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    Cuteness

    Cuteness(cuteness) Means "" for a certain thingCuteI feelKey stimulus-factor-nature-concept-aesthetics..Synonyms include "cuteness," "cuteness," "sweetness," and "lovelyness."

    Morphological and biological functions of the child

    EthologyPerson ofKonrad LorenzIt is,1943Published a paper entitled "Innate forms of possible experience (there is a natural form of what you can experience)".[2]..In this paper, the morphological characteristics unique to babies are described as "for adults.CuteIt was said that it stimulated the feeling of "" and encouraged child-rearing behavior.[1]..What are baby-specific morphological features?"The head is larger than the body" "The skull is larger than the face" "The eyes are big and round" "The eyes, nose and mouth are located lower than the whole head" "Short limbs"And so on[1]..The physical characteristics of these young animals are "(German version)"(Infant diagram[1][3], Kindchenschema).Also this isScientific methodWas the starting point for "cute" research based on[4].

    Attachment and mother-child interaction

    The baby schema itself has not evolved for communication.Certainly the baby schema has the emotions to raise a baby.GuardianHowever, it is only a product of primary physical function development, and the sensitivity that the adult who receives it feels "pretty" is.It has been equipped in the process of evolutionIs explained[1].

    Comparative ethologyPerson ofNobuo MasatakaSays that extending the theory of baby schema alone cannot explain an adult's nurturing response to a baby's vocalizations and movements.for example"PointingEven when a baby behaves like an adult, he tends to love it.Human capital OfpsychologicalIs said to be[1]..PediatricianT. Berry BrazelltonAccording to the report, the more the parents talk, the more often the baby speaks, and when he looks at it with a smile, he smiles back with a smile.Such interactions are instinctively equipped, and even babies who are only a few hours old have a habit of faithfully imitating their parents' facial expressions and vocalizations.[5].. like thisReflectionThe habit is "Primitive imitation"It is called[6]..At this time, the guardian gives "pleasant feelings" such as comforting the crying baby, and the baby also sends various care signals to the guardian.[5].

    Yoko Ishino, who is studying the development of motherhood, says that the behavior of infants who increase affection between mother and childShy".For example, babies become shy in the second half of their life and show discomfort such as crying when people who do not usually come in contact with them approach.However, when the guardian comes into view, the baby stops crying and shows a sweet gesture such as hugging.Parents also encourage positive parenting behavior, "I have to raise this child," and spoil the baby.The intimate and emotional relationship between mother and child is "AttachmentThe process of fostering a relationship of trust between mother and childDevelopmental psychologyThen "Is called[5].

    "Amae" perspective

    Osaka UniversityGraduate SchoolsGraduate School of Human SciencesThe professor'sTakeo DoiBy ""Amae" structure』(Hirobundo, 1971)Spoiled"When"Cute"JapanesePoints out the similarities between the two emotions.For example, in the idea assumed by the baby schema, the "prettiness" transmitted by the protected side is accepted by the guardian.Key stimulus= It's just a clueOne-way relationshipHowever, by incorporating the viewpoint of "sweetness" to gain the affection of others on the protected side, the relationship between the sender and the receiver of "prettiness" can be understood.BidirectionalCan be interpreted as[7].

    Children's neoteny

    Desmond Collins of the University of London[8]"What makes human adolescence longer?NeotenyPart of[9]..Of a physical anthropologistBarry Bogin"The child's growth pattern intentionally lengthens the duration of prettiness," he said.According to Bogin, the human brain will grow to adult size at the next time.[10].

    • When the body is only 40% complete
    • When tooth maturity is only 58% complete
    • When reproductive maturity is only 10% complete

    like thisAllometry(Relative growth, the relative growth of each part of the body to the whole body)mammalianIt is said that it can maintain a superficially "infant-like appearance" such as "large skull", "small face", "small body", and "sexually underdeveloped" for longer than that.Bogin also states that this pretty appearance causes a reaction of "nurturing" and "care-grilling" to "older individuals".[10].

    Gender difference

    The way a baby feels cute is influenced by the baby's gender and behavior.According to a study by Koyama et al. (2006), female infants are more physically attractive than male infants.[11].. A study by Karraker (1990) also demonstrated that the protection of male infants may only be aroused by awareness of the child's happiness and physical attractiveness.[12].

    In addition, the "gender of the observer" has a great influence on the perception of cuteness. A study by Sprengelmeyer et al. (2009) found that women were more sensitive to "subtle differences in cuteness" than men of the same age.female hormoneSuggested that the work of is important in determining "cuteness"[13].

    Cultural significance

    Baby schema is the originalBiologyIt has a tremendous effect not only in the field of design but also in the fields of design and industry, and a particularly famous example is Japan.Comic,AnimeSuch asPop culture(Otaku culture).for examplecharacterOften to direct and emphasize the "innocence", "obedience" and "youngness" of

    • Large head and small nose compared to the body
    • Large eyes located slightly below the center of the face
    • Sticking out amount
    • Short and fluffy limbs
    • Soft body surface
    • Rounded cheeks
    • Rounded body shape
    • Awkward movement

    Features of baby schema[15][16]Is often used (suchnaturalSomething that doesn't exist in but causes a big reaction to the viewerSupernormal stimulus").like thisSupernormal stimulusTo evokeCharacter Design Thesub cultureNot justYuru Chara,Moe character[17]It is an aesthetic sense that is spreading in all fields of Japanese society, such as "Cute""Moe""preciousSuch asJapaneseIt is described and expressed in.

    Impact on Otaku Culture and Lolicon Manga

    "Cuteness" is the main axis in male cultureMoeThe original work ofthe 1980sFirst halfLolicon boomAppeared in the period.Until then commonErotic comics for menIs a real touchThird-class graphic novelHowever, it was in 1979 that this trend was decisively changed.Comic marketJapan's first lolicon manga douujinshi distributed in 11Cyber』(Lethargy professional).This douujinshi is "Osamu Tezuka,Shotaro Ishinomori"Sex can be drawn even with a round symbolic pattern like"CuteEroticLegendary by discovering and revolutionizing[18].

    After that, it has the characteristics of baby schema.Lolicon cartoonWas widely accepted by adolescents.Moreover"NerdCoupled with the appearance ofNijikon complexAlong with creating a cultural phenomenon, what we now call "Moe character”Releases sexual desire, but floods.Especially in the early days of lolicon manga, sexual stimulation (=) while maintaining the "infant form" of Tezuka manga and anime paintings.Supernormal stimulus[19]The point that brought about) is epoch-making, and the erotic comics critic'sKaoru Nagayama"In erotic comicsNeoteny(Mature neoteny) ”[20]..And, "moe erotic" and "cute erotic", which are still inherited as continuous cotton, are against macho-like things.FragilityA kind of expression movement that took place as a rehabilitation ofCounter culture([21]).

    Targets and structures that evoke "prettiness"

    What makes you feel "cuteness" and evokes the asylum of adults is masculinity (machismo) Can be said to be the opposite.Art critic OfMatsui MidoriRegarding the manifestation of the feeling of "cute", "the other party is" weak "and" immature "against rude and unproductive behavior, that is, behavior that deviates from the norms of" adult society "that aims at rationality and efficiency. It comes from the perspective of compassion for forgiveness and protection. "[24].

    Cuteness type and structure

    Hokkaido University of EducationFaculty of EducationAssociate Professor Takuya Miyazaki classifies the factors that evoke prettiness into the following four categories.[25].

    According to Miyazaki, the factors that evoke prettiness tend to be the same for both men and women, and it is thought that the same classification can be applied uniformly without distinguishing between men and women.[25].

    "Cute" and "poor"

    As a feature that evokes cuteness, it is familiar and familiar[27]other than,NegativeIs also included.For example, the one shown below is "Poor /Fragile≓ CuteIs the main element that constitutes[28].

    • Fragile
    • Unreliable
    • Small / young / weak
    • Light / immature / incomplete
    • slow
    • Loose
    • Delicate and timid
    • Distorted / sick
    • ephemeral

    In addition to these, from the worldDeviation()do,Objects that have lost harmony with society(Example:Radio system・ ・natural-Chunichi disease-Menhera-Shadow-Communication disorder-Cat ear-evildoer-A priestess) May also be considered "cute"[23].

    Kenji Miyamoto"Cute" is the reason why Japan's unique aesthetic sense, which is attracted to imperfect and immature things, has attracted attention all over the world.In a nutshell, it's20st centuryFor the economic development of societyantithesisIt can be said. "Kawaii" is an aesthetic sense that denies growth and maturity."When,moratoriumSummarized in the context of[29][30].

    as a side note"Cute"JapaneseIs a superior[31]Is derived from feelings of pity, mercy, and consolation, such as "pity," "mercy," and "sorry."[32]..A derivative word that inherits this meaning is "There is.

    Eiji OtsukaIs "Cute"" And "" are two sides of the same coin, and they argue as follows.

    Anyway, why <Cute> And <> may be synonymous.In this book, I have a study room surrounded by "cute" things and a girl's miscellaneous goods store.Autistic space isolated from the outside worldI have repeatedly pointed out that.In other words, "cute" meansThe role of a barrier to protect girls from reality or the outside worldThat is. <Cute> I can only live in a <cute> space.In other words, "I" is an existence that is "painful and unbearable to see." Since "cute" is a keyword that expresses the self-image of a girl, it was rather natural that "poor" was integrated there. "Cute", a resident of the microcosm, "I" is very "poor".that is"BonobonoIt ’s a world, and the media has cut it off.Emperor ShowaIt can be said that it really meant. — Eiji Otsuka"Girls' Ethnology-The Descendants of the Priestess, The Myths of the End of the Century"Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd. Excerpt from pp.246-247 1989

    Here OtsukaEmperor ShowaWhen I lie down, I have a sympathyBookkeepingI took up the seemingly very strange phenomenon that "girls in uniforms lined up" as an example.As it says, "Girls are among the old men (= cute grandpa) <Innocent or weak>, A "homogeneous image that overlaps with ourselves" (Girl's self-image) Was found. "In addition, Otsuka is a similar example to "Emperor Showa", "Poor Cimaris-kun" (Mikio Igarashi OfComic"BonobonoThe popularity of "Ijimeru?", Which appears in "Ijimeru?"[33][34].

    Domination-dominated relationship

    About the behavior to love and protect the other party as an immature petYi-Fu TuanIs the book "Love and Domination Museum-Pet's Royal Palace / Atypical Garden" (Workshop, 1988), pointing out that by emphasizing the other person's dependence on oneself, it is directly linked to the "desire of control" of wanting to control others.[35].

    In this regardMeisei UniversityFaculty of EducationProfessor'sMika Nishimura The"Desire for control (or asylum)" "Convenient political terminology" "Commercial umami"The three elements are the current "CuteIt is pointed out that it is included in the word "", and the word "cute" has"Domination-dominated relationship"Regarding, he states as follows.

    For example, it's cute because it's pitiful, or it's cute because it's unpleasant and it's not dealt with by everyone.Dominant emotions from aboveAppears and disappears there. (Omitted)It even puts the object under your control like a possession and even looks down from above...And "cute" is what was said, while reading the gaze from above and the emotions that looked down (sometimes stupid)."Cute" is essentially a complimentTherefore, even if it is said that it feels uncomfortable, it is not enough to get angry if it is insulting.Although I feel bitter, I can't help but pull back.This situation is a very Japanese way of thinking that fits the Japanese people's desire to facilitate relationships, sometimes confusing and roundabout, who do not want to be black and white clearly. If you say "cute", the place will be manageable for the time being. By bringing out "cuteness", you can relax the place.By being said to be "cute," you can position yourself as a small and vulnerable person and avoid a crisis.. — Mika Nishimura "Cute Theory"Meisei UniversityFaculty of Humanities"Meisei University Bulletin of Humanities" No. 51, pp.134-135, 2015

    Nishimura also said, "CuteAbout "adult women who are neither young nor small" who abuse "" and adapt "cute" to themselvesA strategy to enter the patronage of someone, depend on that person, and live as if they wereOn the contrary, "a woman who has become mature and old and ugly" is not disturbed by the surroundings, and "to take care of her old age"Cute grandma'[36]I guess that there may be only a survival strategy that is liked even a little.[37].

    A fiction work with a cuteness motif

    • Fujiko F. Fujio"Cutie"
      • A work with the theme of what is cuteness.Scientific modeling of animal children's survival and emotional correction of humansSFI see it from a perspective.
    • Akio Nakamori"Fashionable thief"
    • Television Animation"Healing ♥ precure』Episode 23" What is cute? Asumi and the puppy story "
    • Tomomi Abe"The tide dances, the child dances』Volume 2 Episode 19" Torakura "
    • Furuya Usamaru"Short cuts"
      • Ero guro nonsense work with the motif of "cute" world residents such as high school girls and stuffed animals
    • 『』
    • "Baby girl"
      • A work with the theme of "cute" for girls.It portrays "cute" as a kind of curse in a pop and poisonous way.
    • SAHA + Stonehead ""
      • A manga based on a Korean fantasy novel.It depicts a great mage who reincarnated as a princess in a neighboring country, politically spreading "affairs" and solving all problems.

    References

    "Cute"Gaku" is a comprehensive concept and cultural aspect of "kawaii" that is unique to Japan.Humanities-Social scienceConsidered with a specific approachQualitative researchIs the center.for that reasonExperimental psychology,Neuroscience,Kansei engineeringWhen hunting papers and documents related to "prettiness" purely from a traditional approach, "emphasizing the peculiarities of Japan"Pop culturePlease be careful not to mix it with "Theory".Konrad Lorenz Of(German version)As a Japanese researcher who paid attention to, there are others (such as the history of concept formation of "kawaii culture" in Japan.Eiji Otsuka,Inuhiko Yomota, See books).

    Writings / Magazines

    paper

    footnote

    1. ^ a b c d e f Nobuo Masataka"Children learn words with their bodies From melody to the world of meaning" Chuko Shinsho 2001, p.108-112.
    2. ^ Lorenz, K. (1943). Die angeborenen Formen möglicher Erfahrung [The innate forms of potential experience].
    3. ^ "Effects of contact experience with infants and emotions at the time of contact on children's interests"Tokyo Gakugei University, School Education Research Review (36) 1-15 October 2017, p.10.
    4. ^ Nittono (2019), p.55
    5. ^ a b c Rie Ueki"I can see it as much as I can! Really understand psychology"Japan Business Publisher, 2010, pp. 132-135, "How do parents and children become'parents'?"
    6. ^ Yasushi Oyabu "Development of baby's imitation behavior-from morphology to imitation of intention-"Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms," Vol. 29, No. 1, Society of Biomechanisms, February 2005, pp. 1-3, ISSN 02850885, NOT 40020710920.
    7. ^ "Tokyo University OfPsychiatristMetTakeo DoiHe has been advocating the concept of "Amae" since about XNUMX. (Omitted) After that, even in Europe and the United States, we focused on intimate relationships with caregivers.attachment(Attachment) Theory has developed, and it has been confirmed that such psychological tendencies are not limited to Japanese people.Which of the potential psychological tendencies that humans have will be noticed and accepted in society will vary from culture to culture. (Omitted) The idea of ​​"Amae" is(German version)It is different from the idea of. (…) In the baby schema theory, a cute subject is considered only as a trigger or a clue to attract the attention of the surroundings and cause behavior.On the other hand, with the idea of ​​"Amae", you can see the situation from the standpoint of the person you think is cute.In other words, if you see a kitten that is spoiled, you may remember that you were spoiled by someone or that you wanted to be spoiled.In this way, by incorporating the perspective of "Amae", "Kawaii" can be seen as two-way rather than one-way. "Hiroshi Iritono" The psychology of "Kawaii" in experiments "Chemistry Doujin, 2019 Year, pp.203-204
    8. ^ (1970). Special Issue: Early Man. World Archeology Volume 2, Issue 1, DOI: 10.1080 / 00438243.1970.9979467 page 112 link
    9. ^ Collins, D. et al. (1973). Background to archeology: Britain in its European setting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.0-521-20155-1 hard cover
    10. ^ a b Bogin, B. (1997). Evolutionary Hypotheses for Human Childhood. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, vol. 40, pp. 63–89.
    11. ^ Reiko Koyama; Yuen Takahashi; Kazuo Mori (2006). “Factors that determine the cuteness of children and gender differences ". Social Behavior Personality Research Journal (Scientific Journal Publishers) 34 (9): 1087-1099. two:10.2224 / sbp.2006.34.9.1087. ISSN 0301 – 2212. 
    12. ^ Karraker, Katherine; Stern, Marilyn (1990). “Infant Physical Attractiveness and Facial Expression: Effects on adult perceptions”. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 11 (4): 371–385. two:10.1207 / s15324834basp1104_2. 
    13. ^ Sprengelmeyer, R; Perrett, D .; Fagan, E .; Cornwell, R .; Lobmaier, J .; Sprengelmeyer, A .; Aasheim, H .; Black, I. et al. (2009). Face: A Hormonal Link to Sensitivity to Cuteness in Infant Faces ”. Psychological Science 20 (9): 149–154. two:10.1111 / j.1467-9280.2009.02272.x. PMID 19175530. 
    14. ^ Nittono (2019), p.56
    15. ^ Ingo Lenticular "Thinking about Beauty from the Brain-A Biological Exploration of Art"Shinyodosha, p.13, 2000
    16. ^ Hiroshi Iritono, "Experimental psychological consideration of the relationship between cuteness and youth (PDF) Japan Kansei Engineering Society, Cute Artificial Materials Research Group, 2nd Anniversary Symposium (June 2012, 6)Shibaura Institute of TechnologyToyosu Campus) Documents, p.7
    17. ^ "Supernormal stimulusAnother example is when drawing a woman in an anime, the chest is big, the waist is narrow, and the hips are big.FemaleSex appealIs exaggerated, but such a woman is almost non-existent.Her tastes are different, but she is a perennial favorite.A classic example of a combination of specific features that provokes our emotions and behaviors.Some characters are created by local or private organizations. ""Yuru CharaThe word isIllustrator OfJun MiuraMr.Coined wordAndRegistered trademarkis.Originally, it was a costume that people could enter.Many of them are not perfectly crafted and have an unsophisticated handmade feel due to budget constraints, which invites a smile (bitter smile).Baby schemas are also included in these characters.Some of them aren't, but the ones I made to make them feel cute always contain the baby schema in an exaggerated form as a supernormal stimulus. ”Hiroshi Iritono“ In the experiment after “cute” The Psychology of Exploration ”Chemistry Doujin, 2019, p.57
    18. ^ KAWADE Yume Mook "Bungei Separate Volume [General Feature] Hideo Azuma Bishoujo, SF, Unreasonable Gag, and Disappearance" Kawade Shobo Shinsha, April 2011, p. 4.
    19. ^ It turns out that it was a proof of evolution that people were excited about XNUMXD eroticism! What is the mystery of "supernormal stimulation" that is activated by otaku !? April 2019, 2
    20. ^ Kaoru Nagayama"Introduction to Manga as an Augmented Erotic Manga Studies" Pleasure Device ""Chikuma Shobo〈Chikuma paperback> April 2014 p.4
    21. ^ Akio Nakamori"The eve of the birth of new human beings & otaku ──I was about to turn a sharp curve──Isn't there an" 80-year security "? It's not a political struggle. It was a rebellion in culture, no, a flood."Shinchosha Co., Ltd."Shincho 45May 2012 issue "Special feature / 5 years ago and 30 years later"
    22. ^ Hisao Shiizuka "Structure of Cute Emotions-Cuteness and Interaction in Products" Japan Kansei Engineering Society "Kansei Engineering" Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.98-108, September 2012
    23. ^ a b "youngvirginServe GodA priestessTocustomWas also in ancient times on the mainland.The young virgin daughter has a sign of "deviation from the world (= super-profane)".CurrentGeek cultureHowever, the appearance of a young girl's shrine maiden is one of the images that expresses the most "cute".Losing harmony with society and deviating from society is also a form of "super-profane." The "useless person" is also a super-profane "saint". "Kawaii" is an image of one "super profane" and "deviation". "Ka" in "Kanashi" and "Kahayushi"phoneme"The feeling of loss" of being a human being is included in "Why gals are immediately" cute "" by Hiromichi Yamamoto.Gentosha Renaissance New Company〈Gentosha Renaissance New Book> August 2010 pp.8-39
    24. ^ Matsui (1996), p.25
    25. ^ a b Miyazaki (2019), p.69
    26. ^ "Creepy, ugly, and'cute'are not images that are in conflict with each other, but rather that they overlap, pull each other, and depend on each other. When something is called "cute," it means that somewhere in it, grotesque is secretly used as a secret ingredient. "Inuhiko Yomota"" Cute "Theory" Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma new book〉 P.80, 2006
    27. ^ Nittono (2009), p.24
    28. ^ Kaoru Nagayama"Supplementary Erotic Manga Studies Introduction to Manga as a "Pleasure Device""Chikuma Shobo〈Chikuma paperback> 2014, pp.81-83
    29. ^ Kenji Miyamoto"Japanese aesthetics"Kobunsha new book October 2008 p.3
    30. ^ Ishikawa (2016), p.23
    31. ^ "Cute"" Is an expression that shows the affection that the superior has for the present.On the other hand, "beloved" was used to show the affection from the present to the superior. ((Hiroshi Iritono "Behavioral science approach to "cute""Human Science Research," Volume 4, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 2009, pp. 19-35, two:10.15027/29016, ISSN 18817688, NOT 120001954440.)
    32. ^ ""CuteThe etymology of "(kawayui)" is "kawahayushi"Old languageIs said to be.This is a modified word of "face (ha) yushi", which means "it's embarrassing, the conscience seems to blame and the face seems to blush."middle ages(Kamakura PeriodからAzuchi-Momoyama Period) Was used to mean pity and pity because of the meaning of "I can't stand to see", but in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the meaning of showing affection for the vulnerable, such as women and children, was derived.The early modern period(Edo PeriodIn the latter half of), the feeling of pity disappeared, and only the meaning of adorableness appeared, and the usage of the attribute adjective "lovable little sama" also appeared.Nowadays, it is "cute" that is often thought of as an attribute adjective, but it is interesting that it was originally an emotional adjective. "Hiroshi Iritono "Short Lecture "Cute" Psychophysiology"Physiological Psychology and Psychology," Vol. 32, No. 2, Japan Society of Physiological Psychology, 2014, pp. 53-54, two:10.5674 / jjppp.1410ci, ISSN 0289 – 2405, NOT 130005072710.
    33. ^ Otsuka (1989), pp.190-191
    34. ^ Otsuka (1989), pp.244-246
    35. ^ Matsui (1996), pp.25-26
    36. ^ Kazuma Ohara "" Cute Grandma ""Kyoko InagakiHen, "Children, Schools, Society-Sociology of Education and Culture," December 2006, World thought company, pp.156-157
    37. ^ Nishimura (2015), p.135

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