet potato.

Spread as a salvage crop

With the exception of the Satsuma domain, which encouraged cultivation by raising the domain, sweet potatoes first spread with the help of the private sector.The first to succeed in full-scale cultivationfamineIt is said that the Geiyo region was often hit by the food, and even after that, the food productivity was low because the soil and land slope were unsuitable for cultivation, that is, due to climate abnormalities.famineIt became popular as a famine crop mainly in the land where it was easy to occur.The Satsuma domain also occupied half of the territory.Silas PlateauCalled,Rice cropThe main reason for the encouragement was that there was unsuitable land in the area.

  • The first to succeed in cultivation other than the Satsuma domainGeiyo IslandsIs said to be.1711 (Masanori3 years), as a six-part monkOmishimaVisited Satsuma on the wayYoshimi JiroHowever, the potatoes, which were prohibited from being taken out of the Satsuma domain,Buddha statueIt is my hometown by making a hole in it and hiding the potatoes there.Iyo country(CurrentEhime) Started cultivation on Omishima.The potatoes brought back from Ryukyu by Kyuhiro Murakami, the father of his wifeAki countryThere is also a story that it was cultivated in Takehara.
  • 1715 (5th year of virtue),Tsushima OfSquireSaburo Harada brought back sweet potato seeds from Satsuma Province.Nearly 9% of the whole island of Tsushima is mountainous, and the cultivated area is very small, so the food production situation was so bad that even the samurai class collected and ate the food of the mountains, but this is due to the spread of sweet potatoes. It was resolved.Locally, it is also called "filial potato".In addition, the sweet potatoes are processed with great effort, and "(I.e.Was produced a preserved food called. From this "sen", you can get dumplings and mochi unique to Tsushima,Chimaki,further"RokubeMake noodles called. RokubeiHizen countryShimabara PeninsulaIt is made in the surrounding area and Tsushima, but the relationship between the two is not well understood. The common point is that it was not a suitable land (soil) for rice production like other sweet potato producing areas.
  • 1716 (KyohoFirst year),京都A drug wholesaler, Shimaribei (Shimaribei) brought back potatoes from Ryukyu and succeeded in growing them in his native village. One theory is that the ban was broken, so RyukyuKikaigashimaIsland sinkIt is said that when he was allowed to return, he broke the ban again and brought back the potatoes. The exile destination is Ryukyu,Iki-Iwo Jima-OkiThere are various theories. It took the name of the village and became a famous production area as "Terada potato". Ribei's grave wasJapanese sweetsIt was engraved by the hand of Tsukasa as "Ryukyu Imao Sakusho Shima Ribei". Therefore, in the same areaAoki Kunyo10 years earlier than the cultivation of[Annotation 5].
  • Edo ShogunateAround this time, it seems that he had already recognized the usefulness of Ryukyuimo (sweet potato) as a salvage crop, and in 1723 (KyohoIn 8 years), he was unsuitable for cultivation and often fell into famine all over the island.HachijojimaI am trying to introduce this to. The same year's attempt was unsuccessful, but it succeeded in establishing it in 1727 (Kyoho 12 years), a few years later. In 1735 (Kyoho 20 years)Izu NanashimaWe send seed potatoes to and recommend cultivation.1811 In (8th year of culture), Takemasa Kikuchi, the master of Okago,NiijimaI brought in red sweet potatoes from Japan and cultivated them.further1822 In (5th year of Bunsei), Wuchang's son Kogenta introduced a variety called Hans.The achievements of Kikuchi's parents and children are left as a "sweet potato-derived monument."[47][48].
  • 1732 (Kyoho 17 years),The Great Famine of KyohoBySetouchi regionAroundWest JapanSuffered a serious crop failure and fell into a serious food shortage. However, no starvation occurred in the vicinity of Omishima, Iyoguni, where sweet potatoes were grown, which made us aware of the usefulness of sweet potatoes.
In addition,Iwami GinzanThen of the Edo ShogunateDeputy officialMetMasaaki Ido TributeReduction and exemption, release of annual tribute rice, investment of government money and private property, etc.[49]..Omori district (currentShimane Ota City) At Eisenji Temple, I heard from Yasunaga, a priest of Satsuma Province, that sweet potatoes are suitable as a salvage crop, and introduced seed potatoes.[49]..I tried seeding that year, but I couldn't get the expected results due to the late seeding.[49].. However,KumaYobei Matsuuraya, an old farmer in Fukumitsu Village (currently Yunotsucho Fukumitsu, Oda City), succeeded in harvesting.[49]..After that, sweet potatoes began to be cultivated as a salvage crop mainly in the Iwami region, saving many people.[49]..Due to this achievement, Masaaki Ido has been praised by the territories as "Imo Daikan" or "Imoden-sama" and has been honored to this day.[49].

Encouragement of the Shogunate

1734 , Aoki Kunyo ordered sweet potato seedlings from the Satsuma domain, with the help of a person from Kyushu.Koishikawa Botanical Garden,ShimosaMakamura (currentlyChibaHanami River WardMakuhari Town),Kazusa OfKujukuri beachFudodo Village (currentlyKujukuri Town) Test cultivation in1735 Confirmed successful cultivation. "Sweet potato" has been used since thenEast JapanWill also be widely spread.
In 1734, Kunyang wrote the "Sweet diary" and is trying to spread it. The compilation is Naozumi Ochi. Co-authored by Togane Kobiga, Naozumi Ochi, and medical doctorNoro Motojo.
1736 (Original sentenceIn the first year, Kunyang appointed Satsuma Imo Gokaku from the Shogunate and became a retainer.
Although there is a myth that it is the credit of Dr. Equal Sweet Potato (Kunyo Aoki) for the spread of sweet potatoes, it is true that Kunyo had already gained fame with the name of Satsumaimo at the same time.

As an aside, the Shogunate is also encouraging the spread and cultivation of potatoes for the same purpose.

Spread to the general public

After that, sweet potatoes rapidly penetrated into the life and culture of the common people. I wrote sweet potatoesMad song,SenryuMany remain.

  • 1773 (Ernst & Young2 years)Komatsuya Momoka OfSmallThe story "Imoya" is recorded in the book "Hearing Good".classicRakugo"Sweet potatoIt is said that the potato became a source of "," but at this time, potatoes were familiar to the common people in Edo, and the potato business was established as a business.
  • Around this timeSenryuThere is a phrase in the work, "Horie-cho, which is astringent in summer and sweet in winter."This was in Nihonbashi Horie-cho at that time, in the summerPersimmon shibuManufactured by paintingfanIt is a phrase that I read the scene where I was selling potatoes in winter.At that time, it was not grilled potatoes, but steamed potatoes.In the work of "One hundred and three potato hells" by Santō KyōdenEnma GreatThe sweet potatoes that have been judged by the government have been sent to "Horie-cho Hell" on charges of "the crime of heartburning a smart person."In this way, Horie-cho was famous for the potato business at that time.
  • 1789 (KanseiXNUMXst year)RecipesThe book "Amagaku Hyakuchin" (published by the owner of Kinkoro) was published.
  • Kansei years (1789 -1801 ),AmagasakiThe cultivation of sweet potatoes has started. Using the rough land that was not suitable for agriculture until then,Nui, Which became a special productKeihanshinIt was shipped to Japanese restaurants.
  • 1794 Published in (Kansei 6th year)Mountain tokyo・By productShigemasa Kitao・Pictureyellow backed novel"Minuma Shakujin drunken" depicts a steamed sweet potato shop. An essay around 1830 "Kan Amami story], "When I was Kansei,Baked potatoNo, there was only steamed potatoes. Later Kanda Jinbei Bridge (Benkei BridgeNeighbors) was the first time for yam to be sold."
  • Bunsei year(1818-1831)Suruga countryOmaezakiSurroundings (currentShizuokaOmaezaki)soDriedHas been established. Basically, this is how the modern dried peaches are made.
  • 1831 (Tempo2nd year), in the essay collection "Horei Genkishu" by Keio Yamada1793 In the winter (5th year of Kansei), EdoHongo[Avoid ambiguity]XNUMX-chomeBanyaAtPaper lanternAnd write "Harihan" and baked potatoes[Annotation 6]Sold, thenKoishikawaHakusan TownAt this place, it was written on the paper lantern that "Ishisato" was sold and the stone yams were sold. In Edo before that, "steamed potatoes" were the main products, but since this hit, baked potatoes have become the mainstream. At the bansho, it was unacceptable to do business with small items, and potatoes were sold in the winter as one of the goods sales.
  • The above-mentioned “Harihan” means that the taste is close to that of chestnut (Guri). As mentioned earlier, by 1704KansaiIt is assumed that the name was known in the field. Also, "jusanri" means above the chestnut, and sweet potato cultivation was popular at the time.Musashi countryKawagoe originated from the fact that it was a distance of thirteen ri from Edo.Ground mouthIt was spread along with the advertising phrase.1853 (KaeiIt was written about XNUMX years agoKitagawa Morishadaof"Morishada Manuscript], it was noted that there was a potato seller written as "XNUMX Sanri" in the Kansai area, which is no longer related to Kawagoe. On the other hand, the book also includes illustrations of Edo's "○yaki" and "Harihan" signboards (andon).1858 (Ansei5 years)Hiroshige Utagawaof"XNUMX Famous Views of EdoThe work "Bikuhashi Yuki Naka" in theKyobashi RiverThe area around Hibiki Amagi Bridge, which was over the estuary of the outer moat. Around the current Ginza XNUMX-chome), signs with "○ Yaki" and "XNUMX Sanri" are drawn. This "Yaki" refers to the shape of baked potatoes. The one that is cut and baked is called "Kiriyaki," and the whole baked one is called "Maruyaki." It was There is also the term "ten".1850 (Kaei3 years)Nishizawa IchihoEdo memoir "Imperial capital nap" issued by[Annotation 7]Says that the raw potatoes are called "Juri". Gori Gori, which means that the texture is rugged.
  • In the above-mentioned Morishada Manuscript, it was recorded in Osaka and Kyoto that the steamed potatoes were sold at a peddling while saying "Hokkori, Hokkori", which preceded the book.1809 (culture6 years)Tokosha XNUMX Ofcomic book"Tokaido Naka Knee Chestnut Hair] In the Osaka edition, it is written that she sells herself as "a little warm, warm clothes." Derived from here, in the upward direction, steamed potatoes and baked potatoes are called "hokkori". Even in the production of "Tokaido Nakakeguri", there is a sentence "Men's playfulness and clumsiness, buying and eating at ease".AbovedialectIt means "baked potatoes".
  • 1853 (KaeiSix years ago, Sōma's merchant Tansho Shoemon got guilty and was sent to Hachijojima for the disposal of Toshima. As mentioned above, rice was permanently cultivated in Hachijojima, and there was no surplus of rice for sake production, so sake production was prohibited. Shoemon uses sweet potatoes that had been cultivated and established on Hachijojima, and was used in local Satsuma.Distilled spiritsI started to make it and succeeded. During the 16 years that Shoemon was on the island, he introduced potatoes of the variety suitable for shochu from Satsuma and the excellent tools of Satsuma, and established the potato shochu industry in Hachijojima.
  • In the late Edo period, sweet potatoes were once the cause of increasing obesity.
  • The early modern periodIn the latter half of the year, in the southwestern part of Japan, centered on Kyushu and Shikoku, sweet potatoes became a daily food ingredient, and the population growth rate was well above the national average. Sweet potatoes, which are highly resistant to wind and drought and have strong population support, were basically tax-free and convenient crops for the clan and the territorial citizens who would benefit from the sale of rice.[50].
  • Kiichiro Kikuchi, who was born in the end of the Edo period, has a pen name ofMeijiThere is a book published in the 30's called "Edo-Fuuchi Picture Book Customs". The book, which also has illustrations by himself, says, "In winter, there was no place for a yam shop in the city where Edo townspeople lived." Taro's shop (banya) always sold yam.” “The sweet potatoes sold in the downtown area around Nihonbashi were sweet and fragrant. I guess it was Kawagoe's real thing. The price was also high.” It also states that "baked potatoes were sold from late September to December." "From January to February, not steamed potatoes but steamed potatoes or fried whole potatoes were sold." About the author of the book, KikuchiHiroshige UtagawaThat is.
  • BakumatsuFrom to the Meiji era, Kawagoe, which is still famous for sweet potatoesAkazawa HitobeiThe yield increased by the "Akazawa-style sweet potato cultivation method" that was experimented and researched by.
  • In the novel "And Then" by Soseki Natsume, published in 42, it is written that there were many shops selling ice water in the summer and roasted sweet potatoes in the winter in Tokyo.
  • However, the roasted sweet potato business at the Bansho mentioned above disappeared, although it was natural, when the Bansho system disappeared in the Meiji era.On the other hand, businesses like Soseki's description were born, and it was also popular as a small business for non-specialized stores and housewives, and there were many stores, but at the same time, they often caused fires.Entering the Meiji era, on October 24, 1891, the Tokyo Prefecture issued the "Rules for Bread and Sweet Potato Yakiba", and in 10, "Remodeling the Sweet Potato Yakiba". The decree was issued.Both laws and regulations include mandatory fire protection equipment, and the sale of roasted sweet potatoes on the street corner as an affordable side business has disappeared.At the same time, the Tokyo Sweet Potato Retailers' Union was established on November 9, 26, and there are movements to enforce independence regulations within the industry.Despite these laws and regulations, the popularity of roasted sweet potatoes in Tokyo has not declined, and the consumption of sweet potatoes in Tokyo around 24 is recorded as "11 bales per year".However, it occurred on September 4, 30 (Taisho 60).Great Kanto EarthquakeAs a result, these retail baked sweet potato stores lost their stores as well as stores in other industries.

University sweet potato

  • 31th year of Meiji (1898 )Hirade JojiroWritten byTokyo”Fresh manners”, as a way of selling grilled strawberries in Tokyo,Sesame saltAs you can see in Keihan, sliced ​​slices and grilledSoy sauceThere is nothing that can be painted.Recently, it is called Kyoto-yaki, and although I learn this from time to time, it is not often done. It is recorded that the grilled potatoes were seasoned in the Meiji era, and sweet potatoesゴ マIt is also known that they were matched.This is later "University sweet potatoThere is a theory that it is one of the roots of ".

Use as an ingredient

mainlytuberous rootThe part of (potato) is used. Staple foodSide dishIn addition,Light meal,snackIs cooked and processed in various ways. FurthermoreAuthentic shochuLiquor such asbrewingIt is used as a material for.It has a sweet taste just by heating, and when it is made into roasted sweet potato or tempura, the chewy taste is enhanced.[3]..On the contrary, some varieties have a moist and sticky texture.[3].

Also softleaf,StemCan also be edible, these are mainlyStir-friedAndBoiled,fried oystersSuch astempuraUsed as a material[13]..ConvolvulaceaeWater spinachThere are also varieties that have a flavor similar to that and eat stems and leaves exclusively.[13].

Original sweet potatoSeasonIt is said to be September-November, and since it is sweeter after storage than freshly dug, it is aged for about a month after harvesting before shipping.[3][8]..Very early digging may be available in May and early digging in July.[8], They are not storable and will be shipped immediately after harvest[51]..Good products with high commercial value are those with a uniform color of potato skin, firmness and luster, no scratches or spots, a bulge in the center, and few irregularities and whiskers.[3][6].

Nutritional value

Edible part 100 when rawG The amount of energy per (g) is 132 kcalAnd it contains about 66% water,carbohydrate31.5 g,protein1.2 g,ash1.0 g,LipidContains 0.2 g[56].StarchIs abundant and suitable as an energy source. Also,Vitamin C,Dietary fiberVitamin C is hard to break even if the sweet potato is heated.[56]..It is said to be an effective ingredient for relieving constipation by activating the function of the intestines by the action of dietary fiber, which is abundant in both water-soluble and insoluble, and the white liquid that oozes from the cut end.[3][18]It is also expected to prevent colorectal cancer, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension.[56]..VitaminsVitamin D-KExcept for, it contains well-balanced, especiallyVitamin B1-B6-C-EContains a lot[3][56]..The orange varieties of potatoes have a pigment componentβ-caroteneThe purple varieties contain a lot ofAnthocyaninContains[3]..Minerals have the effect of discharging excess saltpotassium, Essential for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, Essential for making red blood cellscopper, Helps to synthesize sex hormonesmanganeseRich in[56].

Sweet potatoes are eaten in large quantities at one time and are nutritionally as effective as eating many vegetables,Green and yellow vegetablesThe amount of carotene contained in normal sweet potatoes is low and the energy is high, so those who are concerned about obesity need to be careful.[56]..Also, if you eat only sweet potatoes because the proportion of protein is low,calorieEven if you can support your body at the base,malnutrition, Especially protein deficiency.

Sweet potatocarbohydrateAbout 8% of the starch is starch, which is a good energy source, but 1-2% of starch that cannot be digested remains.[56]..When you eat sweet potatoesgasIt is said that starch remains as dietary fiber, but it also plays an important role in maintaining good health.[56]..Calorie-based yield per unit areariceExceeds[57].Ryukyu,SatsumaSweet potatoes replaced rice in most regions exceptStaple foodI did not attach it to the seat because it is inferior in storage stability to rice and is not suitable for long-distance transportation. In addition, the nutritional aspect (especially protein) may be inferior to rice.[57]. However,Satsuma DomainThen, through the cultivation of sweet potatoes, it was a barren land at that time.Silas PlateauHas been developed and has an excellent protein content.soyAnd is a raw material for cooking oilCanolaWe succeeded in diversifying cultivation. Also, unlike the rest of Japan, the Ryukyu Kingdom and the Satsuma Domain have been around since the 18th century.豚 肉Since the food was popular, it is considered that the above-mentioned nutritional defects of sweet potatoes could be compensated.

recipe

You can bake it, steam it, and eat it as it is.Simmered dishes,tempura,sweet potato,University sweet potatoFor sweets such asKurikindanAnd so on[6]. twenty fourIf you heat it for a long time,StarchTheSaccharificationTo酵素Works and the sweetness increases[6].Stone baked potatoYafukashi potato is a cooking method that maximizes the sweetness due to this property.Also, after steaming, dry in the sunDried potatoIt is often processed into such as.PotatoesPolyphenolIt is easy to cause discoloration (browning) due to compounds,Lye OfTanninIs also included, so the cut surface is watered or baked.AlumPrevent browning and remove lye by exposing it to water.[3][58]..In order to finish it in a good color, when using it in Kurikinton etc., it is used by peeling the skin thickly to the place where there are thin streaks inside the skin.[3]..The blackened part of the skin contains harmful components that have a strong bitter taste and should be completely removed.[6]..It is used whole in roasted sweet potatoes, but simmered dishes and tempura used with the skinRound sliceIn addition, with stir-fried foods and Daigakuimo, the skin remainsRandom cutAlso, thicker for fried foodsTime signatureOften used[3].

The leaves and stems (the soft green petioles that are directly connected to the leaves, not the hard purple vines = so-called potato vines) can be eaten whether young or growing.China (especiallyFujian Province) AndTaiwanThen, it is a leafy vegetable that is commonly eaten.

A popular recipe isgarlicStir fry leaves and stems well with oilBitternessIt's suitable for stir-fry because there is (acu)),salt(+soup stock) To season.

leaves areOtashi,tempuraYou can

Peel the stem (if it has muscles),FluffyCan be used as Boil it down and pull outSimmered dishes,Boiled,Mixed riceAnd so on.KinpiraStir frytempuraYou can

save

Do not store in the refrigerator due to its weakness to low temperatures, wrap it in newspaper and store it in a cool and dark place with good ventilation.[3]..A place with a temperature of about 13-15 ° C and a high humidity of 85-90%, which is not exposed to the sun, is considered to be a suitable environment for storage.[6]..If it is in season, it can be stored for about 3 months in this state.[3]..Prolonged storage in the refrigerator can cause rot[6].

Food poisoning

Eating pestsFusarium(Fusarium) Of the genusMoldProtective substance from (Fight alexin) As bitter flanoTerpeneIpomeamarone, ipomeanine and ipomeanolBiosynthesisTo do. This lesion is called sweet potato black spot disease, and potatoes turn black green to black.[59]..For products such as ipomea marronmammalian OfliverandlungIs toxic tolungSevere bleeding, interstitialEmphysema,Pulmonary EdemaCause symptoms such as家畜A case of death by poisoning has been reported. Therefore, for human consumption and livestockfeedCannot be used as Also, this bitter substanceDistilled spiritsEven when processed intoevaporationThen shift to shochu.

Use as raw material/feed

Consumption and ratio by use in Japan (2018[60]
UseConsumption (ton)Proportion
For raw consumption[61]387,20048.6%
For alcohol213,40026.8%
For starch95,80012.0%
For processed foods71,5009.0%
For seeds9,6001.2%
For feed[61]2,2000.3%
Wear and others16,8002.1%
Total production796,500100.0%

Sweet potatoes are used as raw materials and feeds as follows, in addition to being edible as a cooking material.The consumption by application is as shown on the right.

Starch

From sweet potatoStarchCan take This starch is(I.e.,SyrupIt becomes a raw material such as.Also, in Okinawa Prefecture, starch taken from sweet potatoes is marketed under the name Imukuji (potato waste), and the production volume is small and expensive.ArrowrootIt is used as a substitute for. At homeKuzumochi,Jimamy tofuUsed for coagulating and thickening foods.

Distilled spirits

Sweet potatoes are also used as a raw material for shochu, and shochu made mainly from sweet potatoes is used.ShochuGood[Annotation 8], Kagoshima prefectureMiyazakiIs manufactured mainly. For saccharifying starchmaltPotato is used together with rice as a raw material.

In Kagoshima, potato shochu has been made since the Edo period, and was widely made at home until the law prohibits home-brewing.[62].. Therefore, it was said in Kagoshima that "a woman who can boil good-tasting shochu is a good housewife".[63].. The recipe at that time was after steaming the sweet potatoesMortarCrush with, add water to it and leave it for 2-5 days, thenYellow kojiIn additionStirAnd left it to makeNigiriWith a Tubro type distillerdistillationWas to do[62].

2000 eraBecame a shortage of sweet potatoes due to the shochu boom. There are also examples of small and medium-sized builders working on the cultivation of Koganesengan (Golden Sengan) as part of diversification.

ChineseWhite sake (Chinese sake)Also has products made from sweet potatoes[64].

Sweet potato

KagoshimaMinamikyushu OfChiran TownEimachiIs made by boiling down sweet potatoes called "Amendoro"honeyWas being transmitted. The last craftsman who had protected the traditional manufacturing method went out of business, and the tradition was on the verge of disappearing, but a successor appeared and is expanding nationwide.[65][66].

Raw potato varieties

Various varieties such as Ayamurasaki, which is a kind of sweet potato and purple sweet potato widely consumed for food, Joy White which is a shochu-only variety, are used, and disease resistance, yield per unit area, starch content, storability Breeding is being carried out with the main focus on improving.

  • Norin 2 1970 (ShowaIt was cultivated as a central variety until around 45.
  • Koganesengan 1966 Registered under the name of (Showa 41)1967 Used from (Showa 42)1980 It was cultivated as the central variety until (55). This is because the starch content was higher than Norin 2 and the yield per strain was 1 times.
  • White Satsuma- 1985 From around 60. Hard to damage even after harvesting.
  • Shiroyutaka-from around 1985 (Showa 60). Disease resistant and high starch content.
  • Purple clam (Agriculture No. 54)- 2001 From (13).AnthocyaninIt is a purple sweet potato containing, and gives aromaticity and sweetness after distillation.

In addition to this, various varieties are used.

feed

Sweet potatoesfeedAs家畜May be given to.pigBrands obliged to give sweet potatoes to豚 肉There is also. The “imo pork” produced in Chiba prefecture that is raised in this way is characterized by less animal odor and a better melting in the mouth when the fat is eaten sweetly.[67].Kagoshima Black PigThe definition of stipulates that sweet potatoes with a feed content of 20% should be given in the latter stage of fattening.

fuel

Suitable for cultivation in lean areas, starch-rich sweet potatoes are often usedBio ethanolIt may be noticed as a raw material.Second World WarIn Japan, there is a shortageaircraftBioethanol production researched as fuel for use[68].. Even in the present age, environmental awareness will increase and will occur in the futureFossil fuelIs being prepared for the lack of[69].

Medicinal

As a kind of medicinal vegetable, the bulbs dug out from late autumn to winterSweet potatoMake it medicinal by calling it (bansho)[7].Folk remediesThen, the medicinal effect is said to be effective for fatigue, loss of appetite, and constipation, and it is eaten by boiling or baking.[7]..Because it has a lot of fiber and has a gastrointestinal warming effect,Chestnut,potato,cornSimilarly, it is said to be especially good for constipation in people with poor circulation.[7]..This medicine is suitable for people who cannot resolve constipation even if they eat raw vegetables, or for children who have a weak constitution and have no appetite.GingerIt is said that it is good to boil and eat with[7].

culture

Food

Stone baked potato
Stone baked potato OfA stallFrom fall to winterTraditional poetryIs. It goes around the city with the characteristic call of "Ishiya Akiimo" and the unique whistle sound of Pyo in some areas.This whistle is attached to a kiln that burns potatoes, and it sounds with the pressure of exhaust gas.
Dried potato
The official name is "Sweet potato steamed dried daikon".It is said that the current manufacturing method was established in the area of ​​Omaezaki City, Shizuoka Prefecture, during the Bunsei era of the Edo period.afterwards,Preserved FoodsIt spread all over the country.Russo-Japanese WarIt was also used as a field meal in Japan, and was called "Military potato". CurrentlyIbarakiHas an overwhelming market share.
Suddenly dumpling(Sudden Dango, Sudden Dango)
Kumamoto Oflocal cuisine,Local sweets.Round sliceWith sweet potatoesBean paste(Red bean jam)Mochi(Nerimochi), orWheat flourWrap it in a flat dough and steam itFood.. It looks(I.e.Is also similar to.FukuokaChikugo regionIs almost the same as the dumpling suddenlySuddenlyCalled "ManjuThere is a shape of confectionery, especially adjacent to Kumamoto prefectureFukuokaOmuta CityIt is also treated as a typical souvenir.
Neri Kuri(Nettabo, Karaimo rice cake)
From Kagoshima PrefectureMiyazakiBoiled, eaten in the southMochiAnd steamed sweet potatoesPotato cakeA kind of.As a home cooking,New YearToo hardMochiIt is made from rice cakes and rice cakes, and when you eat itKinakoSprinkle on and eat.Amami archipelagoThen.New year OfMochi flowerUsingHikage,CatchingAnd
Kankoro rice cake(Amagoro Mochi)
NagasakiGoto IslandsThe specialty sweet potatoes are sliced ​​into thin slices, boiled in hot water, dried in the sun, steamed with glutinous rice, and mashed to make mochi.It was made to increase the amount of glutinous rice, which was once precious, and was also a valuable preserved food during the winter.In addition to the Goto Islands, Nagasaki PrefectureSakido Island,(I.e.The islands are still being passed down as a tradition of each family.
Maruju
Sweet potatoes are sometimes written as "maruju" in Japanese cuisine menus. This is the Satsuma DomainShimazu OfFamily crestIt is said that the origin is that the circle is a cross.There is also an area called Marju[70].

慣用 句

Hachirihan
Another name for baked potato (or steamed potato). TasteChestnutHali half in the sense that it is delicious near (Kuri = Guri)[71].. Used as a sign by a store that sells sweet potato foods such as stone-roasted potatoes[71].
Guri four villages (Kuriyori) delicious thirty-seven villages (or thirteen villages and a half), thirteen villages
Words praising the deliciousness of sweet potatoes (especially Kawagoe potatoes) and the deliciousness of chestnuts (Kuri) to (Shiri).[72].
Jusanri was known as a famous sweet potato producing area during the Edo period.Kawagoe(CurrentSaitama) Is from EdoKawagoe HighwayPassing through, about XNUMXinBecause it was a distance of (52km)[72][73], Add the distance concept of Juso-ri and Guri + Shiri to get Juso-ri (9+4=13),FashionIs taking advantage of[74].
Currently, it is used in advertising phrases and product names of sweet potato foods sold in various regions.[75].. Ehime PrefectureCape Sada PeninsulaEven in the region, the length of the Cape Sada Peninsula is about XNUMX ri, so it is called "Kuri Yori Umami Juso". The peninsulaVolcanic ashIt is a mixed soil and is also a production area of ​​sweet potatoes.
Guri Shiri is abbreviated as "Sanju" and is also a synonym for sweet potato and sweet potato food.[76].
Imozuru formula
When one fact is revealed, related facts are revealed one after another.[77]..Sweet potato potatoes are tuberous roots, and the adventitious roots that are the source of the tuberous roots come out from the roots of the leaves of the stolons (vines) that crawl on the ground surface, and the potatoes are connected via the vines. The word comes from the fact that if one potato is dug out, the remaining potatoes can be easily found.
Pull potatoes
When you harvest potatoes, turning backwards is frightening. mainlyRitualOften used by people in the world.
Potato-like
It means countryside, dull, impeccable, etc.

More

Potato digger
In autumn, sweet potato "digging potatoes"TourismPlantationYou can experience it at. Sweet potatoes are easy to harvest, enjoy exploring and are relatively easy to cook after digging, so they are often held as school events.Kindergarten-Licensed Nursery SchoolIn the fall ofEventThere are quite a few places that have been established as There is also a garden where you can eat the harvested potatoes as baked potatoes in the garden.
Book with the theme of potato
Imoban
Cut potatoes such as sweet potato into slices and engrave figures and sentences on the cross sectionPrintSimple letterpress printing.ChildrenAlso used for education.
Sweet potato day-October 10
Sweet potatoSeasonIt is October, and Kawagoe potato (a kind of sweet potato) and 10 ri of the word "Kuriyori delicious 13 ri" derived from Kawagoe city, Saitama prefecture are combined, and the citizen group "Kawagoe" of the city "Imo Tomo no Kai"anniversaryEnacted in[73].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In New Zealandto lastCall.
  2. ^ Seed sowing is a term used for seeds (especially true seeds), and in the case of vegetative propagation such as seeds, vines, or bulbs, the term planting is generally used.
  3. ^ "Akaimo"TaroBe careful because it may point to.
  4. ^ At that time, there was no nation called Britain (Great Britain),Kingdom of EnglandKingdom of Scotland OfDominion UnionHowever, for convenience, the name of "UK" is used.
  5. ^ It has been cultivated so far in various places, and in recent years, a statement of the grandson of Rihei was discovered, but according to it, the exile destination is Iki Island, 1746 (Treasure calendar3 years) will be returned to Japan after being pardoned, and if cultivated after that, it means that the cultivation test at the Edo Shogunate Proving Ground was earlier.
  6. ^ 1833 (Tenpo 4th year) According to Shirokita Hyakushoku Elderly, "World Warrior", "Horoyaki", that is, pot ware.
  7. ^ "Hirune Miyako". We compare the customs of Edo and its destinations on the road with those of the author's hometown of Kyoto and Osaka.
  8. ^ potato,Chinese yam(Nagaimo),TaroThere is also shochu that uses (taro) as the main ingredient. These must be shochu using "potato", but they are usually distinguished from potato shochu and are called potato shochu, chomo shochu, taro shochu, etc. Therefore, potato shochu can be considered as shochu that uses sweet potato as the main raw material.

Source

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References

  • Keiko Inomata's editorial department, editorial department, Nemido Publishing "Encyclopedia of vegetables to eat and eat deliciously"Seimidou Publishing, July 2012, 7, pp. 10-106.ISBN 978-4-415-30997-2.
  • Yoshitaka Kaizu "Japanese Herbs"Shogakukan<Shogakukan Field Guide Series>, July 1995, 7, p.20.ISBN 4-09-208016-6.
  • Supervised by Yoshinori Kaneko and Isao Noguchi, edited by Seibido Shuppan Editorial Department, "Organic and pesticide-free kitchen gardens, how to grow local hometown vegetables"Seimidou Publishing, July 2011, 4, pp. 1-132.ISBN 978-4-415-30991-0.
  • Kodansha ed. "Body-friendly seasonal ingredients, vegetable books"Kodansha, July 2013, 5, pp. 13-180.ISBN 978-4-06-218342-0.
  • Kazuki Tokunaga "History sketch "Historic site of Tanegashima"" Wada Shoten, 1983.
  • Koji Hashiguchi, "Genuine Shochu Encyclopedia," Nova Shuppan, October 2004, 10, p. 15.ISBN 4-405-09113-7.
  • Supervised by Satoshi Fujita NHK Publishing "NHK Hobby Gardening Easy Time Fujita Satoshi's New Vegetable Making Encyclopedia"NHK Publishing<Practical Life Series>, March 2019, 3, pp. 20-114.ISBN 978-4-14-199277-6.
  • Ryohei Maruyama ed. "Vegetable Making Dictionary"Boutique company<Boutique Mook>, May 2017, 5, pp. 20-102.ISBN 978-4-8347-7465-8.

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