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🧁 | [Utsunomiya] Big and juicy Mt. Meron parfait and mellow ♪ "Pig Berry"


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[Utsunomiya] Big and juicy Mt. Meron parfait and mellow ♪ "Pig Berry"

 
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When I took out and gave it to my friend's birthday, he was very happy!
 

hello~!The pi of regional correspondents.This time, we have a hidden sweets shop "Pig Berry" in a residential area ... → Continue reading

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Utsunomiya, Kanuma, Nikko / Kinugawa, Nasu, and other local / outing information sites throughout Tochigi


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birthday

birthday(Tanjo) is a specificPeopleWas bornDayOr every yearBirth OfanniversaryThat thing. DerivativelyAnimal-Object-ServicesIt may also be used for such purposes. Sometimes it indicates the date of birth of a specific person, etc. with a "year" part such as "○ year ○ month ○ day", or it can indicate an anniversary only by "○ month ○ day". is there. The usage of the former "○ year ○ month ○ day" isDate of BirthSynonymous with (Seengengappi).

It is generally believed that people add one year of age when they reach their birthday, but this is slightly different from legal standards (see below). The antonym isDeath day.

Date of birth (specific day)

JapanThere is no custom to celebrate birthdays,Meiji EraIt tends to be regarded as a custom introduced from the West after that,中 世からThe early modern periodThere are many cases of celebrating individual birthdays in[1].The oldest records of birthday celebrations in Japan areHouki6 years(775) August 10thEmperor MitsuhitoIt is said that on his birthday, killing was prohibited and his retainers were given a banquet.[2]. this isTenchocalled by the name ofEmperorAlthough it is the beginning of the ceremony to celebrate the birthday of779) and afterMeiji Eracut off untilHowever, it is known that a birthday celebration was held privately.Oyudenjo DiaryIt can be seen in descriptions such asAlsoMuromachi shogunate generalheld a ceremony to pray on his birthday every month,Oda NobunagaIt is recorded that the[3].Edo shogunate generalOn his birthday, there is a ceremony in which rice cakes and sake are given to his retainers.Tokugawa IemitsuIt is believed to have been constructed around the time of[4].Also the general's son, his biological mother,Big manThere is also a record of celebrating the birthday of[5].IemitsuYoshimuneIn the age ofTokugawa IeyasuA ceremony was also held to celebrate the birthday of[6]. AlsoOfficial house,DamingBirthday ceremonies are also seen among ordinary samurai.In contrast to court nobles and feudal lords who celebrate the head of the family, there are many records of ordinary samurai celebrating the birthdays of their children, especially the eldest son.[7].In addition, even ordinary people had a custom to celebrate their birthdays every year depending on the region.[8].. Keio first year (1865), the birthdays of the emperor and shogun were celebrated as national holidays in Nagasaki, and this was the beginning of the general celebration of the monarch's birthday.[9].

in the Meiji eraFamily registerSince the introduction ofBirth registrationThe date of birth is recorded at the stage ofResident card,Driver's licenseSuch as公 文書To be listed in[Annotation 1], My birthday (date of birth)ageThere are many people who can recognize "Birthday" and "Birthday" and "Age", but some countries and cultures do not attach great importance to recognition[11]. Also,(I.e.In areas where there is not much difference between the two, there are many cases where the identity of the birth year is ambiguous.

In China there was no custom of celebrating birthdays in ancient times.Buddha society,ChristmasUnlikeConfuciusThere is no custom of celebrating his birthday, and there is no established theory that Confucius's birthday is in the first place and that Confucius himself is not a celebrity's child. The custom of celebrating birthdays came to be held in ChinaNorthern and Northern DynastiesToNorthern WeiCelebrating the Emperor's birthday is the oldest recorded example[12].. In Confucianism, there is the idea that one's birthday is the day when the life of the mother was at risk.Rape root』In the 120th post, "Mother is dangerous to be born a child", and the nobleman does not celebrate his birthday[13].

Saudi Arabiaな どArabian PeninsulaCountries and other developing countries do not necessarily have a system for recording birth dates in family registers, and many people grow up without being able to accurately grasp their birth dates and age. Because of this, in Saudi ArabiapassportIn the (passport), the entry of the date of birth is "optional", and most people do not enter it.

遊牧民 TheカレンダーSince it is normal to live without having to know what month and day is today, there is no custom such as a birthday or anniversary.

Muammar al-KazafiThe birthdays of nomads such as (Gaddafi)家族It's not uncommon to find the right date to fill in an item on the paper, as I don't know.

Every birthday (anniversary)

Often on birthdays家族By this dayblessingHas been done. A birthday party (birthday)party) Etc. may be opened.According to Eiji Oguma, a historical sociologist, birthdays were celebrated in monthly salary houses before the war, but in rural and commercial and industrial households, everyone was aware of the number of years they had spent one year on New Year's Day. Therefore, it is said that the birthday was not celebrated ("The man who came back alive").

In Japan, at a birthday party, the seat for one person on the short side of the rectangular table on which the guest of honor (birthday person) sitsBirthday seats,Birthday seatSometimes called[14].. This word is also used as a metaphor at other dinner parties.

There are various styles of birthday events, but one of the typical Western styles is to light a candle on a birthday cake (birthday cake),Happy Birthday to youWhile everyone was singing and singing a national language version of, or something similar to it, the birthday person blows out the candle at once,cakeIs to eat together. On rare occasions, a playful event is sometimes performed where a friend suddenly gathers (hidden) and suddenly appears, celebrating "Happy birthday!" After that, when the present is given to them, it is the task of the parties concerned to make them feel happy by opening their faces and showing their happy faces.

Also in Japan,Senior citizensIs celebrating his birthday,Local governmentYou may receive gifts from us. Especiallylongevity(Old ageIn the case of ), the head of a local government directly visits their home to celebrate,public relationsAnd areaNews (Chinese)It is also reported in.

Customs of each place

Various things that are held on birthdays around the worldCustomThere is. For example:

Meaning of the birthday

When it comes to the meaning of a birthday and the thoughts of a birthday,parentIn general, he celebrates with the feeling that his child lived safely until that day.SaintAs for his birthday, people celebrate with joy and appreciation for the saint's birth in this world.

Birthday and law

Age calculation

The date on which the full age is legally added is the day before the birthday (24:XNUMX).

The full age at birth is 0 years old, and that day becomes the "0st day" of 1 years old (regardless of the time), and when the day changes, it becomes the "2nd day", and the 365th day (in the case of a leap year). , 366 days), he will be one year old.In other words, every time the day before your birthday ends, you will increase by one year.

例えば、1月1日生まれの場合、前日の12月31日の24時に1つ、年をとる。4月1日生まれは、3月31日の24時に年をとる。

そのため、日本では、4月1日生まれの人は、3月31日(24時)に満6歳になり、4月1日には、同年の1月1日から3月31日生まれの満6歳の人たち(早生まれ)と同じ学年として小学1年生となる。そして、同年の4月2日から12月31日生まれの人たちとは学年が異なる[Annotation 2].

Under the current Japanese law, "age iscalendarCalculate according to"[16]However, in the calendar0There is no "day" and counts from 1. Therefore, in the age calculation, the time less than one day after birth is advanced to one day, and the day of birth is set as the first day. In other words, even if the birth is one minute before midnight, the day of birth is the first day, and after midnight (one minute after birth), it is the second day. 1th day[17]The date is the day before the birthday, and the end is 24:12 (XNUMX:XNUMX pm) the day before the birthday.

Furthermore, according to judicial precedent, the time is not taken into account when based on the date, and the addition of full age extends to the entire period of the day before the birthday.In the example of the person who was born on April 4st and is 1 years old, he will be 5 years old after 3:31 on March 24st.

In case of February 2 (deemed birthday)

NormalIn the case of (1 year is 365 days)leap year Of2/29(Leap day) Has no birthday.

However, as the legally full age is as above, it is normal because it is aged on the day before the birthday (24:XNUMX).leap yearRegardless of2/28Aging at 24:XNUMX, legally common in normal years[18]Also3/1It will be aged at the same time as the person born.

On top of that, if you decide something based on your birthday[Annotation 3]Since there is no birthday in a normal year, it is necessary to "consider the day before or after (February 2 or March 28) as a birthday or a day to celebrate the birth".

Birthday as a holiday

Many in the worldCountryso,saint,monarchNamed after his birthdaypublic holidayIs provided. In addition, at the timeHeadIn some countries, holidays move according to birthdays such as (Japan's ""Emperor's birthday holiday"Such).

Saint's birthday

"Christmas TheJesus Christ OfbirthdayThe customary way of thinking世界Famously, but in reality12/25It has been known that the settings have been added later in history,BibleThere is no record of Christ's birthday in such sutras. With ChristSun godAs a result of being mixed with the idea ofwinter solsticeDay (≒(I.e.It is said that around that day, when it was newly born, was applied to it.

IslamThen,ProphetMuhammadThere is no record of his birthday,EgyptStarted withProphet BirthdayCelebrate the Prophet's birthday with the influence ofMuslimOpinions are divided among those who deny the birthday itself.Wahhabismbanned the celebration of the Prophet Muhammad's birthday, so Wahhabismstate religionToSaudi Arabiaprohibited the celebration of the prophet's birthdaylawThere,ApostasyDeath penaltyIt is also possible.Islam's saint's birthday is usuallyHijra calendaris defined as a standard,Gregorian calendarThe date is different every year.

キ リ ス ト 教The anniversary is a fixed date,Orthodox churchThen.Julian calendaris 13 days behind regions that use the Gregorian calendar.[Annotation 4]Becomes

BuddhismFounder ofBuddhaThere is no clear record of his birthday, and different regions celebrate it on different dates.In China and JapanLunar calendarApril 4th was treated as his birthday, but in Japan after the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, April 8th of the Gregorian calendar is treated as his birthday.

ReligiousDateNameOrigin
Buddhism(Japan)4/8Buddha societyBuddha of BuddhaBirthday (originallyOld calendar).It is not a national holiday in Japan.
Buddhism(ChugokuLunar calendar November 4Birthday of Shakyamuni Buddha.It is not a national holiday in China.
Theravada BuddhismBuddhist eraApril-JuneWe Circa FestivalBirthday of Shakyamuni BuddhaEnlightenment,ThatExterminationThe day commemorating the December 1999, 12United Nationsrecognizes this day as an internationally recognized festival day, and asfull mooncertifies the day of[19].
キ リ ス ト 教6/24St. John's DaySt. JohnBirthday
キ リ ス ト 教12/25ChristmasJesus ChristThe day of celebrating the birth of[Annotation 5].
Sunnah
(Islam
Rabbie al-AuwarMonth 12 daysMaurid Ann-NaviMuhammadBirthday.
Shiite
(Islam)
Rabbie al-Auwar May 17thMaurid Ann-NaviMuhammad's birthday.(I.e.Holidays in.
Shiite
(Islam)
Month 13 daysImam Ali Birthday CelebrationFirst generationImam-Ally Even Abbey TurribBirthday.(I.e.Holidays in.
Twelver Imamiyyah
(Islam)
Char BurnMonth 15 daysImam Mahdi Birthday12th ImamMuhammad al-MuntazarBirthday.(I.e.holidays inNot recognized as Imam by Sunnis

Incumbent monarch/head of state

In monarchical countries, the birthday of the monarch is often a public holiday.Japan OfCulture Day,Showa DayIn some cases, the birthday of a special past monarch is celebrated as a holiday.

In republican countries, it is rare for the country to celebrate the birthday of the incumbent head of state.The United States of America OfWashington birthday[Annotation 6],DPR Korea OfSun section(Kim Il Sung),Republic of China Of(Chinese version,English edition(Grandchild)Such,National fatherThere are many examples where the birthday of a special head of state called such as is celebrated as a holiday.

In addition, in relation to events, etc.British Commonwealth OfQueen's birthday, Luxembourg Of(English edition, past JapaneseEmperor TaishoDays different from actual birthdays, such as birthdays (tenchosetsu), are sometimes considered national holidays.

The birthday of the incumbent monarch or head of state that falls on a public holiday

CountryDateNameOrigin
DPR Korea1/8Supreme leader金正恩Birthday
Jordan1/30Royal birthdaykingAbdullah IIBirthday
ブ ー タ タAround June 2Royal birthdaykingJigme Khesar Namgel Wanchukbirthday.Since Bhutan's public holidays are based on the lunar calendar, the date differs each year according to the solar calendar.
Japan2/23Emperor's birthday holidayEmperorTokujinBirthday
Eswatini4/19Royal birthdaykingMuswati IIIBirthday
Netherlands4/27Royal birthdaykingWillem-AlexanderBirthday.
It is Koningsdag (King's Day) in Dutch and does not originally mean "birthday".
Thailand5/28Royal birthdaykingRama 10's birthday (Father's Day วันพ่อ), in Thailand the Queen's birthday, the former King's birthday, and the Queen's birthday are also holidays.
Cambodia5/14Royal birthdaykingNorodom Sihamonito celebrate the birthday ofIn Cambodia, the former Queen's birthday is also a public holiday.
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu6/5Republic president's birthdayPresidentTheodoro Obian Ngemato celebrate the birthday of
MalaysiaFirst Monday of Juneagon birthdayking(Agon)'s birthday.The King of Malaysia has a term system of five years, and is changed each time.
Luxembourg6/23(English editionGrand Duke of Luxembourgto celebrate the birthday of Established in 1947.Grand Duke at the timeCharlotteand a prince born in this yearJeanwas born in January, but due to the frequent bad weather in January, his official birthday was fixed in June, when the weather was fine.
British Commonwealth-Queen's birthdayIn some member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, as head of stateBritish monarchAlthough the day to celebrate the birthday of the monarch is considered a national holiday, it is not necessarily the same as the actual monarch's birthday, and differs from country to country.
トンガ7/4Royal birthdaykingTupov VIbirthday.In Tonga, the Crown Prince's birthday is also a public holiday.
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu7/15sultan birthdaySultanHasanal BorkiaBirthday.
Lesotho7/17Royal birthdaykingLetsie IIIBirthday.
モロッコ8/21Royal birthdaykingMuhammad VBirthday.
Oman11/19Royal birthdaySultanHytham Bin Tarik Earl-SaidBirthday.

Other people

CountryDateNameOrigin
The United States of America1rd Monday of JanuaryMartin Luther King AnniversaryCivil rights movementLeader ofMartin Luther King Jr.Birthday

Songs and novels dealing with birthdays

To display this section, click [View] on the right.

Music

Publications, novels, etc.

One book issued every 366 days

Other

  • It is known that the death rate of a person on that birthday is higher than on other days. EspeciallySuicide rateIs more than 50% more than other days[20].. This phenomenon is also seen in areas other than Japan[21].

The problem is, "When several people get together, the probability that some of them have the same birthday is more than half the time when some people get together."The correct answer is 1 people.There is a discrepancy between the sensory answer and the mathematically calculated answer.paradoxIt is a good example of the problem.By the way, if 70 people gather, the probability exceeds 99.9%.

  • BibleThe contents clearly described as a birthday celebration in theParoBirthday" and "Herod"Birthday", but both are executed[22][23].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In Japan,Japanese nationalityIn case ofpassportWith exceptions such asJapanese CalendarIt is written as, but people with nationalities other than JapanDriver's licenseWith exceptions such asADIs often used.For examplePersonal number cardThe date of birth of (My Number Card) is shown in the Japanese calendar for Japanese nationals, and in the Western calendar for non-Japanese nationals[10].
  2. ^ Article XNUMX of the School Education Law Parents must keep their children in elementary school from the beginning of the first academic year after the day after the child reaches the age of six to the end of the academic year to which the child reaches the age of twelve. Obligated to attend school
  3. ^ Administrative procedures, events such as birthday parties, benefits such as discounts, etc.
  4. ^ To be exact, it is as follows. February 1900, 2 in the Gregorian calendar is February 28, 1900 in the Julian calendar (12 days off)。グレゴリオ暦1900年3月1日〜3月13日は、ユリウス暦1900年2月17日〜2月29日に相当する。Gregorian calendar March 1900, 3-February 14, 2100It is,Julian calendar March 1900, 3-February 1, 2100Equivalent to (13 days off)。グレゴリオ暦2100年3月1日〜3月14日は、ユリウス暦2100年2月16日〜2月29日に相当する。グレゴリオ暦2100年3月15日は、ユリウス暦では2100年3月1日である(14 days off).
  5. ^ 実 際 のイ エ スThe discussion about the birthday ofChristmasSee
  6. ^ First generationPresidentGeorge WashingtonBirthday (the original birthday was2/22<Julian calendar2/11>).then the 16th presidentAbraham LincolnBirthday2/12It became the current method in a complex form with.

Source

  1. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 226-227.
  2. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 227.
  3. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 227-228.
  4. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 228-232.
  5. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 235.
  6. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 240.
  7. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 244-248.
  8. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 249.
  9. ^ Yumi Uzawa 2008, p. 252.
  10. ^ Local Government Information Systems OrganizationNumber Migration Support Center. “Q & A about number system (pdf) ”. As of January 2019, 1originalMore archives.2020/7/19Browse. -See question 3.
  11. ^ Most Nigerian birthdays are January 1st 2008.8 Yohei Sasakawa Nippon Foundation
  12. ^ Miyazaki city fixed"New Year's Day and Birthday"Iwanami modern library"Dongfeng West Masasho" P235-236. But Bei Wei is not a Han Dynasty
  13. ^ Kunihiro Yuasa "Beginners Classic Chinese Classics Tanane Tan" Kadokawa Sophia Library 7th edition 2015 (first edition 14th year) p.217.
  14. ^ Meaning of "Birthday seat" -goo dictionary (Digital Daijisen)
  15. ^ Astrid Lindgren"Karlson on the Roof"Iwanami ShotenTranslationOtsuka Yuzo Lindgrain Works 7 1965:ISBN 4001150670
  16. ^ Age calculation
  17. ^ 間 にLeap day366th day when sandwiching
  18. ^ 「2月28日」は誕生日より前であり、「3月1日」は誕生日より後であるため、2月28日を過ぎて3月1日になった瞬間(3月1日0時)を一般的には加齢のタイミングとみなされる。
  19. ^ "Overview|UN Vesak Day-Japan Committee Official HP". 2022/8/14Browse.
  20. ^ According to Osaka University research, suicide and accident death increase on birthday (2016 6 年 月 日 6)
  21. ^ Accident/Suicide/Illness-Statistical survey reveals the day with the highest mortality rate in a year
  22. ^ Genesis (colloquial translation) #40:20-22
  23. ^ Matthew Gospel (KJV) #14:6-12

References

  • "Birthdays in the early modern era: from the shogun to the common people, their ideals and awareness," Research Report of the National Museum of Japanese History, Vol. 141, March 2008, two:10.15024/00001554, ISSN 0286 – 7400.

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