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📝 | For lunch ◎ Simple recipe using seasonal vegetables


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Also for lunch ◎ Simple recipe using seasonal vegetables

 
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Normally, it is a minced meat cutlet that is finished with cabbage, but this time I tried using plenty of Japanese mustard spinach.
 

"Komatsuna", which is in season now, is cheap and nutritious!This time, we used plenty of Japanese mustard spinach, "Menchi-katsu ..." → Continue reading

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Komatsuna

Komatsuna(Komatsuna,scientific name: brassica rapa there. perviridis) IsBrassicaceaeBrassica OfVegetablesIs a kind of.Winter vegetables(Fuyuna),Chinese cabbageAlso called (Uguisuna).Rich in vitamins, iron and calcium in winterGreen and yellow vegetablesso,Kanto-Tokyo areaThere is a lot of production in.It originated in the Komatsugawa area of ​​Tokyo, which has been cultivated since the Edo period.Pickled vegetablesIt has no habit and can be used for various dishes, and is indispensable for New Year's Kanto-style ozoni.

Name and provenance

KomatsunaTsukenaKind (Nozawana,ChingensaiSuch as cruciferousNon-head leafy vegetablesIt is a kind of (general term)Edo PeriodEarly currentTokyoEdogawaKomatsugawaIn the vicinity[3],CucutinaIt is said that the varieties of (stem stand) were improved and started to be cultivated.

Located in the Komatsugawa districtKatori ShrineThe origin of Japanese mustard spinach is transmitted to.1719(Kyoho4 years), 8th Shogun of the Edo Shogunate,Tokugawa YoshimuneVisited Nishikomatsugawa for falconry, and Katori Shrine was selected when eating there, and Kamei Izumi Morinaga, the priest of the time, entertained him, but there were no such ingredients.So he added green vegetables to the mochi soup, and Yoshimune liked this green vegetables, and the name of the place where the shrine was locatedKomatsunaIt was named[4][5]..Also, one theory is that the 5th Shogun,Tokugawa TsunayoshiThere is also a theory that it was named by[3].

KomatsunaEdo PeriodUntil the middleKasai greensWas called. 『Yamato herbSays, "Kasai is long and resembles a daikon."Sequel Edo Sunako,” said that the leaf lovers ordered the leaf leaf from all over the country, but highly evaluated it as “Kasasai green leaf.” Kasai greens became komatsuna by breeding, but the kasai greens depicted in "Honzo Zokufu" are different from the current round leaf komatsuna. According to Takashi Aoba, Komatsugawa's (1651-1676) improved Kasai greens into Komatsuna, but according to "Edogawa Ward History", Kasai greens, which Kyubei Kudoya had a good reputation, were purposefully sent up from Edo. And acted as a person. With Kyubei Sobaya, he was so awkward that he was too much of a playground.Ukiyo SoshiIt is a wealthy merchant in the upper part, which has become the story of "The Story of Sokyu Ikusei."

One of the reasons Kasai-na was renamed Komatsuna was to bring back manure from Edo city.Lower fertilizerSome people cite the existence of the Kasai Bune, which carried vegetables to Edo.It was simply called Kasai as another name for Kasai ship.It is assumed that he disliked the word Kasai, which is associated with the smell of human waste as an image at that time, and took the name of Komatsu, which was named after the congratulatory Tokiwa pine.[Source required].

Features

Komatsuna represents Kanto and TokyoPickled vegetablesIt is a type of leaf that is distributed all year round, but in the winter season when the season comes, the green color of the leaves becomes darker and the taste improves.[3]..The leaves are rounded, the front is dark green, and the back is slightly light green.[6]..It is resistant to cold, and when exposed to frost, it accumulates sugar in the leaves and increases its sweetness.[6]..There are early-maturing varieties and late-maturing varieties, and cultivation is celebrated year-round.[6]..There are many closely related species in Niigata prefectureMeike greensThere are also local varieties such as Meikena and Nobuona from Fukushima Prefecture.[6].Rape blossomIt is a member of the group, and when it grows, a yellow cross-shaped flower blooms.[6].

  • Shrinking Japanese mustard spinach-an improved variety with crepe-like wrinkles on the leaves.It has a nice texture and sweetness, and is suitable for soaking and stir-frying.[3].
  • Jumbo Komatsuna-larger than standard Japanese mustard spinach, 40-50 in lengthCentimeter Can also be (cm)[3]..It has a little green odor and a crispy texture.[3].
  • Uguisu-na-A fast-paced Japanese mustard spinach or turnip.It has this name because it was harvested when the Japanese bush warbler rang in the spring.Used for kaiseki soup, cooking, etc.[6].
  • Chihosai-A leafy vegetable made by crossing komatsuna and cabbage by biotechnology.The leaves are dark green and thick, and can be used in various ways regardless of Japanese, Western, or Chinese cuisine.[6].

Producing area

Komatsuna is a vegetable that has been popular in the Kanto and Tokyo regions for a long time, partly because it began to be cultivated in Edo during the Edo period.TokyoThen, even outside of Edogawa Ward, where the cultivation of Japanese mustard spinach began,Katsushika,Adachi,Hachioji City,Musashimurayama-shi,Machida-shi,Fuchu-shi,TachikawaAreas where production is active are outstanding. However, as a cultivation area other than Tokyo,Saitama,Kanagawa,ChibaNear Tokyo (Capital Area) Was conspicuous. But thenOsaka-Hyogo-Aichi-FukuokaIt was also actively produced in the suburbs of large cities such as Japan.

According to the statistics of 2019 production, the annual production volume in Japan is 11.T (t), planted area is 7300Ha (ha)[7]..The top production volume by prefecture is ranked first.Ibaraki(20,400 t), 2nd place is Saitama prefecture (14,300 t), 3rd place is Fukuoka prefecture (12,000 t), 4th place is Tokyo (8,270 t), 5th placeGunmaFollowing (6,920 t), there are many mainly in the Kanto and Tokyo regions.[7]..The most popular season is January-February in winter, and it is also popular in October in autumn.[6].

Cultivation

Komatsuna has strong cold resistance, so in winterFrostIt rarely withers even if the leaves freeze due to the rain or the extremely strong cold.Because of this, Komatsuna has been popular as one of the winter seasons.But,HonshuIn such cases, it is possible to cultivate the whole year without snow, so it gradually began to be cultivated throughout the year.It takes 80 to 90 days for autumn and winter sowing, while it takes about 20 days for summer to cultivate.

For the purpose of pest control and stable production that do not rely solely on pesticides, cultivation in unheated greenhouses has been attempted mainly in summer and winter. In addition to market shipment,Agricultural products direct sale placeIt is also sold at.

Cultivation method

Komatsuna is resistant to both heat and cold, grows well in the half shade, and can be easily cultivated in planters.Suitable temperature for cultivation is 20-30 degrees,SeriesIs not possible, leave 3-4 years free in the same field[8]..Cultivation difficulty is easy[8], Relatively diseasedContinuous cropping disorderBecause there are fewKitchen gardenBut it’s easy to grow,pestEasy to eat.Generally, there are methods to grow in spring and autumn, and in the case of spring, choose a variety that is easier to grow and in the case of spring, it is difficult for the tow to stand.[8]..The fields should have good sunlight and drainage, and by 3 weeks before sowing, the ripe compost should be squeezed into the fertile soil containing a lot of organic matter.[8].

Sow the seeds all over in a narrow space, and in a wide space, the width is about 70 cm (cm).RidgeIn addition, sprinkle in two rows, or sprinkle 2-15 grains in one place with a spacing of about 1 cm.[8]..After sowing the seeds, cover the soil thinly so that the seeds cannot be seen.[8].

Thin out to the extent that the leaves do not touch[9]..The first decimation is performed when there are 2 true leaves, the second is performed when there are 2 true leaves, and the third is performed when there are 4-3 true leaves.[9]..Timing is important, and if thinning is delayed, it grows softly and protracted.[9]..After thinning out, perform soil gathering, dilute liquid fertilizer and add fertilizer every other week.[9]..Since 30 days after sowing, a large amount of fertilizer is suddenly absorbed, so it is recommended to add fertilizer with a fertilizer containing a large amount of calcium.[9]..When the stock grows to a certain extent, harvest it while thinning it out as needed.[9]..Thinned leaves that appear on the way can also be used for food[9].

OrLiquid fertilizerUsedHydroponicsThere is also a way to isolate the crop from the soil and keep it clean.Even in ordinary households, it can be cultivated by making a nursery using containers and pots with a depth of 20 cm or more.[9].

Cultivation period

The optimum temperature for growing Komatsuna is about 10 ° C to 25 ° C, and the season is winter because the mesophyll becomes thicker, softer, and sweeter during the frosty season.However,HonshuBut during the winter, on the ridgesmulchingIn some cases, it may be necessary to create a tunnel with non-woven fabric, etc., to protect it from frost, and to take measures against the cold to support germination and growth.[8].

Komatsuna can be cultivated throughout the year. Although it can be harvested in about 1 days from sowing in the warm season,Sowing seedsThe cultivation period changes depending on the season.

  • If you sow seeds in spring, you can harvest them in about 90 days.
  • When you sow seeds in summer, you can harvest them in about 30 days.
  • When you sow seeds in autumn, you can harvest them in about 90 days.
  • If you sow seeds in winter, you can harvest them in about 110 days.

Cultivation in the kitchen garden

  • Sat
    • It is easy to use potting compost for vegetables containing original fertilizer.For soil improvement, it is advisable to add 5 kg or more of ripe compost per square meter.[10]
  • Sowing seeds
    • The optimum temperature for germination is 5°C to 30°C. When seeds are sown, germination occurs in 1 to 3 days in warm summer and in 1 week in cold winter.
  • Thinning
    • When the leaves of Komatsuna come into contact with each other in the potThinningTo do. You can also eat thinned young Komatsuna.
  • Pest control
    • Caterpillar,AphidsIt's easy to eat, so if you find one, remove it immediately or take countermeasures with an insect repellent net.
  • 収穫
    • Harvest by pulling it out by hand or cutting the leaves with scissors. About 4 or 5 true leaves and a plant height of about 20 cm are suitable for harvesting. If you grow too much, the fiber quality will become stronger and the texture will deteriorate, so it is good to harvest early.

Number

Komatsuna is distributed all year round, but it is the original ingredient.SeasonIn winter (December-March)[12], In the Kanto / Tokyo regionChinese cabbageTo be the representative of[13]..The leaves are thick and green and fresh, and the ones that are not mixed with yellow ones, and the ones that the stems are overgrown and do not want to be hard and have thick roots are considered to be good products with high market value.[12][3].

Tokyo styleZoniIt is one of the vegetables that is indispensable to.SpinachAlthough it is often used in a similar way to (Chenopodiaceae), it is more versatile than spinach because of its light taste and ease of use, and because it has less lye, it can be fried or boiled without boiling. It is a vegetable that can be used for cooking and is easy to eat with any cooking method.[14][3].

Mainly used for Japanese food,Miso SoupJuice fruit, such ascasseroleOther than that,Otashi,Topping,Stir fry,picklesWidely used[12][3]..Komatsuna has been recognized as a "winter vegetable" cultivated in the Kanto and Tokyo regions since the Edo period, so it is the New Year's season in the Kanto and Tokyo regions.ZoniAlso used for[3]..Not only miso and soy sauceバ タ ー,creamIt goes well with and can be cooked in a Western style.

When cooking, it is common to cut off the roots and cut the leaves and stems into small pieces.[3]..When heating, it is recommended to start cooking from the stems that are difficult to cook.[3]..Komatsuna rape blossoms (Nabana (Nanohana)) Is said to be better eaten in the buds, as it produces harshness when the flowers open.

In Japan, Komatsuna seeds are available in a stable manner, and are easy to cultivate and grow quickly. Therefore, growth test (evaluation of fertilizer effect) and germination test (compostIt is commonly used for the evaluation of the maturity level.

Nutrition

Eatable part of fresh leaves 100G per (g)CalorieIs 14Kilocalie (kcal), the water content is about 94%,carbohydrateIs 2.4 g,protein1.5 g,ash1.3 g,LipidContains 0.2 g[5]..KomatsunaGreen and yellow vegetablesAnd abundantβ-carotene,Vitamin C,calcium,,potassium,Dietary fiberIs included and its high nutritional value is well known[12][3]..Komatsuna grown in the cold season has thicker leaves, higher sugar and vitamin C content, and a richer taste.[12][6]..Although the content of carotene and vitamin C is almost the same as that of spinach,[6], Above all, the calcium content is outstanding,KaleIt is the second largest amount, and contains about four times as much spinach.[12][3].Mizuna,ChingensaiAlong with, it is often cited as a typical example of vegetables that are effective for calcium intake.[15].

Strong against carotene and vitamin C, which are abundant in komatsunaantioxidant effectThere,ArteriosclerosisSuppression andcancerIs known for its preventive function[5]..Calcium has the role of strengthening teeth and bones and allowing the heart muscle to work normally.[5]..Potassium also discharges excess saltHigh blood pressureThe effect of suppressing ironanemiaIs said to have a preventive effect[5]..In addition, it promotes bone formationVitamin K1It is said to be a hematopoietic vitamin.Folic acidAnd so on[12].

save

  • Refrigeration: 2 or 3 days
  • Frozen: about 1 month

Komatsuna is a vegetable that damages relatively quickly, and when it gets stuffy, the leaves turn yellow and become sticky.[12]..Therefore, it is desirable to use up within 2 or 3 days after harvesting or purchasing.[16].

Wet when not used immediately or when not used upnewspaperWrap the roots in a plastic bag, moisturize and refrigerate.[12][3][6]..For long-term storage, make it harderBoiledCut into a length that is easy to use, drain well to remove the heat,Tapper,WrapSealed with etc. and store frozen[17].

footnote

  1. ^ Koji Yonekura and Tadashi Kajita (2003-). “Brassica rapa L. var. Perviridis LH Bailey”(Japanese). BG Plants Japanese name-scientific name index (YList). 2022/2/8Browse.
  2. ^ Koji Yonekura and Tadashi Kajita (2003-). “Brassica campestris L. var. Komatsuna Matsum. Et Nakai”(Japanese). BG Plants Japanese name-scientific name index (YList). 2022/2/8Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Keiko Inomata Supervised by Nemido Publishing Editorial Department 2012, p. 22.
  4. ^ "Komatsuna's native god Shin-Koiwa Katori Shrine". shinkoiwa-katorijinja.com. 2020/11/9Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d e Kodansha 2013, p. 127.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kodansha 2013, p. 126.
  7. ^ a b "Komatsuna". Japan cropsApres. 2022/2/8Browse.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Shufu no Tomosha 2011, p. 120.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Shufu no Tomosha 2011, p. 121.
  10. ^ "[Professional supervision of the vegetable garden] How to grow komatsuna (Komatsuna) | From the time of sowing to pest control |". Agriculture / Gardening / Horticulture / Kitchen Garden Magazine [AGRI PICK]. 2020/12/24Browse.
  11. ^ Hen:Ministry of educationScience and Technology Council Resource Research Subcommittee ed.6 vegetables"Japanese food standard composition table(2015 edition (2015th edition)), December 12, 25.ISBN 978-4-86458-118-9.https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/science/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2016/11/30/1365343_1-0206r8_1.pdf.2022/6/20Browse. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Shufu no Tomosha 2011, p. 118.
  13. ^ Origin and origin of Komatsuna
  14. ^ Shufu no Tomosha 2011, p. 119.
  15. ^ "Everyone's food education”. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2021/11/21Browse.
  16. ^ Komatsuna / season, how to choose, how to save
  17. ^ How to store food Komatsuna

References

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