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Telework(British: telework) OrTelecommuting(British: telecommuting) Is a type of work,Information and communication technology(ICT,British: Information and Communication Technology) Is used to flexibly work without being restricted by time and place. A coined word that combines "tele = remote place" and "work = work"[1].Working from home(WFH[2]),Mobile work,Remote work,Flexible Workplace[3][4]Also called. Also, people who work in teleworkTeleworkerCall.


Telecommuting came into the limelight in the 1970s as a term for business-related alternatives to using telecommunications and related information technology for mobility.[5].. 21st century teleworkers oftenWi-FiEquipped withLaptop device,Tablet computer,SmartphoneUsing mobile communication technology such ascoffee shopI'm working from.According to a Reuters poll, "about one in five workers worldwide, especially those in the Middle East, Latin America and Asia, are frequent.Working from homeAnd nearly 10% work from home every day. "[6].. In the 2000s, some organizationsAnnual leave,休 暇Is considered to be absent from work, rather than quitting work, and some office employeesE-mailWas using telework to keep checking[Source required].

In the 1990s, teleworkPop cultureBecame the center of attention. In 1995, the motto "work is something you do, not something you travel to" was created.[7].. A variation of this slogan is "Work is something we DO, not something you travel to."[8], "Work is what we do, not where we are"[9].. Telework has been adopted by various companies, governments and non-profit organizations. Organizations may also use telework to reduce costs (telework employees may(English editionNeed to rent or buy space, and additional costs such as lighting and air conditioning). By introducing telework, commuting time andTraffic jamSome companies have introduced telework to improve the quality of life of their employees because they can reduce the time involved in. In addition, introducing telework can help workers balance work responsibilities with their private lives and family roles, such as caring for children and older parents. Telework is a traffic jamAir pollutionCan be reduced and the number of cars on the road can be reduced, so some organizations have adopted telework for environmental reasons.

the term

"Working from home"And" telework "are closely related concepts, but there is a difference between them.All types of technology-based work done outside the centrally located workspace (including work done at home, outside calls, etc.) is considered telework.Teleworkers often maintain their traditional offices and work in different locations, usually one to three days a week.[10].. Working from home more specifically means working in a place where commuting time can be shortened. Such places are facilitated via broadband connections, computers and telephone lines, and other electronic media used for interaction and communication.[11]Have a home or other remote workplace[12].. As a broader concept than working from home, telework is defined as having four dimensions. that is,CentralizedTo support telework, where you can work anywhere other than the workplace of various organizations.ICTThe use of (information and communication technology), the allocation of time that was replaced in traditional workplaces, and the diversity of employment relationships between employers and employees (from contract work to traditional full-time employment).[13].

People who work from home are called "at-home workers", "teleworkers", and sometimes called "at-home workers" or "home-workers". Teleworkers are also referred to by the name and, in a professional context, "at-home professionals." Most teleworkers work from home, but sometimes they are called "nomad workers" and some work at coffee shops. The terms "work from home" and "telework" were coined by Jack Neills in 1973.[14].


According to 2012 estimates, more than 5,000 million U.S. workers (about 40% of the working population) can work from home at least part of the time[15]In 2008, except for self-employed people, only 250 million people considered their home to be their primary workplace[16].. In 2010, 940 million people (6.6% of the workforce) were reported to have worked “at home” at home, including self-employed people. May have[17].. As of 2017, approximately 370 million employees account for 2.8% of the workforce, working at home for at least half the time, Global Analytics Workplace reports[18].. Few companies hire large numbers of full-time staff working from home,[Source required],(English editionIs a notable exception in some of the United StatesCall centerEmploys thousands of teleworkers. For many employees, teleworking options are offered as employee benefits, but most employees work from home for only a fraction of the time.[19].. Teleworking physicians and radiologists have the highest salaries of telework, according to a report by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, which shows that doctors' weekly income is close to the median of $1,975, a six-digit figure. It is a job with income. Research shows that workers who work from home want to experience productivity gains of up to 6% less income.[20].

2009 years,(English editionReports that approximately 10 federal employees are teleworking. However, less than 3,000 people work from home for more than 3 days a week[21].. April 2012,ReutersBased on an Ipsos/Reuters opinion poll, "working from home is "thinking that 34% of connected workers who are very likely to work full-time if possible are likely to continue. Is in[22].. On December 2010, 12, the U.S. federal government used telework to help organizations, transportation costs, and the environment improve business continuity and ensure that critical federal functions are maintained during emergencies. Legislation passed in 9 to reduce the impact of labor and improve work-life balance for workers[23].. Telework, for example, allows employees to better manage their work and family responsibilities, thus maintaining a more resilient federal workforce and achieving institutional goals. Will be able to[24].

The 2013 Regus Global Economic Indicator survey, published in September 9, revealed that 2013% of global business managers work remotely for more than half of the week. The survey is based on more than 48 people in 90 countries.(English edition55% of respondents said that effective management of remote workers is a achievable goal. After the results were announced, Regus CEO Mark Dixon said: “The business people we talk to say that trust and freedom play a key role in remote management, but once they are introduced, they can improve productivity, increase staff retention, and reduce operational costs. The benefits such as reductions are obvious to everyone.''[25].. Forrester Research's US teleworking forecast predicts that 3,400 million Americans will work from home, reaching 2016 million by 6,300, or 43% of the US workforce.CiscoReports that by allowing employees to work from home or telework, they are achieving $2 million in annual productivity gains. And by Intuit's report, by 7,700, more than 2020% of the U.S. workforce, or 40 million,freelancer,Contract employee,(I.e.Will be. In the UK, between 2007 and 2012, the number of employees who normally work from home increased by 13% to nearly 50, representing 3000% of the UK's 400 million working population. More than a million employees are working[26].


Working from homeIts roots are in technology in the early 1970s.At that timetelephone lineUsed as a network bridgeDumb terminalWas used to link the satellite office with the mainframe in the city center. Later, the cost of telework continued to drop exponentially, while the performance and ease of use of PCs improved, paving the way for moving offices to homes. By the early 1980s, branch and home workers were able to connect to an organization's mainframe using a personal computer or terminal emulation. Telework is groupware,Virtual private network,Conference call,Video conference, Virtual call center,Voice over IP It is being promoted by tools such as (VOIP) and the price reduction of high quality laptops.Broadband InternetWill enable workers to communicate over long distances, save a lot of travel time and costs, and will be efficient and useful for businesses. As broadband Internet connectivity becomes more prevalent, more and more workers at home have sufficient bandwidth to use these tools to connect to corporate intranets or corporate telephone networks.

Local area networkThe adoption of will facilitate resource sharing,Client-server model OfClient server computingThis enabled even greater dispersion. Today, telecommuters can carry their laptops around and use them in the office, at home, or almost anywhere. With the availability of cloud computing technology and Wi-Fi, it has become possible to access remote servers by combining portable hardware and software.[27].. Furthermore, with the improvement and spread of technology,SmartphoneIs becoming widely used in telework. Smartphones greatly improve the mobility of workers and the degree of collaboration with organizations. Mobile phone, personal digital assistant, and personal digital assistant (PDA) device technologies enable instant communication from anywhere, anytime via text messages, camera photos, and video clips[28].

Media richness theory

Communication techniques have not advanced enough to replicate face-to-face office interactions. In other words, communication failures may increase.(English editionAccording to, face-to-face communication has the ability to process rich information. It can clarify ambiguous issues, provide immediate feedback and provide personalized communication (Body language, Voice tones, etc.)[29].. Working from home requires communication using various types of media such as telephone and email. And, there is a time lag in emails, and you cannot get immediate feedback. Also, in a telephone conversation, it becomes difficult to assess the emotions of the other party or team.[30].. Thus, typical organizational communication patterns change when working from home. For example, using a computer conferenceComputer-mediated communicationTeams using stake more time to make group decisions than face-to-face groups[31].

Workers tend to be satisfied with face-to-face interactions, telephone conversations, face-to-face departmental meetings when communicating, but email and the Internet do not enhance communication satisfaction. One study found that virtual workers within a team were more satisfied with technology-mediated communication than in face-to-face office communication.[32], This suggests that telework may not have the "rich communication" element compared to face-to-face communication.[33].

Job characteristic theory

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of working from home are that the characteristics of the work and the task itself affect the attitude and behavior of employees toward work.(English editionCan be explained by[34].. If a job has five characteristics (skill diversity, task completeness, task importance, autonomy, and feedback), the employee who takes the job is motivated for the job and has an opportunity for self-growth. Expected to experience satisfaction, general satisfaction with work, improved work performance, reduced absenteeism and job separation[34][35].. Many studies provide evidence that job characteristics influence employee behavior and attitudes.[36].. In addition, job characteristics interact with individual differences to influence worker attitudes and behaviors.[35][37].. Of these five job traits, telework can affect employee behavior and attitudes, especially because of changes in autonomy and feedback compared to face-to-face work. According to the theory of job characteristics, changes in autonomy and feedback affect work behavior and attitudes more than changes in skill diversity, task completion, and task importance.[34].


Autonomy impacts on experienced responsibilities, and when a work brings freedom, independence and schedule flexibility, one should feel responsible for the outcome of his work. Teleworking gives workers many options by being outside the office, thus providing flexibility and freedom of schedule. Teleworkers don't have to stick to their office routines and can move to different hours of the day[38].. Telework gives employees the freedom to choose where they work, when they work, and even what they wear to do their best work.[12].. Teleworkers can experience more responsibility to the extent they control their work and feel accountable[39].. Telework autonomy also reduces work-family conflicts[40].. Telework is free to arrange work to avoid family conflicts. Increased control over life's demands is one of the main attractions of telework[41].. The level of telework autonomy experienced by employees depends on many factors, including schedule flexibility and household size.[41].. Not only does it reduce the conflict between work and family,Recreational activitiesIt also reduces collisions with. Increased and decreased freedom of time limits will allow workers to participate in more recreational activities, whether social or physical[12].


Feedback, which is a dimension of the profession's character, increases the worker's knowledge of the outcome. Feedback refers to the extent to which an individual receives direct and explicit information about their performance in relation to their work activities.[35].. Feedback is especially important for employees to continually learn about their performance[37].. Telework can be difficult to interpret and obtain information, and then difficult to receive feedback, since there are few clues for teleworkers[38].. Limited information and greater ambiguity, such as quotas and expectations, when workers are not in the office[42].. Role ambiguity is when workers have uncertain expectations about what to do for a situation.[43]Can lead to greater competition, frustration, and fatigue[38].

Communication tailored to individual needs is important for feedback interactions[44].. People,character,temperamentDifferences in the level of need for communication and social connection to the environment[45].. Teleworkers may have reduced levels of communication, but some samples, such as those who have a longer tenure and who have a functional rather than social relationship, are more satisfied with the level of communication Sometimes[33].. Feedback and communication can also be affected by the manager's location. Teleworking by managers often results in poor clarity, speed of response, communication richness, frequency and quality of feedback.[42].

Skill diversity, task completeness, task importance

Three of the five job characteristics, skill diversity, task completion, and task importance, influence how meaningful a worker thinks of his or her job.[37].. Skill diversity is the degree to which activities and skill diversity required for a job are required to complete the job. Increasing skill diversity is thought to increase job satisfaction. The more rewarding a job is, the more experiential and meaningful the person is, how much they value the work, and how rewarding they are.[37][34].. Teleworking may not have a direct impact on individual skill diversity and meaningfulness of work as compared to working in the office, but when working in groups, individual skills Diversity and work significance may increase. If work at home is focused on individuals rather than teams, chances of using multiple skills may be reduced[46].

Task completeness is whether the person watches the work from start to finish, or not only small parts, but identifiable parts and the completeness of the work. Task importance is the degree to which an individual feels that his or her work has a significant impact on the lives and work of others inside or outside the organization.[37][46].. In telework, job characteristics such as skill diversity, task completion, and task importance may be the same as when working in the office, but the presence of these characteristics affects the work outcomes and attitudes of teleworkers. It will have an impact.

Individual difference

Individuals may have different reactions to work characteristics when working from home. According to the theory of job characteristics, the strength of the individual's desire to achieve or grow affects the individual's reaction to the work aspect of working from home.[35].. For example, those with a strong growth desire respond more positively to improving autonomy while working at home and are more negative to reducing feedback than those with a low growth desire. It becomes to show a reaction.

Other theory

Telework is a new form of work with a flexible structure that differs from the traditional working environment.[47].. In addition to job characteristic theory, various job design theories are useful in explaining the difference between telework and the conventional working environment.

Motivation/hygiene theory

(English editionThen.[48], It distinguishes between motivational factors (motivators) and hygiene factors (hygiene). Telework may reduce motivation factors such as awareness and career advancement[49].. When a teleworker is physically absent, it can be "invisible and uninteresting" to other workers in the office. Moreover, teleworking is not always favored by management because they fear being placed under the control of management.[50].. A 2008 study found that the more time you spend working from home, the less noticeable the productivity of homeworkers in the eyes of business owners.[51].. Telework may improve hygiene aspects such as the work environment so that teleworkers can work in different locations.[47][49].. Thus, telework has different work motivation and hygiene factors than office work.[49].

Social information processing

(English editionSuggests that individuals give meaning to work characteristics[52].. One has the ability to build one's own environmental awareness by interpreting social clues[53].. This social information can be obtained from outright remarks from colleagues, cognitive appraisal of work or task dimensions, past behavior, and so on. This social context can influence an individual's beliefs about the nature of work, their expectations of behavior, and the potential consequences of their behavior, especially in uncertain situations.[53].. In teleworking, social interaction and communication optimized for individuals have less social cues because it takes longer to process communication via computer than face-to-face communication.[54].

Society-Technology Systems

(English edition(STS) describes the interaction of social and technical factors. In short, STS is a theory that examines the relationship between people, skills, and work environment in order to design jobs to increase job satisfaction and productivity.[47].. Originally, the theory was developed to explain the paradox that technology advances but productivity declines.[55]It can also be applied to telework design. One of the principles of STS is the minimum critical specification[56].. The principle states that the objectives and ways of doing work should be kept to a minimum, unless absolutely necessary, to avoid closing options or blocking effective behavior. .. Telework gives teleworkers the freedom to decide when and how they work.[12].. Similarly, teleworkers are responsible for using their equipment and resources to fulfill their responsibilities. In this way, the sense of responsibility for work increases[56]Telework is a privilege and underscores the idea that some companies consider it a promotion.[49].

Adaptive structure theory

Adaptive structure theory is a theory that explains changes in organizations when new technologies are introduced.[57].. Adaptive structural theory indicates that structure (general rules and resources provided by technology) and structuring (how people actually use these rules and resources) may differ.[47].. There is an interaction between the intended use of technology and the way people use it. Telework provides a social structure that enables and constrains certain interactions[58].. For example, in an office environment, it may be common to interact face-to-face with others, but to achieve interpersonal interaction while working from home, it may be necessary to utilize other forms of interaction. Adaptive structure theory suggests that rules and resources for social interaction change as technology becomes used over time.[57].. Teleworking can change the way traditional work is done, mainly by switching from face-to-face communication to electronic communication.[47].

Potential benefits

When a company is in control, terms such as home shoring and home sourcing are sometimes used[59].

Summary of benefits

  • Worker Preference-Teleworkers often need or want to work from home. Such people usually appreciate this opportunity.
  • Cost reductions for employers as they often provide phones and computer systems. In addition, the employer can save money in the office space.
  • Employing teleworkers who live in the local area may remove prejudice formed from local accents, manners and speech codes.
  • There are tax benefits for workers who use part of their home for business purposes.
  • Can provide work to people who cannot move from home due to disabilities

Home sourcing is growing at about 20% annually (2006), according to research firm IDC, and "is likely to explode"[60].


Working from home benefits society in economic, environmental and personal terms.ICTThe spread of is a great benefit to employees, especially those with physical disabilities. Also,economic growthWithout adversely affectingEnergy savingIt also leads to the realization of society[61].. Working from home benefits local communities, employers and employees. For the local community, telecommuting expands employment by increasing employment opportunities for those who are alienated in some circumstances, such as parents, carers, disabled people, retirees and people living in remote areas.Traffic jamAnd reduction of traffic accidents, reduction of burden on transportation infrastructure,Greenhouse gasBenefits such as reduced energy consumption, reduced energy use, and better preparedness for disasters[62].

For companies, working from home expands the talent pool, prevents the spread of illness,Real estateFootprintIncluding cost reduction, productivity improvement,Carbon dioxide emissionsAnd reduction of energy usage,Americans with Disabilities Act(ADA) compliance and a means by which Americans can receive tax credits to reduce turnover and absenteeism, improve employee morale, strengthen business continuity strategies, span multiple time zones There are merits such as improving the ability to respond to business and strengthening cultural adaptability. According to some estimates, introducing full-time telework will save about $20,000 per employee.[63].

Among teleworkers, especially those who work "at home"Work life balanceImprovement, reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption, elimination of working hours (time spent commuting) from 15 to 25 days per year, and savings of thousands of dollars in travel and work-related costs per year can do[64][65].. Save more than $40 billion annually on businesses, communities and employees through half-time teleworking by those who have a rewarding job (79%) and those who want it (6,500%) Can[66].

Environmental benefits

Working from home, "Revising the Air Pollution Control Act was adopted in 1996 to reduce the level of carbon dioxide and the ozone layer at the ground level by 25%."[67]It was established in the United States as a result. Under this law, for companies with more than 100 employees,Car poolIt was mandatory to encourage public transport, reduced working hours and working from home. In 2004, legislation was enacted in parliament to encourage telecommuting in certain federal agencies. The bill threatened to deduct funds from institutions that failed to provide all qualified employees with the option to work from home.

If you have a telework-enabled job and want to work from home in 40% of the U.S. population, you spend half of your time working:

  • The country is 280,000,000 barrels (45,000,000 m)3) Oil will be saved (37% of the Gulf oil imports).
  • In terms of the environment, the savings are equivalent to permanently leaving 900 million cars off the road.
  • Energy gained from fuel savings is more than double the combined amount of all renewable energy sources currently produced by the United States[68].

In the UK, increasing the number of home-based employees is estimated to save more than 30 million tonnes of carbon dioxide pollution each year, in addition to the economic benefits of £300 billion in annual savings for UK employers and employees Has been[69].

Work attitude

(English editionAccording to job characteristics,Job satisfactionRelationship was shown to be moderately strong[70].. It was also found that among the five job characteristics, autonomy has a strong relationship with job satisfaction, and the higher the autonomy, the higher the job satisfaction.[70].. Teleworkers may be more satisfied with their work because of their flexibility and autonomy. We also found that teleworkers are more satisfied than workers who work in the office.[71][49].. Autonomy increases the satisfaction of teleworkers and conflicts between work and family, especially when they are allowed to work outside of conventional work hours and are more flexible for their families.[41][72]Found to reduce[42].. Furthermore, if the time spent on telework increases,(English editionCan be explained by autonomy[38].. In addition, in a survey conducted by FlexJobs on more than 3000 people, 81% of respondents said that flexible work options increase their loyalty to employers.[73].

Productivity and employee benefits

Working from home has long been promoted as a way to significantly increase employee productivity.Stanford UniversityBeijing UniversityProfessor is a leading ChineseTravel agencyIn a homework-related experiment conducted with 242 employees, we found that when randomly assigned employees worked at home for 9 months, they showed a 13.5% increase compared to an office-based control group. The productivity was improved. Such productivity gains are due to 9% more work hours saved by commuting and 3.5% efficiency improvement due to quieter working conditions. The study also found that telecommuters were significantly more satisfied with their jobs, and their turnover dropped by nearly 50%. However, the promotion rate for teleworkers has been halved due to a noticeable drop in performance, indicating the potential career costs of working from home.[74].

Telework flexibility is a desirable prerequisite for employees. Recruiting firm Robert Half International's 1,400CFORobert Half International Financial Recruiting Index for 2008 shows that 13% consider teleworking to be the best recruitment incentive for current accounting professionals[75].. In previous surveys, 33% considered telework to be the best recruitment incentive, and half considered telework to be the second best incentive.[76].

With less work time regulation in telework, employee efforts and dedication are far more likely to be assessed purely by output and results. Unproductive labor activities (research, self-training, dealing with technical problems and equipment failures) and time lost due to failed attempts (early drafts, fruitless efforts, failed innovations). The traces of, if any, are barely noticeable to employers. Work-at-home, commission, or other performance-based compensation is also more likely to be a teleworker. In addition, most of the costs per employee, from simple things like coffee, water, electricity and telecommunications services to huge capital costs such as office equipment and software licenses, are borne by the telecommuters themselves. There is. Thus, time spent at work tends to be underestimated, expenses are underreported, and numbers for productivity and savings tend to be optimistic, but some or all I'm actually out of my homework time and wallet[77][78][79].

International facts and experience have shown that telework has broad benefits for individuals, employers and society at large. Telework can change over time by changing the way business is performed. For example, according to a recent Australian study, telework enabled by the National Broadband Network will add another $2020 billion in gross domestic product by 83, which is equivalent to an additional 25,000 full-time jobs. It is expected to create jobs. Of this, about 1 jobs will be created in rural Australia. Environmentally, it is estimated that 10% of Australian employees can save 1 million liters of fuel and 2,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide by spending half of their working hours on telework. In addition, teleworking at this rate will result in productivity gains of $32 billion to $14 billion annually.[80].

Willingness to retire

(English editionRegarding teleworkers are lower than normal workers[12].. Teleworkers with a high sense of work isolation were actually less willing to leave[51].. One study reported that clearly communicating goals, objectives and expectations increased feedback and task completion, reduced teleworker willingness to leave and improved work quality.[81].

Meta-analysis of advantages and disadvantages

From a meta-analysis of 12,833 work-at-home studies by Ravi Gagendran and David A. Harrison in the Journal of Applied Psychology of 46 employees, work-at-home was identified as Found to have a big positive impact on employers[82][12].. In the Gagendran and Harrison meta-analysis study, teleworking was modest in employee job satisfaction, perceived autonomy, stress levels, manager-evaluated job performance, and low work-family conflicts. It turned out to have a beneficial effect. In addition, working from home reduces the will to retire (the desire to quit the job). Working from home showed higher work satisfaction, lower willingness to leave, and reduced role stress, partly because of reduced work-family conflict. Further, improving autonomy by working from home improves job satisfaction.

Many scholars and managers were worried that working from home could impair the careers of employees or the relationships in the workplace. It has been found that there is generally no adverse effect on career outcomes. It was found that working from home had a positive effect on the relationship between employees and their bosses, and that the relationship between job satisfaction and willingness to leave was partly due to the quality of the relationship with their boss. Only high-intensity work-at-home (working at least 2.5 days a week) negatively affected employee-colleague relationships, but reduced work-family conflicts.

Potential drawbacks and concerns

Skill diversity is most strongly associated with intrinsic work motivation[36].. Jobs that can use various skills increase motivation for endogenous jobs. In the case of telework, if there are limited opportunities for teamwork or less opportunities to use various skills[46], Intrinsic motivation for work may be reduced. Social isolation can also lead to reduced motivation[72].. It can be said that the ability to increase motivation is more important when working from home than when working from the office when the work environment and boss are not near. While working in the office can be distracting, it is often said that working from home is often even more distracting. According to one study, children were the most distracted, followed by spouses, pets, neighbors and lawyers. Also, the lack of suitable tools and equipment can lead to terrible distraction.[83]Short-termCoworkingIt can be reduced by using the space for rental.

Face-to-face interactions enhance interpersonal relationships, connections and trust[51].. Therefore, in a 2012 survey, 54% of teleworkers believe they have lost social interaction and 52.5% feel they have lost professional interaction.[72].. Teleworking can undermine a work relationship between a teleworker and a colleague, especially if the colleague is not teleworking. Colleagues who do not telework may feel resented or jealous because they may consider it unfair if they are not authorized to telework.[12][49].. However, a meta-analysis of working from home shows that there is little sense of interpersonal conduct or work,[51], No results were obtained to support negative relationships between teleworkers and colleagues or between teleworkers and bosses.[12].. 75% of executives say they trust their employees, but one-third want to be able to meet them "just in case"[84].

Workers working from home feel the pressure to do more because they think they are worth it and reduce the idea that they are doing less work than others. There is a possibility that The pressure to deliver results like this leads to reduced engagement of teleworkers with their work, as well as lack of social support due to limited peer relationships and isolation.[38].. In addition, high-quality relationships with teammates may reduce teleworker satisfaction with their work and may be due to their frustration with interacting through technology.[85].. However, colleague support for team building and virtual social groups had a direct impact on job satisfaction.[81][71].. It is considered that this is due to improvement of skill diversity by teamwork and improvement of task importance due to more human relationships.

Inconsistent observations about telework and satisfaction may be explained by more complex relationships. Perhaps due to the effect of autonomy, the satisfaction of the first job increases as the amount of telecommuting increases, but as the telecommuting increases, feedback and task importance decrease, and job satisfaction levels off. Slightly degraded[86].. Thus, it can be considered that the time spent working from home affects the relationship between working at home and job satisfaction. Barriers to continued expansion of work from home include distrust of employers and personal isolation of employees.[87].. In a telework environment, employees and bosses will need to work hard to maintain relationships with colleagues[88].. In addition, the company may become isolated from the day-to-day activities of the company, become less conscious of other things that are occurring in the company, and dislike other employees who are not working from home. There is[89].. Some people think that working from home is "complementary, rather than a substitute for work in the workplace."[90].

Security needs to accommodate teleworkers and non-teleworkers. In 2006,United States Department of Veterans AffairsEmployee's laptop was stolen and said, "The largest eversocial Security numberCould result in loss of[91].. The person in question was not a telecommuter, but the case highlighted the risks inherent in working away from the workplace. 90% of large corporate security officers feel that working from home is not a security concern. This is due to the lack of training, tools, and skills that teleworkers receive, so they care about the rare jobs that non-teleworkers bring from the office[92].. In other studies of job trait theory, job feedback appears to be most strongly associated with overall job satisfaction as compared to other job traits.[36].. Communication during telework is not as immediate or rich as face-to-face interaction[29].. Low feedback during telework is associated with low work involvement[38].. Thus, as perceived boss support and quality of relationships between leaders and teleworkers decline, teleworker job satisfaction declines.[41][93].. The importance of communication between managers and teleworkers has been shown in a study that found that teleworking by managers reduces individual satisfaction with work[42].

Managers may think that teleworker productivity has declined during the first few months. This loss of productivity occurs at the "employee, co-worker, manager gets used to the new style of work" stage[94].. Poor productivity can also be due to an unsuitable office environment. In addition, a 1999 survey found that "1 minutes a day in a typical office is wasted due to interruptions, chatting around copiers, and other distractions."[95].. More than two-thirds of employers report increased productivity for teleworkers, according to a 2008 survey[96].. Traditional line managers are accustomed to managing by observation, not necessarily by results. As a result, this is a serious obstacle for organizations that want to introduce telecommuting.[97].. Responsibility and worker accident compensation can also be a serious issue. Weak relationships between aspects of work and work outcomes, such as work performance and absenteeism, may be the reason for conflicting performance and telework results.[37].. In some studies, telework increases worker productivity.[98], It is clear that it will lead to performance evaluation of the boss and improvement of performance evaluation[12].. However, another study found that the professional isolation of teleworkers led to poor work performance, especially for those who spent more time on telework and had less face-to-face interaction. Are[51].. Thus, as with attitudes toward work, time spent on telework can affect the relationship between telework and work performance.

Telework can also have an adverse effect on one's career. A recent survey of 71 business owners in 1,300 countries found that those who respond were less likely to be promoted by teleworkers. Companies rarely promote those who have not consistently seen their work to leadership roles[99].. Due to lack of supervisionProcrastinationThe decrease in productivity due to the continuation of a decrease in the quality of the work of the employee. These factors are some of the negative effects telework has on one's career.[100].

Telework scam

Telework and telecommuting scams are very common, and many of these jobs are scams that claim that you can make a quick buck while working from home. In fact, many of these scams have to be invested in advance and have no return in the end.[101].. In 2006US Federal Trade CommissionIt has become so widespread that the FTC has set up a "False and Hopes" eradication agency by federal and state law enforcement agencies targeting fake business opportunities and home work fraud. This crackdown includes the FTC, the Department of Justice,(English editionContains over 11 law enforcement actions by 100 state law enforcement agencies[Source required]. "Fake business opportunities traverse the American dream of economic independence," said FTC chairman Deborah Pratt Majoras. "A business opportunity is almost certainly a scam if it promises no risk, little effort, and big profits. These scams are promised by consumers no matter how much time and money they invest. It's just a pitfall of money that doesn't give you that kind of wealth and financial freedom.''[102].FBIWarned about such a scam in February 2009.

"Home workSearching for the word, more than 300% of the more than 95 million web entries were scams, links to scams, or other dead ends.Home-based work scams generate more than $ 5 million annually for perpetrators, and home-based business scams generate an additional $ 2 million annually.[103]. Even sites that claim to be fraudulent often see ads that link to the fraud. According to Staffcentrix CEO Kristin Durst, there is a 48:1 ratio of fraud and legitimate job listings to home-based work listings on the Internet.[104].

Reported issues

Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionIn relation toMainichi NewspapersIn the spring of 2020, he said, "The pregnant women who want to work from home can't be treated specially." However, he said that there are many workplaces that require the same work as before, saying that "it cannot be treated specially." Experts point out that "the attitude to tackle work style reform in each workplace is highlighted"[105].

According to the article, a pregnant woman in her thirties working at a bank asked her boss if she could relocate to a less customer-facing position or take leave to reduce the risk of infection. I lost my words." The woman exudes anxiety, saying, "I don't think my colleague may be infected, but if my baby is bad...". However, he said he was at a loss because "I want to work here for a long time, so I can't say I can't say it because of human relationships."[105].

2020年9月に出産予定の20歳代小学校教員は同年4月上旬、事務作業を自宅でできないか上司に相談した所「特別扱いはできない」と拒否された。前月・3月末には管理職ら数人が夜の会食をしており「感染防止の意識が低く、同じ部屋で働くことが苦痛だった」と明かす。緊急事態宣言が出された2020年4月7日以降は職場全体で在宅勤務が認められたが、同年5月に学校が再開されると電車で1時間かけて通うことになるとも伝えられた[105]. Kyodo News also said in June 2020 that "about 6% of pregnant women work mainly at work rather than at home," a private-sector survey found. It is said that more than 4% is limited to medical staff[106]. Of the 4% of respondents who answered that the work system is "going to work and going to work more often" in the news, about 29% were full-time workers, and about 6% were working part-time. Part-time job is about 4%. It is also said that medical staff had full time of 4% or more.[106].

Current trends



There is an employment relationship as a category of telework in Japan. Employed by companies and government offices, "employee-type", such as working from home,business center"Self-employed" or "non-employed" is a widely used category[107][108]. Also,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAccording to the Telework Population Survey of, the people who work 1 hours or more per week using information and communication equipment are called "teleworkers in a narrow sense", and others are "teleworkers in a broad sense".[109]. In addition, Akio Sato says that employment type and non-employment type can be divided into work-at-home, mobile work, SOHO, and work-at-home.[108]. The outline of each is as follows.

  • Employment type
    • Home-based telework- Working from home. Stay at home and contact the office via the Internet, computer, phone, etc.
    • Mobile work-Instead of going to work every day, work with a laptop, mobile phone, etc. while on the move or at a customer site.
  • Non-employment type
    • SOHO-Sole proprietor. You must have a legal personality.
    • Home workType-Individuals contract or register with a telework mediation company to enter data, collect addresses, create homepages, etc.It is also a form that is ridiculed as "computer internal work" because of low income.

In addition to the above, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications added facility-based work[Note 1]Is defined.


According to the 17 Telework Survey (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), there were 2005 million teleworkers in a narrow sense in Japan as of 674.[Note 2]There is. According to the "eJAPAN Strategy II" formulated by the government in July 2003, 7% of Japan's working population in 2010[Note 3]Has a goal of becoming a teleworker.

On the other hand, some have pointed out that this number is too large. As an example, "Because the survey is judged based on the definition regardless of the person's awareness, it becomes a teleworker if he takes home more than 8 hours a week and works overtime," (Sato, 2008).[108].

Japan is for commutersPublic transportThat the net is widely developed compared to other countries,Company OfPersonnel evaluationDue to system issues, the spread of telework was delayed in Japan by 2019,2019 New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Infection ofExpand globallyIn the meantime, amended on April 2020, 4 in Tokyo, etc.New influenza measures special measures lawWhen a state of emergency is issued based on, there are many opportunities for contact with people.crowded trainTelework was recommended to solve the problem. Although there was almost no preparation period, there were a number of companies that switched to telework. Although not all reductions due to telework as they include simple dismissals and home waiters,Marunouchi,YaesuThere are offices of relatively large companies in the vicinityTokyo StationUsers decreased by 7 to 47.8% and at 8:67.7 to XNUMX%[110].

Telework solution

When introducing telework, companies need to consider three aspects: telework solutions, labor management, and work environment. Especially when working from home, I often work while looking at the computer screen.Guidelines for occupational health management in VDT ​​workIt is necessary to have a working environment that takes into consideration ".

Telework Day

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism,Cabinet Secretariat,Cabinet OfficeIn cooperation with the Tokyo metropolitan area and the business world, July 2020, when the opening ceremony of the Tokyo Olympics is scheduled to be held every year until 7, has been designated as "Work and Change Day Telework Day" Calling for simultaneous telework implementation[111][112].

  • 1st (2017)-More than 900 groups, about 6.3 participants[111].NTT CommunicationsHas about 800 employees working from home all day long[113].Yahoo!Carried out telework with 3000 people, which is half of all employees, and worked in a space that suits their work style, such as at home, cafe, satellite office, etc.[113].Sunny side upIs one of the stations closest to the head officeNational Stadium StationIntroduced the "Let's get on the down train" plan and held a meeting at Umi no Ie and Mt. Takaosan[113].
  • The 2nd (2018)-Held as Telework Days (week of July 7, total of 23 days including 24 days), 2 groups registered as implementation groups[114].

Whether or not to wear a suit

2020 year 8 month,K-51 InternationalFor men in their 20s and 50s who have experience in purchasing custom suits,New coronaAnd a survey on "order suits".New coronavirusinfectionBy expansionEmergency declarationIn response to the announcement and request to refrain from going outRemote workThe work style of (telework) has increased rapidly,suitWearing was "significantly reduced (38.5%)", "slightly reduced (24.0%)", "unchanged (18.0%)", "not worn at all (18.0%)", "significantly increased (1.0%)", "a little" Increased (0.5%) ”was obtained. But importantConferenceAnd so onVideo conferenceMore than 8% of the respondents answered "Yes (81.8%)" (wearing) in the online business negotiations.[115][116].


Companies often provide teleworkers with access to internal applications that can be accessed from remote devices such as tablets and laptops. While these devices are gaining popularity among employees, they have various compatibility issues due to the different underlying operating systems. But desktop virtualization, especiallyRemote desktop virtualizationAllows you to access legacy applications and operating systems from your mobile device.

US federal government

Since 2000,Federal law(Ministry of Transport and related ministries) Requires each government agency to establish a policy regarding telecommuting so that the target employees can participate in telecommuting as much as possible, unless the employee's performance is degraded.[117].. That is, federal law mandates that each agency must establish a telework program, but does not give individual employees the legal right to telework.[118].

If all federal employees who are qualified to telework full time are teleworked, the federal government could save $139 billion a year in commuting costs and save £9 a year on pollutants.[119].. Due to the events of 2007,US federal governmentTelework was pushed to the front as an important measurement for Telework includes business continuity (COOP), national pandemic planning, reduction of dependence on foreign oil and rising gas prices, Defense Force Base Closure and Reorganization Commission (BRAC), staff It is related to the focus on recruitment and retention. During the keynote speech at the Telework Exchange Town Hall Meeting held on September 2007, 9,(English editionWas the Secretary(English editionAnnounced aggressive commitment goals to increase institutional telework participation. Her challenge was to have 2010% of targeted institutional staff able to telework more than one day a week by 50. As of 1, 2007% of eligible GSA staff are doing telework, compared to 10% of all federal workers. Her goal was to reach 4.2% by the end of 2008, 20% by the end of 2009, and finally 40% by 2010.[120].

2007 yearsAmerican National Science FoundationIn a survey of staff, about one-third participated in telework on a regular basis, and staff were happy with the program, which saved staff time and greenhouse gas emissions. It has been pointed out that[121][122].. Congressman Sarbanes (D-MD) submitted the "2009 Telework Improvement Act" in March 3. Co-sponsors of the bill include lawmaker Connori (D-VA). Konori (D-VA), Wolf (R-VA) and Kapito (R-WV) became co-sponsors of the bill. The bill requires that each agency establish a policy that allows employees to telework to the maximum extent possible without compromising employee performance or administration. At the same time, in the US Senate, Senator Akaka (D-HI), along with Senator Landryu (D-LA) and Voynovich (R-OH), submitted the bill.[123].

On May 2010, 5, the Senate passed the Telework Enhancement Act (S.24) proposed by Senators Daniel Akaka (Hawaii) and George Vonovich (Ohio). The bill entitles federal employees to telework, requires federal agencies to establish telework policies, and identify telework managers.[124]。2010年7月14日、下院は「2010年テレワーク改善法」(H.R.1722)を290-131で可決した。米国上院は2010年9月29日に全会一致で法案の最終版を可決し、下院は2010年11月18日に254-152の超党派投票で可決した[125].. On December 2010, 12, President Obama signed the 9 Telework Enhancement Act (HR2010)[126].. The 2012 Telework Enhancement Act provided a framework for US agencies to provide telework to employees as a viable option. The main objectives of the Telework Strengthening Law that increase the number of employees who perform telework are the following three: (3) improvement of business continuity, (1) promotion of management effectiveness, (2) work-life balance Is strengthening[127].

The 2012 Status Telework in the Federal Government provides highlights of telework over the past 2012 months and goals for improving telework in the future. It has been reported that all 18 institutions participating in the data cell have developed telework policies, with 87% of the policies meeting the requirements of telework legislation. Over 73 federal employees are considered eligible for telework, representing approximately 68% of all federal employees. More than 4,000 Federal employees had telework agreements with their institutions. Twenty-seven percent of work-at-home workers worked at least three days a week[128].. In addition to the findings, the report also looks at telework in the Department of Defense. According to the report, the Department of Defense has more than 79 employees, of which 3,000 are considered for telework. Overall, the federal government seems to be embracing telework, trying to create more remote work opportunities for its employees. Finally, the report lists some ways governments can offer more work through telework. Proposals include using telework as a tool to keep employees near retirement and using telework to increase the employment of highly trained and disabled veterans. It is included[128].

セ ン タ ー

Telework centers are generally mobile,Public transportIt is an office located near a place where there are many people who use. Normally,ProductivityTo maximize your performance, it is equipped with office equipment and high speed internet connection. Some of them have support staff such as reception desks and managers. For example, the Washington metropolitan area has seven telework centers in Maryland, eight in Virginia, three in Washington DC, and one in West Virginia. Telework Centers can work in traditional office environments while reducing commute times. Some telework centers are established by individual companies, while others are established by independent organizations for use by many organizations. Telework centers are also attractive to those who do not have the space to work from home or who do not want to work from home. And it provides employers with the ability to maintain a more formal structure for the workforce.

Such work arrangements are likely to become more popular with the current trend towards service customization and virtual organization. Decentralized work offers great potential for companies, such as cost savings, increased competitive advantage and agility, access to scarce talent, increased employee flexibility, effectiveness and productivity. Are[129][130][131][132].. It has become popular in the West, especially Europe. Decentralized work is not yet widely accepted in Asia, although its importance is increasing[133].

Remote office center

(English edition(ROCs) are decentralized centers that lend offices to individuals from multiple companies. The remote office center offers professional network access, telephone system, security system, mail stop, optional services, etc. for an additional fee. Since ROCs are generally located near where people live in populated areas, workers do not have to commute more than a few miles. Teleworkers work in the actual office, but like traditional telecommutingVPNTo access the corporate network via the Internet.

This type of telecommuting does not fully enjoy the benefits of telecommuting, but can address the needs of employees who cannot or do not want to work from home.

Information security for teleworkers

It's your business to steal information from insecure computers and network connectionshackerFor teleworkers could open doors to the organization's most sensitive data[134].. Security and privacy have become more and more rare these days, thanks to the hacker's ability to stay one step ahead of all the security measures technicians can create. Security breaches are a significant threat in a standard office environment, but the risk is even greater for organizations with employees working from home or on the go.

Data protection and information security are important to the organization, and it is important for the organization to inform teleworkers that employee behavior is important to achieve the overall goal of protecting sensitive data.[134].. Despite increasing awareness and training on security issues, many employees are not taking the necessary precautions to contain security risks.

True security begins with a security policy. Information security professionals can understand that security policies include telecommuting/telework, who can telework, services available to teleworkers, information restrictions, identification/authentication/authorization, and equipment and software specifications. Must be verified to cover integrity, confidentiality, maintenance guidelines, and robust user education[134].

Other countries

According to an article in the New York Times, working from home currently accounts for about 2.6% of the US workforce and does not include remote work such as drivers. The article also mentions the experiment of Nicholas Bloom, a professor of economics at Stanford University. In the experiment, 250 workers were randomly selected from Ctrip, a major Chinese travel agency, to work either at home or in the office. As a result, it was found that those who work from home worked longer hours than those who work from the office. Teleworkers also lived a more productive and happier life. Ctrip saved about 2K by working from home. The retirement rate of teleworkers decreased, but the promotion rate also decreased. Many teleworkers wanted to return to the office at the end because of loneliness and desire to be promoted. Kate Lister, president of Global Workplace Analytics, has come to the conclusion that most workers prefer to work from home and work together. Working from home increases efficiency and increases worker flexibility[135].

Since the United States is highly economical and has ample multimedia services, there is an increasing tendency to use telework. Among the top 10 countries that prefer to work from home, the US is number one[136]Developing countries such as China are catching up with this tendency. According to an article on money.163.com, the number of teleworkers in the Asia-Pacific region is higher than in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa. The number of teleworkers in the Asia-Pacific region is approximately 37%, and in other regions it is approximately 23-4%[137].. It should be noted that not all workers have the opportunity to work from home. One of the ethical issues of working from home is who should be given the opportunity to work from home. Some may have more opportunities to work at home because they have young children, while others may say they have personal problems. And it is preferred by many workers to balance work from home and office work. Many people think that working at home once or twice a week is a reasonable schedule. Companies also support the proposal because they are more satisfied with their workers and they save money.

Effects of coronavirus pandemics

Analysts are currently in progressGlobal pandemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Suggests a potential "turning point" for working from home[138].SeattleThen,Microsoft,Amazon,Facebook,GoogleObliges employees to work from home[139][140].. In addition, the increase in work-at-home as a result of the fashion(English editionVoices suggest that may expand[141].

Related terms and concepts


CoworkingThat means not only the synergistic effect created by people working independently but working in the same space, but also a social gathering created by sharing a common work space. Coworking facilities range from formal office shared spaces to social areas like coffee shops. Entrepreneurs and social entrepreneursBusiness incubator,Seed acceleratorCo-working is often done in shared offices and workshop facilities provided by the organization. For entrepreneurs, coworking enables creative entrepreneurs, researchers, and knowledge workers to meet, share ideas, collaborate, share new research, and find potential partners.

Distributed work

Distributed work is the traditionalofficeIt means performing organizational work in places beyond the boundaries of the workspace. This refers to an organizational mechanism that uses information and communication technology to enable or require workers to work more effectively at appropriate places such as at home or at customers. For example,Financial plannerIf you meet with a customer at the customer's workplace during their lunchtime, the financial planner will be able to use the internet to present financial planning tools or presentations on the mobile computer, even though this is a meeting outside the office. it can. In another example, publisher executives use email and online systems to recommend books and order the latest books from their homes to libraries and university professors. If such decentralized work replaces the commute time of the worker, then it is considered to work from home. If not, it will be telework.


Especially in companies where employees spend a lot of time on the go or in remote areas(English edition,conference room,(English edition, Other shared office facilities can be reserved and used(English edition,(English editionThere are also companies that offer.

Home worker

Home workerOrTeleworkerIsInternational Labor OrganizationIt is defined by the (ILO) as people who work anywhere, other than at home or work, to pay the resulting wages for products or services specified by the employer. There are an estimated 3 million homeworkers in the world,[Source required], These workers are generallyInformal economyIt is difficult to know the exact number because it is working in and is often not registered or contracted. recently,Communication technologyImprovement, supply chain changes, especiallyJust in timeDue to the development of the inventory system ofHome workThe phenomenon of is expanding.Home workers(English editionAre often employed in.

Home workerentrepreneur,Self-employed person,Family businessUnlike, the company is hired by a company to perform certain activities and services from home. Homeworkers do not own or operate the business in which they work. Home workers with advanced skills are especiallyInformation technologyMost home-based workers are considered low-skilled workers, although there are quite a few in the field. Recently, the working conditions of teleworkers have deteriorated[Source required], International development organizations andNongovernmental organizationHas become a concern[Source required].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Satellite office, Telework centers, spot offices, etc.
  2. ^ The breakdown is 506 million for employment type and 168 million for self-employed type
  3. ^ 7000 million x 0.2 = 1400 million


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  • , (2018) Distributed Teams: The Art and Practice of Working Together While Physically Apart,ISBN 978-1732254909
  • Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. 2005ISBN 0-374-29288-4

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