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🍽 | [Motomachi-Chukagai] Various Cantonese dishes little by little "Kiyoho Lunch" @ Saikoushinkan


Photo Source: Living Yokohama Web

[Motomachi-Chukagai] Various Cantonese dishes little by little "Kiyoho Lunch" @ Saikoushinkan

 
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You can also enjoy Chinese tea to choose from.
 

Weekday limited 1 sets a day, elegant lunch with a choice of Chinese tea "Saikoushinkan ..." in Yokohama Chinatown → Continue reading

 Living Yokohama Web

Local / outing information site in the area around Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, such as Yokohama, Minatomirai, Motomachi-Chukagai, Kannai, etc.


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Chinese tea

Chinese tea(Chugokucha)People's Republic of China(Mainland China)as well asTaiwanWait[Annotation 1][1]Made withteaIs the general term for. China, Taiwan, since ancient timesWesternKnown for its tea businessHong KongNeedless to say, there are lovers around the world.

Chinese tea is made large depending on the manufacturing methodSix great teas(Green tea-black tea-Green Tea-Black tea-White tea-Yellow tea) And other teas (scented teaEtc.) In addition, Taiwan has its ownbrand(Frozen oolong teaEtc.) and unique tea making method (Eastern beautyEtc.), so teas made in Taiwan are distinguished from teas in Mainland China.Taiwan teaSometimes referred to as "Chinese tea", this item is manufactured in China and Taiwan and is favorably drunk.

History

Cafe in China

In Chinatea"Is also called "cha cha chá" or "makimei míng". In the Tang DynastyRikuWritten byChao Su],ShennongIt is said that tea has been drunk since the age of[2].漢Written in the age ofPoetryThere is a letter that represents tea in, and it is said to be the oldest document. At that time, rather than a luxury itemMedicineHas a strong role asCaneIt has also come to be used as food like[3].

Drinking teaWeiJinNorthern and Northern DynastiesTo today'sSichuan ProvinceStarted around and gradually spread to the surrounding area[2][4].隋-唐In the teenage years, a method of boiling tea to boil,Matcha,SenchaThere were various ways to enjoy it, and at the same time, many prototypes of tea utensils were devised. In the Tang dynasty, the custom of tea ceremony spread to the northern peoples, and the tea and horse trade where tea and horses were exchanged began. Tea became an important product.[4].宋Since then, new tea production methods have been devised one after another, and the variety of teas has greatly increased. this time period,Fighting teaPlay such as was devised. Tea has become a major export product. Little producedFirst shootUsedFresh teaWas once presented to the emperor, and now for state leaders and for foreign visitors.BeijingIt will be sent directly. Ming DynastyTo enter the,Zhu Yuanzhang 1391/(Hongmu24 years) in FujianGreen teaHas been banned from manufacturing, causing changes in the Chinese tea ceremony. The solid tea is abolished, and the Awacha method, in which the green tea is soaked in hot water and extracted, becomes mainstream.[3].. According to that, even in the tea wareGreen teaThe vessel is gone,Tea potThe importance of bubble tea ware has increased.clearIn the past, tea utensils became almost the same as the tea utensils currently used.

The spread of Chinese tea in Japan

the 1970sUp toJapanThen mainlyGreen TeaとBlack teaHave been drunk and Chinese tea has not yet been generally recognized. However, popularity at the timeIdolWhen the group said on TV that "(they) are so slim because they are drinking oolong tea," more people expect Chinese tea to have a slimming effect,Oolong TeaThere's a boomOolong tea # soft drinkreference)[5] [6].

With this opportunity, Japanese tea leaves were exported from China.teaThe number of Chinese tea leaves has increased, and in addition to oolong tea, many Chinese tea leaves have been generally loved, and gradually "Chinese tea" has been accepted as a culture.[7].. With this, Chinese tea1990/From the latter half of the generation, the frequency of appearance in the mass media has increased,2000/The number has increased since then,Oolong Tea, Etc., rather than being introduced as a wholeChugokuIs listed as a representative of Chinese tea[8].. From here, the spread of Chinese tea in Japan can be seen.


As the recognition of Chinese tea spreads in Japan,1994/For the first time in Japan, the environment surrounding Chinese tea has undergone major changes, such as the opening in Ikebukuro, Tokyo.[9].. After that, mainly in large citiesteaRetailers have appeared one after another[10].. Also,(1997/), (2001/), (2001/), (2002/), etc.Tea artThe purpose was to spreadCultural organizationAlso established one after another.Centering on these specialty stores and organizations, in various placesteaAnd, classes about how to enjoy are widely held. Among them, a course for qualification acquisition in collaboration with and etc. is also held,the 2000sFrom the beginning, some Japanese people actually get qualifications [11].. In this way, the interest and consumption of Chinese tea in Japan has increased, and since the late 2000s, various types of Chinese tea have been widely recognized, and it can be said that Chinese tea has become popular.

Tea art

Originally in China, there was no such thing as Japan, and tea art was an employee of a major tea wholesaler in Taiwan (currently "Rikuba Tea Research Institute Director").the 1970sIt was founded around the latter half of the year with reference to Japanese tea ceremony. As a measure for promoting the consumption of tea leaves by a major tea wholesaler, the “Rikuu Tea Center” established by this wholesaler is also conducting a qualification test for “Awachashi” asking about the knowledge of tea and the skill of brewing. It entered the continent of economic growth, and eventually spread to South Korea.Ming DynastyからQing DynastyTowards the beginning ofFujian ProvinceTo drink oolong tea, which is said to have been born in the southern part of JapanCreative teaAlthough it is a prototype, it seems that the procedure was simpler because the records at that time did not mention how to make tea and the operation. Of the current tea artTeacupIt can be said that the act of folding is an expression of the influence of Japanese tea ceremony. Basically, it is recognized that "Japanese tea culture is about entertaining customers. China enjoys delicious tea."[12].

Types of Chinese tea

It is said that thousands of varieties of Chinese tea are classified in detail.Anhui Province) Professor Chinten ferments tea leaves[13][14]Depending on the method and manufacturing method1978/It is generally divided into 6 types and other types. 6 types of teaSix great teasThe light blue color (meaning the color of brewed tea) becomes darker and the taste becomes richer depending on the progress of fermentation.

In this section, each type of tea and representative brands are listed in the order of low fermentation degree and others.

Green Tea

Of Chinese teaGreen TeaIs a non-fermented tea, a tea in which oxidative fermentation is stopped by heat treatment after picking tea leaves. The main method is to roast the tea leaves without steaming when heating (Japanese teaThe mainstream method for green tea is steaming, but there are some kamairicha ().Light blue is the same as Japanese tea.Green tea is also the most popular tea in China, and 7 to 8% of the total consumption of Chinese tea consumed in mainland China is green tea.It is basically non-fermented, but in some green teas such as Unmine, Darjeeling's spring picked tea andOolong Tea,Black teaSome undergo wilting (slight fermentation) performed in.

Typical green tea

White tea

White teaIs a tea made by selecting young leaves or buds of tea leaves, picking them, and slightly oxidatively fermenting them (withering) and then drying them on a simmering fire.Fermentation proceeds slowly because there is no kneading process.From where the young leaves look whiteWhite teais called.Light blueGold green[15]Will be.Most of them are picked with one core and one leaf, and many white teas are high-class products.

Typical white tea

Yellow tea

Yellow teaIs a tea that has been picked from the buds of tea leaves, subjected to oxidative fermentation with enzymes by a slow heat treatment different from green tea, and then subjected to a ripening process called Aguro. It is called yellow tea because its tea leaves and light blue are pale yellow. The production amount is only a few hundred kilograms a year, and it is the most valuable item among the six great teas.

Typical yellow tea

Oolong Tea

Oolong tea is a tea that has been fermented to some extent and then heat-treated.friend.However, the degree of fermentation varies greatly from 10 to 80% depending on the type of tea.[16]..It is also called "blue tea" because the tea leaves turn silver-blue ("blue" in Chinese means "blackish indigo") during the fermentation process.Oolong TeaBecause it is well rubbed, each tea leaf has a spherical or winding rod shape.The reason why it is called oolong tea is that the color is black like a crow and the shape of the rubbed tea leaves is竜It is also said to be similar to[17].

Although it has the same name as "Oolong" in Japanese tea, it has a different manufacturing method and taste.

Typical oolong tea

Black tea

Black teaBy drying the tea leaves and rubbing thoroughlyOxidationTea that has been fermented to the end.Black teaIt is called because the light blue color of the tea brewed in the bowl becomes red. Black tea produced in China has a different manufacturing method depending on the type of tea leaves, and sometimes has a scent that is smoked. actuallyPineSmoke with leaves etc.Masayama small speciesAs the tea name "Lapsan Soo Cheong"United KingdomBut it's famous.

Typical Chinese tea

black tea

black teaIs a green tea that has been subjected to the same heat treatment and then further heating, and there are many types depending on the production area and manufacturing method. Pu'er tea, which is one of the black teas, has "raw tea" that promotes fermentation in its natural state.AspergillusThere is "ripen tea" that has been post-fermented with. So-calledSix great teasFermentation by microorganisms (so-called original)fermentation) Is applied to the tea.Unlike other teas, long-term fermented teas are prized rather than fresh ones.The storage period is usually 2 to 30 years, and the longest is XNUMX years or more.WineThere are some vintage items. Since it is post-fermented, it has a unique flavor. Well known in JapanPuer teaBut thisblack teaIs a representative of.

Typical black tea

Other Chinese tea

Transferred the petal scent to green tea for these six major teasscented teaIt is popular to classify (Hanacha) into seven large teas.

In addition to thisTea outside teaThere is a classification called. Blend many tea leaves, etc., and add rock sugar if you likeHappochaOr, Chinese herbal teas that use tree roots and do not use tea leaves are also classified as this outer tea.

Representative flower tea

Tea outside tea that uses tea

Green tea without tea

  • Chrysanthemum(Kikuchacha)
  • (You messed up)
  • Bean tea(Tencha)
  • Kudingcha(Various Japanese names such as Kuchincha, Kuchocha, Kuuchicha, Kutin)
  • (Maikaicha, makeup)
  • (Renshincha)
  • (Kakacha)
  • (Rafumacha)-processedRafumaThe leaves are used as tea leaves.

Name and grade

Chinese tea ranks among the same types of tea. The grade is known by the name[18].. Some brands have the same name and are divided into special grade and first grade.

Example: Akira Shiho Mae Tatsui

  • Field rank
"Shiho" is high, followed by "Saiko" and "Unsu"
  • Timing for picking tea
"Before the rain", "Before the rain" and "After the rain" continue. Light and rainTwenty-fourIt corresponds to.
Therefore, the grade of Tatsui tea is higher for "Shiho Akira Mae Tatsui", followed by "Saiko Amae Tatsui" and "West Lake Ama Tatsui".

Classification according to the time when tea leaves are picked

Tea has a great variety of flavors and ingredients depending on the degree of growth of the tea leaves, so the value changes depending on when the tea leaves are picked. EspeciallyGreen TeaIs clearly classified in.

Spring tea
SpringThe tea I picked before. It has a sweet taste and is considered the highest grade, but in some years it can not be picked up when the weather gets cold.
Mingqian tea
ClearnessTea picked before the festival. A luxury item close to Japan.
Tea before rain
Valley rainThe tea I picked before. Intermediate product close to Japan.

Chinese tea set

It is often thought that many tea utensils are needed to brew Chinese tea, but this is a type of tea art.tea ceremonyIt is used as a traditional ceremony (described later). The average Chinese enjoy tea as easily as the Japanese drink it.

The following are typical Chinese tea utensils. It should be noted that instead of these tea utensils, ordinary mugs and teapots for Japanese tea can be brewed without problems. However, it is easier to brew with a special one.

  • Lid Bowl-"Guy One, Gawan". A bowl with a lid. You can also add tea leaves, pour in hot water, and use the lid as a tea strainer to drink as it is. A commonly used tea set.
  • Tea Cup-"Charpay, Chayea". A bowl without a lid. It is smaller than a lid or a Japanese bowl. When you want to enjoy tea ceremony or expensive tea, use a tea cup instead of a lid.
  • Chatsubo- "Chafu, Chako".The so-called Kyusu.In China, the aroma is prized, so smaller ones are used than when brewing Japanese tea.There is a theory that it was originally a jug used for calligraphy.The trick is to adjust the amount so that the tea pot is full when the tea leaves are fully opened.Some are made of glass.Pottery and porcelain tea pots can be used on any tea leaf.Those made of purple sand are preferably used for black tea and oolong tea, and it is said that the same tea leaves should be used continuously.
  • Mika Cup- "Wen Champei, Monkou Yes".Vertically long and thin vessel.A tea set exclusively for oolong tea used to hear the scent of tea.To use, pour tea from the teapot into the tea cup, transfer the tea to the tea cup, and empty the tea cup.Bring your nose close to the empty tea cup and enjoy the scent of tea rising from the tea cup.
  • Chaumi-"Chahhai, Chakai". Something like a small pitcher.Oolong TeaIn such cases, in order to evenly divide the tea water extracted in the tea jar, it is used to put it into the tea sea and then divide it into tea cups (small cups).
  • Tea board-"Chirpan, Chaban". A stand used to pour hot water over the tea cup and teapot. As the hot water flows downSunokoIt has become. There are two types of tea boards, one made of ceramics and the other made of wood. Bamboo products that are difficult to damage and require advanced decoration technology are considered high-class. A tea vessel without Susuki is a large bowl made of pottery and is used to heat the same tea bowl as the tea board.
  • Pot-Chinese tea is also used to extract the same as general black tea.
  • Heat-resistant glass-A glass cup is often used for green tea brewed at a relatively low temperature. It is also used to entertain the eyes by watching the tea leaves open and jumping. On the outside of the cup,bambooSometimes I put a cover knitted so that it won't be hot to hold.

Tea ware used for each tea leaf

The tea utensils used for each tea leaf classified into the above six types of tea are generally brewed in the following tea utensils.

  • Green tea-lid bowl, heat-resistant glass
  • Yellow tea-Lid bowl, heat-resistant glass
  • White tea-Lid bowl, heat-resistant glass
  • Oolong tea-lid bowl, tea pot
  • Tea-pots, bowls
  • Black tea-teapot

Care for the teapot

There are three main types of materials used for tea jars: pottery, porcelain and glass. While porcelain and glass items can be cared for just like ordinary tableware, unglazed tea jars made of pottery are unique and require special care.

  1. Before using a new product, carefully remove sand and powder with a toothbrush or cloth, rinse it with hot water several times, then add oolong tea and hot water and leave it overnight to remove the mudiness (of course, this is a care product). It is a part and not preferable to drink).
  2. It is said that new unglazed tea jars will absorb the flavor, but with long-term use, the tea astringent will adhere and you will be able to put in tea with a good flavor, and the tea jar itself will have a gloss, so it has been used for a long time It is said that it is better to use it. Therefore, after use, do not use detergents or abrasives, wash it thoroughly with water, and dry it in a well-ventilated and dry place. (Although there is a method of polishing the tea leaves immediately after use or using a soft cloth that is soaked with tea, it is necessary to be careful not to break or scratch it.) Also, add hot water (or tea jar) Boiling (in a pot) is also effective in preventing mold growth.

How to brew Chinese tea

As mentioned above, Chinese tea varies greatly depending on the degree of fermentation and manufacturing process, and the brewing method is not uniform. The basic points are as follows.

  • Warm the teaware in advance.
  • If the tea leaves were stored refrigerated, wait until they return to room temperature.

In addition, the hot water temperature and the brewing method are basically said to be the same, and it can be said that the most important trick is for each person to find their favorite brewing method in their tea. ..

Unlike Japanese tea, it is said that the tea leaves in the first roasting are often washed and discarded, but in the old days there were many poorly preserved tea leaves, and this way of drinking was established. Nowadays, most tea leaves are deliciously drinkable from the first stage. However, as an exception, Pu'er tea is post-fermented (fermented with bacteria), so it is said that it is better to wash the first roast. In the case of Chinese tea, you can usually enjoy delicious tea up to the third to fifth roasts.

Hot water temperature

Basically, the higher the degree of fermentation, the higher the temperature of hot water used. In China, the scent is prized rather than the umami, so it is often brewed with a relatively high bath temperature. On the contrary, if you want to enjoy the taste of tea such as amino acids, you can use it a little lower. Also, cheap tea has a high temperature, and high tea has a low temperature.Japanese teaLike, but this also depends on the type of tea.

Typestemperature
Green Tea60 to 75 degrees
White tea70 to 80 degrees [† 1]
Yellow tea70 to 80 degrees
Oolong Tea80 to 100 degrees
Black tea90 to 100 degrees
black tea90 to 100 degrees [† 2]
  1. ^ Regarding white tea, it is divided into the opinion that “it is better to brew it at a high temperature because it is covered with downy hair” and the opinion that “it is a slightly fermented tea and it is better to use a slightly low temperature (around 80 degrees) hot water”. The latter opinion is taken here.
  2. ^ Before brewing, lightly (wash away dust etc. during post-fermentation).

Regarding the flower tea, it is based on the type of tea that has absorbed the scent (however, since the flower tea is mostly green tea, it may be brewed like green tea).

Ingenuity tea (tea art)

Creative tea(efforttea)(zh: Ingenuity tea) Is one of the tea arts, and is the most popular tea art at present. Originally born in Ming and Fujian in Qing Dynasty, it has been developed as a method of brewing oolong tea, a semi-fermented tea. Therefore, it is not suitable for brewing anything other than oolong tea (blue tea), but nowadays, there are many people who brew using the ingenuity tea procedure other than oolong tea.Black teaIsMasayama small speciesIt is drunk as an ingenious tea in the Yamo production area. The basic procedure for ingenuity tea is as follows. Ingenuity tea often uses boiling water because the priority is to enjoy the scent. However, the hot water that is heated enough to cause bubblesoxygenIt is said that it is not suitable for brewing tea due to lack.

Originally,LiteratiHowever, a jug, a pair of scissors, and a sling for drying tools,BrushIt was close to me, such as a toothpick to loosencalligraphyThere is a theory that trying to make tea with tools started.

  1. Tea vases (tea pots), tea cups (small teacups), tea seas (large bowls), and tea bowls (long vessels) are lined up in a tea plate (or tea vessel), and hot water is poured to warm the entire tea bowl. Discard the water in each tea utensil just before use.
  2. Put tea leaves in the tea pot and pour boiling water from a high position until it overflows from the tea pot.
  3. Tea ladleRemove the bubbles floating on the tea jar using (taker) and slowly cover the tea jar.
  4. To keep the temperature constant, pour hot water over the tea pot again.
  5. Once the tea leaves have been steamed well, pour up to the last drop of tea into the Chaumi to keep the concentration constant.
  6. Pour tea from Chaumi into the Moka cup (it is customary in Taiwan to use Muka cup).
  7. Transfer the tea from the savory cup to the tea cup and enjoy the scent remaining in the savory cup.
  8. Drink tea from a cup and enjoy the scent.
  • After the second roast, the steaming time is extended and brewed. Good tea leaves can be brewed until the leaves are fully opened.

Even when brewing oolong tea, there are cases where the tea is washed by saying, "Immediately put out the first poured water."On the other hand, the tea may not be washed in consideration of not losing the first scent of the tea leaves.

Tea bag

Recently, because of its convenience, Chinese teaTea bagNot a little is sold. However, compared to the dust tea used in black tea bags, Chinese tea is more suitable for tetra bags than for regular ones because the tea leaves open wide.

Ochacha (Tocha)

Tocha is a game in which some people drink some types of tea and hit the brand. In Japan, in addition to "Tocha"kabukiIt is also called tea, tea, etc. (In Japanese, there is the expression "listening to the scent." →Incense).

Ingredients contained in Chinese tea

Chinese tea used as an ingredient

Etsuhito Tatsui

The most famous dish isHangzhouTatsui tea and rivershrimpIt is "" using. It is a lightly salted roasted shrimp and young sprout of Tatsui tea. You can enjoy the aroma of tea while eating the leaves.

fragrance

As described above, the scent of Chinese tea is attractive, and is expressed as "Seika" or "Sinka". Chinese tea uses many techniques in the manufacturing process to create an attractive scent.[18].

Chinese tea is also used to flavor foods. Sichuan cuisineThere are quite a few dishes that use the technique of transferring the scent of tea into the dishes, such as "Chacha duck" and "Tea chicken duck" which is a popular food. In Western style, teaク ッ キ ー,cakeThere is also an example used to add scent. In Taiwan, some simmered plums have black tea leaves added to add aroma.

Glossary

  • light blue -The meaning of the extracted tea color. It is also called "Mizuiro" or "Suishoku" because there is no unified reading in Japanese.
  • -After drinking tea, it means ``to fall into the same feeling as when drinking high-quality sake'' and to say ``I feel ill like a sickness'' There are two ways to use, and the meaning is not unified.[Annotation 2]
  • Single share ――It means one tree.When the product name says single stock, it means that the tea is produced from the same tree (or the same variety).EspeciallyOolong Tea,Pu'er teaSeen in.
  • Jingdezhen china - Jingdezhen CityIs produced inChinaRefers to. Many tea utensils are also made.
  • - Yixing CityA glaze-free pottery made of purple sand mud produced in. The original earth colors such as purple, black, brown, red, and blue are also diverse. mainlyblack teaとOolong TeaUsed for. The purple sand mud has a high rarity value originally, and in recent years, the production volume has been drastically decreasing. There are many potters who continue to specialize only in purple sand tea utensils, some of which are Japanese.Human national treasureThere are also writers.
  • Urn(Yangfu)-If you use a purple sand tea jar for many years, the ingredients of the tea will be absorbed by the tea ware and the flavor of the color will increase. In this way, it means to grow a tea pot over a long period of time. The more valuable the tea jar that has been cultivated for many years, the higher the value.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ We call "Chinese tea"PET bottlesBeverageAmong the Chinese green tea sold for the purpose of mass consumption,Vietnam,IndonesiaSome also use tea leaves produced in. Also, in recent yearsPuer tea Vietnam,ThailandIt has become an important export product in China, and among the cheap Pu'er tea, tea leaves from Vietnam and Thailand are used in China.YunnanIn some cases, it is labeled as "Yunnan" just by packaging it in. Furthermore, “” (Sanmacha) from Thailand isOverseasIt is a famous brand for tea.
  2. ^ The former is said to be one of the medicinal properties of tea.TanninIt is due to a wide range of synthetic compounds in foods, and it can occur remarkably in high-grade varieties with various tastes such as green tea, Chinese black tea, and black tea that undergo secondary fermentation and tertiary fermentation. The latter is included in tea and coffee.caffeine, Which is similar to the poisoning symptom caused byAnhydrous caffeineIt is well known as a side effect that occurs even when a large amount of is taken, and not only headache and dizziness, but also cases of gait disorder in severe cases have been reported. In the former, Oolong tea, which is a representative of blue tea, has a big difference depending on whether or not it is fired in the final processing at the store, and it is directly related to the taste. The latter "caffeine" is not directly related to taste and is found in blue and black teas.Creative teaBy "", it is also relaxed by removing the crystallized material that appears on the surface of tea leaves. Poor quality tea leaves tend to give off astringent taste of "tannin" that has not been decomposed, as well as miscellaneous taste.Catechin"ButBlack teaOr redblack teaIngestion of a large amount of the intermediate product before the change to the black food pigment may cause vomiting, which may be the cause of the latter.

Source

  1. ^ Kumiko Hirano "Behind the Chinese Tea Fuma: Super Brand Karakuri" Volume 299,文藝 春秋<Bunshu Shinsho>, January 2003, pp. 1.ISBN 4166602993. NCID BA60476556. 
  2. ^ a b Kenpei Seki, "Culture of Tea in the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties," National Museum of Ethnology, Vol. 27, No. 2, National Museum of Ethnology, 2002, pp. 283-314, two:10.15021/00004040,2019/6/3Browse.
  3. ^ a b Kazunori Mizukami "Archaeology of Chinese Tea Bowls in line with Tea Culture History" Tsutomu Publishing 2009 ISBN 978-4-585-03235-9 pp.3-4,224-225.
  4. ^ a b Lu Yi et al., “All about Microbial Fermented Tea, Chinese Black Tea,” Koshoubou 2014, First Revised Edition ISBN 978-4-7821-0378-4 pp. 13-15.
  5. ^ Jing Wang "Contemporary Chinese Tea Culture"Shibunkaku Publishing, Nov. 2017, 2, p. 2.ISBN 9784784218790. NCID BB23294819. 
  6. ^ Chihiro Kato "Chihiro Kato's Chinese Food Tour: If you know how good you are, you can see" China with a real face ""Shogakukan, 91.ISBN 4093875480. NCID BA71368544. 
  7. ^ Jing Wang "Contemporary Chinese Tea Culture"Shibunkaku Publishing, Nov. 2017, 2, p. 2.ISBN 9784784218790. NCID BB23294819. 
  8. ^ Jing Wang "Contemporary Chinese Tea Culture"Shibunkaku Publishing, October 2017, 2, pp. 2-237.ISBN 9784784218790. NCID BB23294819. 
  9. ^ Jing Wang "Contemporary Chinese Tea Culture"Shibunkaku Publishing, Nov. 2017, 2, p. 2.ISBN 9784784218790. NCID BB23294819. 
  10. ^ Jing Wang "Contemporary Chinese Tea Culture"Shibunkaku Publishing, October 2017, 2, pp. 2-238.ISBN 9784784218790. NCID BB23294819. 
  11. ^ Jing Wang "Contemporary Chinese Tea Culture"Shibunkaku Publishing, October 2017, 2, pp. 2-238.ISBN 9784784218790. NCID BB23294819. 
  12. ^ Asahi Shimbun, 3 evening editions, excerpted from December 2006, 12. January 18, 2007 Asahi Shimbun web version Article Added from My Town Shizuoka.
  13. ^ What is "fermentation" in this case?brewingRepresented bymicroorganismWithorganic mattergeneratenot,teainclude酵素Artificial usingOxidationRefers to processing.For more informationfermentationPlease refer to the section of
  14. ^ http://shizuoka-cha.com/index.php/faq/faq01/01/ Public interest group corporation corporationShizuokaTea industry conference
  15. ^ https://kotobank.jp/word/%E9%87%91%E7%B7%91%E8%89%B2-481976
  16. ^ https://www.asahiinryo.co.jp/customer/dictionary/ing_tea.html Asahi Soft Drinks Tea Bean Knowledge
  17. ^ Yang Xinhu, "How to Enjoy Taiwanese Tea and Delicious Food," Sanshindo Publishing Co., 1999, p. 34.ISBN 4883423131. 
  18. ^ a b "The Fun of Chinese Tea" Yukiya Wakiya Japan Broadcasting Corporation July 2002

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