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🍽 | Aya Hazuki, a surprising special skill is “cooking” It is a topic that homemade food looks too delicious


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Aya Hazuki, a surprising special skill is "cooking" It is talked about that homemade food looks too delicious

 
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Another recipe is to slice tomatoes and mozzarella and arrange them like caprese, then add olive oil, salt, and black pepper in a microwave for about a minute and a half.
 

[Aya Hazuki's today's Aya Meshi is a big hit.A glimpse of the surprising gap that Hazuki, who looks flashy at first glance, is actually homely ... → Continue reading

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Olive oil

Olive oil(English: olive oil), orolive oil(Olive yu)It is,olive OffruitObtained fromVegetable oil.

Overview

OxidationHard to be doneoleic acidSince it contains a relatively large amount of edible oil, it has the property of being less likely to be oxidized and hardened at room temperature compared to other edible fats and oils (Non-drying oil). In GreekEtymologyIs common with "joy"Orthodox churchThen.SaiSubject to.

mainly地中海Area facing (Italy,Spain,Greece,Mashlik,SicilyEtc.) is used by preference.In these regions, the term oil often refers to olive oil.[Source required].. Greece consumes the most amount of food in the world, is used for various dishes on the daily table, and is an essential ingredient in daily life. In Italy and other countries, during the olive harvest season,BruschettaIt is customary to celebrate the harvest by tasting freshly squeezed olive oil.

mainCountry of originAre Spain (40.1%), Italy (19.5%), Greece (12.9%), etc.

Besides edible,Cosmetics,Medicine,AlsoSoapIt is also used as a raw material.

Olive oil is deteriorated by ultraviolet rays, but ultraviolet rays are not limited to the sun's rays.light bulb,Fluorescent lightStored in a cool and dark place as it is also included in the light. If you want to put it on the table or kitchen that is easy to pick up,Aluminum foilThe same effect can be obtained by blocking light with a bottle covered with[1].

Also, in Japanese and Chinese, use olive oil.olive oil(Kanranyu)It is sometimes expressed asPoignancySince the oil was squeezed from the seeds ofWestern boxIt comes from the description.EnglishThen,Chinese oliveAlso called.

Manufacturing method and quality grade

The olive oil extraction process has different advantages than extraction from other plants.That is, simply by squeezing the juice from the raw pulp without heating and leaving it to stand, it naturally emerges on the surface of the juice and can be obtained by separating it.A large amount of oil can be obtained from the pulp as well as olives.Oil palmFrom the fruit ofPalm oilWhen oil is collected, it is a place of origin and a traditional cultivation areaWest Africa Of熱 帯 雨林Palm oil saturated even with traditional methods in the regionfatty acidIt is a big difference from the fact that it is solid at room temperature because it contains a large amount of pulp and cannot be extracted without boiling the crushed pulp. In generalseedMost of the vegetable oil collected from fruits and fruitssolventExtractionThis easy extraction property of olive oil is one of the greatest properties, whereas the step-by-step process, especially in most cases, requires a heating process to separate the oil from the plant tissue.is this,WineIs originally only available in limited seasonsGrapeIt can be said that olive oil has developed as a raw juice preserved in the form of oil in the same Mediterranean culture, just as it has developed as a preserved juice that can be drunk all year round. ..The nature of olive oil has such a historical background, both food-chemically and culturally.

To improve the yield, the fruit juice crushed and squeezed is put into a centrifuge to collect oil. At refineries that value tradition and quality, traditional mashing of these fruitsStone millIs used, but mechanical crushing is carried out at the oil refinery where a large amount of oil is industrially processed. The stone mill for olive squeezing is not a stone mill for crushing grains in East Asia, two discs of stones with grooves are horizontally overlapped and rotated, and they are not in the form of polishing and grinding, but on a huge stone plate The stone disk that is vertically erected at is a form that makes circular motion while rolling like a wheel.

The oil obtained from the juice only by mechanical treatment such as centrifugationVirgin olive oilAmong them, the one with no defect in taste and aroma by the sensory test of flavor and acidity of 0.8% or less is especiallyExtra virgin olive oilCalled.In addition, refined (deoxidized, deodorized, decolorized, etc.) virgin olive oil of poor quality with an acidity of 0.3% or less.Refined olive oilOlive oil (in Japan) is a blend of this refined oil and medium quality virgin oil with an acidity of 1.0% or less.Pure olive oil). However, these quality grade standards areen: International Olive Council,IOC)[Annotation 1]In Japan, which is not a member of IOC, there is no legal problem even if the product is not labeled according to these quality grade standards.

In order to collect the oil contained in the fruit without waste, the juice is squeezed from the squeezed juice again, and then the centrifugesolventThe oil extracted usingCrudeOlive pomace oilCalled.olive·Pommers・ Since the ingredients of the oil are different from those of the above olive oil, IOC[4]It is stipulated that "olive oil" should not be labeled, and it is treated as industrial use, not edible.However, the olive pomace oil was refined to reduce the acidity to 0.3% or less.Refined olive pomace oilIs the national standard (in Japan JAS method[5]), it can be sold as food (instead, the container must be clearly labeled as "Pommers").Olive pomace oilIs a blend of refined olive pomace oil and virgin olive oil, and most of the cheap olive oils on the market are olive pomace oils.

The oil obtained by solvent extraction from olive seedsOlive kernel oilIs called.

Quality gradeacidity(%)Grade standardAccuracy (mg/kg)
Extra virgin olive oil≤ 0.8Virgin olive oil with no defects in taste or aroma in flavor sensory test≤ 250
Virgin olive oil≤ 2.0Virgin olive oil with some defects in taste and aroma in flavor sensory test≤ 250
Ordinary virgin olive oil≤ 3.3Virgin olive oil with multiple defects in taste and aroma in flavor sensory test (non-edible in Japan)≤ 300
Lampante virgin olive oil> 3.3Virgin olive oil with high acidity, unsuitable for food and requiring refining (non-edible)≤ 300
Refined olive oil≤ 0.3Refined virgin olive oil≤ 350
(Pure) olive oil≤ 1.0A blend of refined olive oil and virgin olive oil≤ 350
Refined olive pomace oil≤ 0.3Further extraction from refined olive oil pomace> 350
Olive pomace oil≤ 1.0A blend of refined olive pomace oil and virgin olive oil> 350

History

The origin of olive cultivation and olive oil地中海It is on the coast. The widely accepted theory is that the use of olive oilCreteIt started in. The oldest for storing olive oilAmphoraHas been excavated from here,3500 BCIt seems to be around. In another theory,Canaanite 4500 BCIt is said that she squeezed olive oil for the first time.

ReligiousIt was also used for specific purposes.キ リ ス ト 教Ancestor ofイ エ スThe title of "キ リ ス ト"Means the savior, but the original meaning is "with oilHoly SeparationIt seems that olive oil was used in the sacred place, meaning "the one who was done".BibleOlive oil frequently appears in ancient timesCanaanRegion (currentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Is evidence that olive oil has taken root in the culture.It is also used for lighting in churches such as Greece.

Ancient romeThen, in preparation for the poor year, a public storage was set up, and at the time of celebration, people sometimes acted.Caesar2 per army soldier when wins ingallonIt was said that oil was given. MashlikThen, sometimes I drink it as it is for beauty and health.

With the development of techniques for raising seedlings, cultivation and manufacturing methods,The United States of America,AustraliaSuch asnew worldHas begun shipping very good quality olive oil.The environment in which olives grow well is wine grapes (especiallySchiller,CabernetThis is because it is very similar to the environment in which the seed grows. Depending on the climate, the seedlings, the manufacturing method, and the tastes of the producer, the color and taste will be unique.

World production

Major producers of olive oil in the world from 2000 to 2014 (millions of kilograms)
Country2000%2005%2009%2014%
Spanish flag Spain962.40038,2%819.42832,1%1.199.20041,2%1.775.80054,3%
Italian flag Italy507.40020,1%671.31526,3%587.70020,2%461.00014,1%
Turkish flag Turkey185.0007,3%115.0004,5%143.6004,9%190.0005,8%
Syrian flag (I.e.165.3546,6%123.1434,8%168.1635,8%165.0005,0%
Greek flag Greece408.37516,2%386.38515,1%332.60011,4%131.9004,0%
Morocco flag モロッコ40.0001,6%50.0002,0%95.3003,3%120.0003,7%
Portugal flag Portugal25.9741,0%31.8171,2%53.3001,8%91.6002,8%
Tunisia flag チュニジア115.0004,6%210.0008,2%150.0005,2%70.0002,1%
Algerian flag アルジェリア30.4881,2%34.6941,4%56.0001,9%44.0001,3%
Argentina flag Argentine10.5000,4%20.0000,8%22.7000,8%30.0000,9%
Jordan flag Jordan27.2021,1%17.4580,7%16.7600,6%30.0000,9%
Lebanese flag Lebanon5.3000,2%6.8000,3%19.7000,7%20.5000,6%
Australian flag Australia5000,02%5.0000,2%15.0000,5%18.0000,6%
Libyan flag (I.e.6.0000,2%7.9000,3%15.0000,5%15.0000,5%
World total2.518.629100,0%2.552.182100,0%2.911.115100%3.270.500100%
Sources: FAO

Japanese olive oil

1908/(41st year of Meiji) To obtain self-sufficiency of olive oil necessary for processing oil in fish[6],Ministry of Agriculture and CommerceSeedlings introduced by the United States fromMie,KagoshimaとKagawaPlanted on a trial basis. In KagawaShodoshimaOnly the olives planted inTaisho eraAt the beginning of the harvest, fruits were harvested that could be oiled[7].. On Shodoshima, olive trees are still planted all over the island, producing domestically produced olive oil.

There are four main types cultivated on Shodoshima: "Mission", "Manzanillo", "Nevadiro Blanco" and "Lucca".[8].

In recent yearsKumamoto(Arao) Is enthusiastically working on the production of olives / olive oil and making it a special product, and Kumamoto prefecture is the second largest producer in Japan after Kagawa prefecture.[9].

Use

Edible oil
tempuraoil,Stir fry,saladUsed for things such as.
Cosmetics
Hair oil, Skin oil, etc.
Japanese PharmacopoeiaIt is listed in and used in combination with other medicinal ingredients.
Industrialuse
paintSuch asResin原料
Other
Sticks, canes, chess,combApply and use to care for. Since it is an edible oil and does not harm the human body, it may be used as a massage oil or a lubricating oil for food processing machines. In addition to lubricating oil,OutdoorSurface protection of wooden tableware used inBreaking in (seasoning)It is also used as a rust preventive oil.
Turkish sumo

Cooking example

Mediterranean food(SouthernItalian food,Spanish,Greek food,Turkish food,Lebanese food,FrenchProvence cuisine,Basque cuisine..It does not face the Mediterranean, but has many cultural similarities.Portuguese food), olive oil is often used.

Besides this, although it is different from general cooking methods,Shigeaki HinoharaEvery morning, for breakfast, 100% juicejuiceHe was drinking a mixture of olive oil and olive oil.

In a strange place, there is a thing to put a few drops when cooking rice.The olive oil cooks it plumply and gives it a glossy finish.

Ingredients and nutritional value

Health and olive oil

List

Main of olive oil (in 100g)fatty acidTypes and typical values[12]
ItemQuantity (g)
fat100
saturated fatty acid13.808
16:0 (Palmitic acid)11.29
18:0 (stearic acid)1.953
Monounsaturated fatty acid72.961
16:1 (Palmitoleic acid)1.255
18:1 (oleic acid)71.269
Polyunsaturated fatty acid10.523
18:2 (Linoleic acid)9.762


footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ The IOC is the only international intergovernmental organization in the olive industry, established in 1959 under the auspices of the United Nations to protect and develop olive cultivation and production.EUAre affiliated with[2][3].

Source

Related item

外部 リンク

pepper

pepper(pepper,scientific name: Piper nigrum) IsPiperaceaePepper genusBelongs toVineOne of the plants, or itsfruitMade fromSpicesThat is.IndiaNative, but all over the world熱 帯Widely cultivated in the area.It is the starting point of the scientific name of plantsLinnaeusof"(English edition)''(1753/) soDescriptionIt is one of the plants that have been given (that is, the plant that was first given the scientific name).[2].

fruitHas a strong aroma and spiciness,SpicesWidely used in various dishes, it is also called the "King of Spices".Essential oilBecomes an aroma componentalkaloid OfPiperine,ChavicineIs a stimulating and pungent ingredient.Depending on the fruit processing method, etc.Black pepper (Black pepper) AndWhite pepper (White pepper) And so on. Europe's eastern expansion since the 15th century was also associated with the benefits of the pepper trade.

Red pepper (Solanaceae) AndDaphne pseudomezee (Thymelaeaceae),alsoSun show (Rutaceae) Fruits are sometimes called "pepper"[3].

Features

Vine OfKimoto (Fujimoto), sometimes 10 in lengthMeters (m) When it reaches the above, the knots swell, and the adventitious roots come out from the lower knots and become entangled with other things.[1][4][5][6] (Fig. 1a, b below).Leaves alternate, petioles 1-2Centimeter (cm), leaf blade is oval to long oval, 10-15 x 5-9 cm, pointed tip, hairless and leathery, surface is shiny dark green, leaf vein is palm-shaped 5-7 (- 9) The vein, the central vein, branches 1.5-3.5 cm from the base[1][4][5] (Fig. 1c below).

The flowering season is June-October, usually dioecious and monoecious, but sometimes amphoteric flowers occur.[5]..The flowers form spikes, the peduncles are about the same length as the petioles, the spikes are about 10 cm long, and they are opposite to the leaves.[4][5] (Fig. 2a, d below).Bracts from spatula to oval, approximately 3-3.5 x 0.8 mm (mm), lacking perianth[5]..Two stamens, thick and short filaments[5] (Fig. 2d below).Pistil ovary is spherical, stigma is 3–4 (–5)[5] (Fig. 2d below).

The ears are about 15–17 cm long and have 50–60 pieces.fruitConsists of[4][6] (Fig. 2b, c above).The fruit isDrupe, Of 1seedSpherical, 5-6 mm in diameter, green immature fruits but black when dried (→#Blue pepper,#Black pepper), Turns red when ripe (→#Red pepper,#White pepper)[1][4][5][7] (Fig. 2b, c above).

distributed

Origin is South IndiaMalabarBeing local[8][9].. As of 2020Southeast Asia,Africa,Latin America Of熱 帯Widely cultivated in the area[1][10][8] (See below) (Fig. 3 on the right).

Relationship with humans

Spices

PepperfruitHas a strong aroma and intense spiciness, and is most often used.Spices Because it is (spice), "King of spicesAlso called "king of spice"[1][3][7][11][12]..The spiciness of pepper is different from the spiciness of salted fish.[13]..PepperMeat dish,fish dishes,Vegetable dishes,SoupIt is used in various dishes (Fig. 4 below), and alsoHam,sausageAlso used in the manufacture of[7][4].. Otherソ ー ス,ketchupIt is also the main raw material for seasonings such as[7].

Types

Pepper can be divided into the following four types (black pepper, white pepper, green pepper, and red pepper) depending on the timing of harvest (immature fruit, ripe fruit), drying method, and removal of outer pericarp.

  • Black pepper, Black pepper, black pepper,Black pepper (black pepper)
Green before ripenessfruitHarvested and dried in the sun, it turns black[6][14][15][16]..When dried, wrinkles occur on the pericarp (outer pericarp), but use it as it is without peeling it off (Fig. 5f on the right).The outer pericarp contains a lot of spicy ingredients and has a strong aroma and spiciness, so it is said to be compatible with strong-tasting meat dishes and blue fish.[14][15].
  • White pepper, White pepper, white pepper,White pepper (white pepper)
Ripe red fruits are harvested, soaked in water for about a week to ferment, and then the softened outer pericarp is peeled off.[6][14][17][18]..Nuclear (seedAnd the hard inner pericarp that wraps it) and no outer pericarp (Fig. 5f on the right), so it is less spicy than black pepper but has a different flavor.fish dishesIt is said that it goes well with things that do not have a strong taste of ingredients such as stew and stew.[14][17]..It is said that it goes well with ramen, and there are also ramen specialty stores that sell white pepper.[Source required]..Some people may feel a strong unpleasant odor in white pepper.This is due to the fact that when the raw material is immersed in water in the manufacturing process to rot and remove the outer skin, components that generally give a person an unpleasant odor are likely to be generated.The strength of this unpleasant odor depends on the manufacturing process of white pepper, and it is also known that if the outer skin is putrefactive while running water for several days, it is possible to produce white pepper in a beautiful state with almost no unpleasant odor.[19]..White pepper is also a fermented food[19],coffee,CacaoIt is also possible to create various flavors by adjusting the fermentation process as in.On the other hand, there is also a case where the outer pericarp of black pepper is peeled off with a machine to make white pepper.[18]..Pepper is also used for medicinal purposes as shown below, but in that case, white pepper is usually used (→ ""MedicinalSee section)[8].
  • Blue pepper (Green pepper[20]), Blue pepper, blue pepper,Green pepper (green pepper)[Note 1]
Harvest green fruits before ripeness, but unlike black pepper, do not dry in the sun, boil and salt, orfreeze dryProcessed[6][14][20]..Therefore, the color of the fruit remains green (5g in the figure on the right).Characterized by a refreshing aroma and spiciness[14][20]..Sprinkle on dishes to accentuate or add to soups and salads with a refreshing aroma[20].タ イ 料理,Cambodian foodNow, let's use the fruit as an "ingredient" for stir-fry, not as a spice.[Source required].
  • Red pepper, Red pepper, red pepper,Pink pepper (pink pepper)[Note 2]
Ripe fruits are harvested in red, but unlike white pepper, they are salted as they are without peeling the outer skin or dried in the sun.[6][14]..The red outer pericarp is wrinkled (5h on the right) and is said to have a mild aroma and spiciness.[25].Peruな どSouth AmericaMay be used in cooking[Source required]..However, "Pink pepper (Pink pepper) "is another plantPepper (Rhus family) Fruit (not spicy) often means[1][6][22][23] (5c-e in the above figure).

Pepper is used in various forms andhole (Original grain condition,Pepper grain),coarsely ground (Coarse grind),powder (Powdered) etc. are commercially available[7][4]..Also, every time you use itPepper millYou can get a fresh flavor by grinding the whole with[4]..There are various types of pepper mills[26].

Different types of pepper may be mixed and used, and some of the ones on the market in Japan are a mixture of black and white pepper.[27]..There are also some that are commercially available as "seasoned salt and pepper" mixed with salt.[28].

The expiry date of pepper is approximately 2-3 years, depending on the manufacturing method and storage conditions.[29]..After grinding, the flavor is easier to fly than before grinding (hole).In addition, dried "black pepper" and "white pepper" will last longer than undried ones such as "blue pepper" and "red pepper".[Source required]..Before the development of logistics such as during the Great Voyage, "blue pepper" and "red pepper" were used as spices and foodstuffs in the place of origin, whereas in Europe, which was far from the place of origin, "black pepper" and "white pepper" were used. Was used.Nowadays, this distinction disappears due to the development of logistics, the ability to produce pepper all over the world, and the spread of national cuisine all over the world.

Medicinal

PepperfruitToalkaloidIsPiperineEtc., and may be used for cooking and topical medicines that are expected to have medicinal properties.[8][11]..It is said to have antibacterial, appetite-promoting, digestive-promoting, stomachic, carminative, sweating-promoting, diuretic, analgesic, etc.Vomiting,diarrhea,stomach ache, Used for abdominal distension, toothache, etc.[11][8]..Also, anti-cancer effect,antioxidant effect, Antidiarrheal has also been reported[30][31]..It is said that it has a dieting effect by increasing fat burning action and energy metabolism, and has an effect of enhancing the action of medicines taken together by increasing the absorption rate of other components.healthy foodHowever, since it interacts with other medicines when taken in large amounts, the possibility of health hazards cannot be ruled out and caution is required.[30][32].

ingredient

alkaloidIsPiperine (piperine; Figure 6a)Chavicine (chavicine; Figure 6b), a component of piperinePiperidine (piperidine; Fig. 6c) etc. become spicy ingredients, andPinene (pinene; Figure 6d),Phellandrene (phellandrene; Figure 6e),Limonene (limonene; Figure 6f),Cariophyllene (caryophyllene; Figure 6g),Piperonal (piperonal; Fig. 6h) etc. are the scent components[4][6].

Production area

PepperIndiaIt is native but widely cultivated in the tropics around the world. Production volume as of 2019 (including black pepper and white pepper) Top 10 countries in orderエチオピア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Brazil,Indonesia,India,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Sri Lanka,Chugoku,Malaysia,MexicoIs[10].

In pepper trading, it may be referred to as follows with the name of the country of origin or place.[6] (Fig. 5e above).

  • IndiaProduced-Malabal pepper, Tericherry pepper, Alappuzha pepper
  • IndonesiaProduced-Lampon pepper, Mentok pepper
  • MalaysiaProduced-Sawarak pepper
  • BrazilProduced-Brazilian pepper

Cultivation

seedNot fromcuttingCultivated by[6][9].StemIs woodyVineBecomes, wraps around pillars, etc. and grows[6][9] (Fig. 7a below).From about the third year of cuttingsflowerPut onfruitIt begins to form and reaches its peak in 7-8 years, after which it can be harvested for 15-20 years.[6][9] (7b, c in the figure below).

For pepper cultivationContinuous cropping disorderMay occur and is phytoparasiticNematodeOccurs[33],FusariumDiseases caused by bacteria are more likely to occur[34]..Cultivation in South America has been devastating.[34]..Pepper cultivationfertilizerSome farms are left unattended because the price is cheap for the cost and labor.[35].

On the other hand, in the 21st centuryInformation technologyWith the progress of, it became possible to check the distribution status and market price quickly, which made it possible to adjust production.People's Republic of China,IndiaDue to increased demand in populous areas, pepper prices have risen again, between 2005 and 2014.Yokohama portCustoms clearance unit price in Japan has quadrupled[36].

History

Pepper has been around since ancient timesIndiaIt was a major local export.At the beginning of the 4th century BCThe Ancient GreekBotanistTheoflastusIsFlora』In pepper and long pepper (Long pepper) Is considered.Pepper has been precious since that time and is a Roman historian of the 1st century ADGreat PlinyIs 1lbThe value of long pepper (about 500 grams) is 15Denalius, White pepper is recorded as 7 denarius, and black pepper is recorded as 4 denarius.[37][38]..ancientMediterranean worldSo, it is believed that mature long pepper becomes black pepper, and that mistake continued until it was corrected by the 16th century.[39]..Long pepper was treated at a higher price than black and white pepper, but it began to compete with black pepper in the middle ages and was no longer used in Europe by the late medieval period.[38].

Pepper has a strong aroma and spiciness,Antibacterial-AntisepticDue to its effectiveness, it was extremely prized in Europe in the Middle Ages, when refrigeration technology was underdeveloped.[40].. The high price in the transaction is1st centuryIn RomePepper of the same weightFri,SilverWas exchanged forIt is also expressed as[41].Rome West GoatWas the king ofArarique IWhen besieged by Roman citizens in return for breaking the siegeFri5,000 poundsSilver30,000 pounds of silkTunicAgreed to give 4,000 pieces, 3,000 scarlet leather, and 3,000 pounds of pepper[42]..I was importing pepperVenicePeople called pepper "the seed of heaven" and also increased its value.[43].Crusader,Age of DiscoveryIt is well known that one of the purposes was to acquire oriental spices such as pepper.[44][45].

However, it is believed that in the 12th century, a large amount of pepper was imported from the Orient.[46]..Since pepper has flowed into Europe in large quantities, it has come to be used as a pseudo-currency, and there are cases where taxes and salaries are paid with pepper.As a result, pepper loses its rarity, which can be confirmed by the decrease in the description in the cookbooks at that time.[46]..In cookbooks written by royal aristocratic cooks who cook court dishes, pepper was a regular spice in Roman times, but in the Middle Ages it was reduced in number.Arnaldus de Villaneuve's "Regimen Sanitatis" states that "pepper is a farmer's sauce and they eat pepper mixed with vulgar legumes" and is elegant to the rich. Described in contrast to the source[46].

In China, in the sense of spices that came from the west,pepperWas called (Hu TheSogdianIt is a character that refers to different ethnic groups in the west and north when viewed from China.pepper TheKahokzan ShowAroundZanthoxylumIt is a character that refers to spices[3][47].JapanToChugokuTherefore, it is also called pepper in Japan.Tenpyo Katsuho8 years (756 years),Emperor ShomuThe relics on the 77th anniversary ofTodaiji TempleDedicated to.List of the offerings "Todaiji offering book』, Pepper is listed, and the pepper at that timeShosoinHave been found in[48]..Pepper was in Japan at that timeCrude drugHowever, even in the "Miscellaneous Soldier Story" written in the early Edo period, "(on the battlefield) if you chew one pepper each morning, it will not hit the heat of summer or the cold of winter." It shows that there was a demand for medicinal products at that time.[49]..Pepper has been imported intermittently since the Nara period.Heian periodHas come to be used as a seasoning[50], In the Edo periodUdon OfCondimentWas used as[48].

Red pepper Before the introduction of (chili pepper), pepper was in JapanJapanese pepperIt is used in more dishes as a spice along with, as mentioned above.UdonIt was also used as a condiment for[48]..Throughout the Edo period (1641–1832) An average of 5.7 tonnes per year through the Karafune[48]1638 tonnes in 78 records through Dutch ships[51]Was importing pepper.Even nowSenba soup,Shio soup,, etc.SoupPepper is used as a condiment, mainly for speciesJapanese cuisineRemains (there is also a record that there was a dish called "pepper chazuke")[Source required].

in Japan,Red pepperWas called "Nanban pepper" or "Koryo pepper" as a kind of pepper when it was first introduced.[52][53]..For this reason, even nowKyusyuChili peppers are sometimes called "pepper", mainly in rural areas.[54]..Manufactured in northern KyushuYuzu pepperAndOkinawa OfKoregusu The raw material for (Korai pepper) is not pepper but capsicum. In areas where "pepper" is used to mean capsicum, it is called pepper in other areas. P. nigrum Is sometimes called "Pepper" to distinguish it.[54].

Pepper that appears in literature

  • Ibara Nishitsuruof"Nihon Eiyozo』Has a description of the circumstances of Japanese pepper[55]..In the past, pepper was imported from China, but the Tojin people handed over the pepper grains after boiling them so that they would not be cultivated in Japan, so even if they were sown in Japan, they would not sprout.At one pointKoyasanThree at a timestone It is said that if you sow (about 540 liters) of pepper, only two roots will grow, and then the pepper will spread throughout Japan (although pepper is actually tropical and is not cultivated in Japan).
  • "Squeezing lecture], [Stick], [Pepper regret』――Pepper comes outRakugo[56][57].

Related species

the samePepper genus (Piper) In the same way as pepperSpicesIncludes some species used as.IndiaDistributed in etc.Long pepper(P. longum, Indian Nagakosho) was imported into Europe for a long time and was sometimes confused with pepper.[58]..It is also a similar speciesPiper retrofractum(P. retrofractum, Java Nagakosho) is cultivated mainly in Southeast Asia including Okinawa, and is also used as a spice.[59].."Island pepper" (also called hibachi, piparts, etc.) made in Okinawa is made from piper retrofractum.Others of the same genusCava,BetelIs used for luxury items.

In Japan, as a similar speciesPiper kadsura(Tsuru Kazeto,P. kadzura) Grows naturally near the coast west of Kanto, but the fruits do not have a pungent taste like pepper.[60].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, the English word "green pepper" isgreen pepper,Red pepperSuch as sweet varietiesRed pepperMay mean[21].
  2. ^ "Pink pepperIsPepper (Rhus family) AndRowan (Rosaceae) Often means fruit[1][6][22][23]..Also, red pepper is sometimes translated literally as "red pepper," but this word is usually red.Red peppers (Solanaceae)[24].

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Piper nigrum". Plants of the World online. Kew Botanical Garden. 2021/9/11Browse.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1753) (Latin). Species Plantarum. Holmia [Stockholm]: Laurentius Salvius. P. 28. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358049 
  3. ^ a b c Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
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  25. ^ "Kampot Red Pepper". Kosho Honpo. 2021/9/18Browse.
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  47. ^ Masaharu Arakawa"Sogdian trade activities and fragrance distribution"Senshu University Social Intelligence Development Research Center Ancient East Eurasia Research Center Annual Report" No. 5, Senshu University Social Intelligence Development Research Center, March 2019, pp. 3-29, two:10.34360/00008303, NOT 120006785685.
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  49. ^ From the section "Tanegashima Ashigaru Small Head Asahi Deemon"
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  51. ^ Kazuhiro Yukitake (2007). “Quantitative Transactions of Early Modern Japan-Ran Trade: Decoding and Analyzing“ Accounting Books ”Created by the Dutch Trading House in the Early 17th Century”. Socio-economic history 72 (6): 673-693. two:10.20624 / sefs.72.6_673. ã€€The purchase price is 33,150 guilders (about 3 million yen today).The amount of Japanese imports today is about 6500 tons per year, and the international market price is about 8000 to 1 million yen per ton.
  52. ^ Selected version of the Japanese Dictionary. “Nanban pepper". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. 2021/9/19Browse.
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