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🍺 | Now's your chance to buy! ?"Arashi of Explosive Buying" at super-discount stores! ? “Household defense measures” before the price increase rush in October…


Now is your chance to buy! ?"Arashi of Explosive Buying" at super-discount stores! ? “Household defense measures” before the price increase rush in October…

If you write the contents roughly
As you can see, I have a pile of happoshu that I stocked up at home!

Price increase rush from October!Before that, it was now when I interviewed about defensive measures to protect the household budget as much as possible. 【Photo… → Continue reading


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Low-malt beer

Low-malt beerWhat is (happoshu)?Japan OfLiquor tax lawDefined inAlcoholic beveragesone of.in JapanbeerThere are many flavored sparkling alcoholic beverages, which are distinguished from beer by Japanese liquor tax law.DefinitionIt is classified as low-malt beer because it uses other than the specified auxiliary ingredients.[1]..In this section, these in Japanthe 1990sThe description will focus on the low-tax low-tax low-malt beer that has been developed since then.


Happoshu, which has been developed in Japan since the mid-1990s, is a beer-like alcoholic beverage that mainly uses less malt as a raw material for beer and instead increases the proportion of barley, rice, sugar, and so on.Although the price is lower than that of beer, there are many evaluations such as "not enough taste" such as light taste and lack of bitterness.On the other hand, it is also evaluated as being light and light and easy to drink for women and those who do not like alcohol.

Happoshu market1994Since the subsequent market formationthe 2000sBy expanding the market share to the first half, beer sales have been on a downward trend.Alcoholic beverageIt was a hot selling product, but twiceLiquor taxAmendments andThird beerThe market has been shrinking since the latter half of the 2000s due to factors such as the decline in the sense of cheapness due to the appearance of the beer company and changes in the business policy of beer companies.[2].

A new genre of beer-flavored alcoholic beverages "Third beerIn "Liqueur (foaming) ①", sparkling wine was used as a raw material, and wheat or barley was used as a part of the raw material.SpiritsIt is a manufacturing method that adds[3].

Among alcoholic beverages, it is a beer-like alcoholic beverage unique to Japan because of the content influenced by the Japanese tax system and the content that uses an extremely large amount of auxiliary materials.[4], In the media outside Japan low malt beer , happoshu May be introduced.

In addition to wheat, water, and hops, sparkling liquors that use auxiliary ingredients that are not approved for use in beer are also classified as happoshu in Japan.Therefore, beer using spices and herbs and fruit beer using fruits and juice are also available.2018Until March 3st, all were classified as "happoshu"[5].. Especially,BelgiumBeer imported into Japan from Belgium is under Belgian lawbeerIn spite of this, the amount of auxiliary ingredients used sometimes resulted in "happoshu" under the Japanese Liquor Tax Law.[6]..As for auxiliary materials, since it was relaxed by the revised liquor tax law that came into effect on April 2018, 4, some brands were previously treated as low-malt beer, but imported beer is now treated as beer after the revision.[7].

The definition of "raw" in low-malt beer is "raw" in beer (draft beer) Is applicable to "things that have not been heat-treated"[8][9]..Regarding labeling "Fair competition rules regarding beer labeling"[10]Since it does not correspond to the above and there are no other rules, even "raw" products are not marked as "not heat-treated" ("non-heat-treated", etc.) like beer.


Local beerThere is also a happoshu version of "Happoshu"[11]..The reason for using happoshu instead of beer is that the minimum production quantity to obtain a happoshu license is 6 kL, which is one tenth of beer.[12], To use ingredients that are not classified as beer under the Liquor Tax Law, such as fruits and herbs[5]Or, like the big manufacturers, there are several reasons, such as price cuts.

In addition, although there is a tax incentive for local beer, only the category of malt less than 25% is subject to preferential treatment for local happoshu, and for happoshu with malt of 50% or more, which has the same original tax rate as beer. As a result, the tax amount is higher than that of beer with tax incentives.[13].

Broad sense

In a broad sensecarbon dioxide gasIt means "liquor containing"[14]..Specifically, beer-like alcoholic beverages (so-calledThird beerSuch)[4],ChampagneSuch assparkling wine[14],Sparkling sakeIt may also be used to refer to such things.


Liquor tax lawAccording to Article 3, alcoholic beverages are "beer""LiqueurIt is classified into 17 types such as "Miscellaneous sake"[1], Happoshu has the following definition.

Low-malt beer
  • Alcoholic beverages made from malt or wheat as a part of the raw material (alcoholic beverages listed in Article 3, items 7 to 17 of the same law and distilled alcohol-containing substances made from malt or wheat as a raw material are one of the raw materials. (Excluding those with a portion) and having effervescent properties (limited to those with an alcohol content of less than XNUMX degrees).

tax rate

There are three tax categories, "50% or more", "25% or more and less than 50%", and "less than 25%" depending on the malt ratio.The malt ratio of general low-malt beer sold by major beer makers is mainly "less than 3%".The tax rate for low-malt beer with a malt ratio of "25% or more" is the same as that for beer.[3]..In the past, imported beer such as local beer and Belgian beer used auxiliary ingredients (herbs such as coriander seeds and orange peel in Belgian white beer) that were not recognized as beer under the old Japanese liquor tax law. In order to avoid criticism that the price is high even though it is a sparkling liquor to distinguish it from the tax-saving happoshu, it is a sparkling liquor because it uses raw materials that cannot be described as beer under the Liquor Tax Law. Since it is more than%, the tax rate is the same as beer. " Can be used up to 50 and is now recognized as beer[15]).

2020(2nd year of Reiwa) After October, the tax will be reduced or increased in sequence.2026In October, the tax rate will be the same as beer (10 yen per liter) regardless of the malt usage ratio.[15].

The tax rates per liter from October 2020, 10 to September 1, 2023 (Reiwa 5) are as follows.

  • Low-malt beer
    • Malt ratio 50% or more-200 yen
    • 25% or more and less than 50% --167.125 yen
    • Less than 25% --134.25 yen

The tax rate for beer is 50 yen per liter at the same rate as low-malt liquor with a malt ratio of 1% or more, so-called third beer is 200 yen.Chu-HiThe tax rate for alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content of less than 10 degrees and effervescent is 1 yen per liter.[15].

2006(18)5/1From to September 2020, 9 was as follows[3].

  • Low-malt beer
    • Malt ratio 50% or more-220 yen
    • 25% or more and less than 50% --178.125 yen
    • Less than 25% --134.25 yen

History / background

The birth of low-malt beer in Japan is a kind of coping method due to the background of the times, beer production with high barriers to entry, high beer tax rate,1989(HeiseiThe main factor is the low price competition for beer since the first year).

From prewar to the 1960s

PrewarThen,1932As a measure against surplus rice in (Showa 7)Ministry of FinanceBrewing laboratoryResearch on rice beer was conducted in Japan, but it did not reach commercialization.[16].

Pacific WarIn the meantime, beer was an important strategic material for raising the fighting spirit, but as the war situation deteriorated, food shortages became tight, and the supply shortage of barley and rice, which are the raw materials for beer, became noticeable.[17]..Due to this historical background, we reduced the amount of barley used.[16]Or, the military commissions the production and development of unused beer-like liquor "wheat-like beverage" and specializes in agricultural chemistry.University,Dainippon BeerResearch was conducted mainly by industry-related research institutes such as[17]..This raw material is sweet potato (sweet potato)WhenhopIt was equivalent to the "third beer" at present.[17][18].

Food shortages continued after the warFood control lawSince the production of beer was also controlled by the company, the use of malt as a raw material was not permitted, so a beer-like liquor called "synthetic beer" that does not use malt was developed, and a new company, Taiyo. With the potatoes that brewing was free to sell at that timehopI applied for and approved the trial brewing of potato beer using1950It was newly released in (25) and became the first commercial low-malt beer in Japan, but it was sold out in about a year.[16][19].1952(Showa 27), barley, which is the raw material for malt, was relaxed, but some companies still restricted its use as a raw material.[19]In the same year, 12 patents related to synthetic beer were registered in addition to Dainippon Beer, and the names used were "synthetic beer", "immediate beer-like beverage", "beer base", and "beer substitute beverage".[20].the 1950sIn, there were multiple general names for low-malt beer, such as "synthetic beer," "simulated beer," "imitation beer," and "raw material name + beer (example: potato beer)."[21].. From the first half to the second half of the 1950s, there were multiple beer-flavored liquors and beverages using the names "beer" and "beer". Family Drink Beer, Quick Beer, Instant Beer,Fruit wineWith hopscarbon dioxide gasSake "Munich beer" "Apple beer",Distilled spiritsAssuming splitSoft drinkThere was a "new beer mix" etc.[20].1953(Showa 28), the use of malt up to a certain amount is permitted for low-malt beer, the demand for beer increases and the demand for shochu and synthetic sake declines, and the advantages of lower entry costs and taxes than beer. As a result, some companies have entered the happoshu market, avoiding beer with high barriers to entry.[18][21].. From the 1950sthe 1960sThis kind of liquor was manufactured and sold by multiple companies.However, many companies withdrew in a few years,Kyowa Hakko Kogyo (currently Kyowa Hakko Kirin) The1960The low-malt beer "Rabbie" was launched in Japan and was initially strong, but shipments dropped sharply in winter.[22], Liner beer1959On November 11th, an existing beer company said it was confusing with beer.Unfair Competition Prevention LawSued in1965March 6Supreme CourtThe existing beer company won the case in the ruling, so the sale was virtually suspended.[23][24]. Also,1957(ShowaTakara Shuzo entered the beer industry in 32), but struggled.1967Withdrew from the beer business in (Showa 42)[25].1964ToSuntoryHas entered the beer business instead of the low-malt beer business, and the number of beer in Japan is 1000 million.stoneWe have entered an era in which beer companies compete for quality and sales volume.[24]..Due to these factors, it is thought that it is difficult to sell happoshu against beer, and the happoshu business boom has ended. Although happoshu is defined by the Liquor Tax Law, there are no companies that will enter the market for a long period of time. Continued, brewing-type products ceased until the mid-1990s and became a dormant genre.[18][24].

the 1980s

The brewed type was cut off for a long time due to low-malt beer, but the mixed type was slightly commercialized by existing manufacturers.1983(Showa 58)Asahi beerReleased byBeIs with beerjuiceHapposhu mixed withCocktailsIt was released as a "beer-type light cocktail" because it was colored like this and the alcohol content was 2%.Dyed in three colors of pink, green and purplecatThe commercial that played in front of the white grand piano attracted a lot of attention at that time.1986(Showa 61)Sapporo beer Tokai four prefectures"Biya Cocktail Bamboo" is on sale for a limited time.However, both products were discontinued in a short period of time.[18].

1984"" Released by Suntory in (59)Be highAs the name suggests, beer is divided by shochu.[26]So, today's "Third beer: liqueur (sparkling) (1)(Or "Fourth Beer"), but it was discontinued due to lack of results.[26].

1990s-mid 2000s

1989(HeiseiThe liquor sales license was relaxed in the first year), and it was large.Discount storeNow you can handle beer.This has led to traditional retail storesSuggested retail priceThe number of purchases at stores has decreased, and low-price competition has occurred among large stores.These competitions prompted wholesalers and manufacturers to reduce prices, but beer was a difficult product to reduce because 46.5% of its retail price was taxed.the 1990sThe general price of Japanese domestic beer in the first half is around 225 yen[27][28]).In addition, because it is difficult to reduce the price of Japanese domestic beer, the number of stores handling cheap imported beer outside Japan has increased rapidly, and major beer companies in Japan have become a sense of crisis.

In response to this situation, beer companies in Japan have an urgent need to develop products that can compete with price and content.[29], Research and development of alcoholic beverages with reduced malt usage were underway[30][31]..Under the Liquor Tax Law at that time, beer was classified as having a malt ratio of 67% (two-thirds) or more, and less than that was classified as "miscellaneous liquor-happoshu", and the tax rate was lower than that of beer.[28][30][32].. In the early 1990s, the market share was in the 5% range, which was a big struggle.SuntoryFocusing on the low tax rate of happoshu as a breakthrough, taking advantage of the research on happoshu brewing with a low malt ratio conducted over the past 20 years, a new product that will gain support in terms of taste and price that suits Japanese tastes. Make product development concrete[27][30], The effect on flavor due to the decrease in malt ratio was solved with raw materials, yeast, and brewing technology, leading to commercialization.[30].

1994(6) November[33]Low malt rate to 65% (350ml can,Suggested retail priceHapposhu that realized 180 yen (excluding tax)HopsSuntory launches and shows a good start[30][34], Became the starting point for forming the happoshu market[30]..The following June 1995 Sapporo beerHas released a new "" with a malt ratio of less than 25% and a lower price (350 ml can, suggested retail price of 160 yen, tax not included), and the sales have become so low that it is running out of stock and establishing a production increase system.[35], Happoshu has started full-scale competition[28].

At that time, "tax-saving beer"[32]And "malt alcoholic beverages"[35]Also called, the taste is slightly different from beer[32]Although it was said to be inferior, the low price was successful, and sales of low-malt beer were strong, but at the same time, beer sales and product composition ratio declined.[28]..the government1996In the fall of (Heisei 8), the liquor tax was revised so that the tax rate for low-malt liquor with a malt rate of 50% or more was the same as that for beer.A major beer maker argued that the revision aimed at happoshu ignored the efforts of companies to develop products.Suntory has overcome the change in the liquor tax law in the fall by technological innovation while reducing the malt usage rate, and has reduced the malt usage rate to less than 25%.1996Low price (5ml can, 28ml can, put on the market from May 350thSuggested retail price145 yen, tax not included)[30][36].

1998(10),Kirin BeerHapposhu is the first entry into the market.Kirin Tanrei <raw>Was released, and became a big hit product that occupied more than 50% of the happoshu market share in the same year.[37]At the same time, the happoshu market has expanded significantly.[38].

2001(13),Asahi beerIs the first entry into the happoshu market, "Honsei" (currentlyAsahi Honsei Draft) Is released.Asahi Breweries has stated that it will not release low-malt beer, which is a mockery of beer. He decided to enter the happoshu market, and explained that the reason was that the happoshu category was established.[39].

the 2000sAt the beginning, the momentum of "health-oriented" was increasing.[28][40], Suntory is the first happoshu with the theme of "calorie off" and "diet", and realized both taste and calorie off.Diet studentWas released on October 2001, 10, and won the food hit award by recording the highest number of initial shipments in the calorie-off category.[41].2002Kirin Brewery released in April "Tanrei Green LabelHas been released in large numbers in the Japanese food industry in the past, but none of them has become mainstream and there are "unsuccessful categories".The dogmaIt corresponds to the category of light products that had become, and there was concern about the future[42][43]..However, it sold 3.3 million cases, which is about 1310 times the initial plan, and with overwhelming sales of new happoshu products in the same year, it succeeded for the first time, overturning the established theory of the light product category, and won the Food Hit Award.[42][43].. In 2002, health-conscious products were released by each company, and the market of "functionality" was created and established in happoshu, which became one of the characteristics.[28][44].

In 2002 (14), Kirin Brewery launched a new low-malt beer "Gokusei" on February 2, pursuing ease of drinking and buying, and selling costs such as no TV commercials and simplification of containers and packages. By compressing, the suggested retail price of 27 ml cans was set at 350 yen, which is 135 yen cheaper than ordinary low-malt beer.[40][45][46]..Other companies follow this and change the prices of some products, or beer makersrebateAs a result of the heating, a stalemate of discount competition and an over-selling battle were developed.[27][28][46], Was a big management issue for beer companies[40]..In the same year, happoshu accounted for 37.2% of the beer (beer / happoshu) market share and reached its heyday.[2][47].

2003(15), the market share of beer (beer / happoshu) in April reached a record high of 4% on a monthly basis, and the liquor tax law was revised from May 48.2 to increase the tax on happoshu. Beer[48], Reflected in the product price, the price was raised by 10 yen.Due to this revision, we will utilize the research and development of alcoholic beverages with even lower tax rates.Third beerIt led to the commercialization of[49]..In addition, the tax increase on low-malt beer has eased the discount competition that had been intensifying since 2002, and further.2005The era of happoshu discount competition and oversold has come to an end due to factors such as the review of rebates by beer makers and the policy change of beer industry companies (from price to value, from quantity to quality, from share to profit).[27].

Market shrinkage since the late 2000s

Since the latter half of the 2000s, the share of low-malt beer in beer has been declining year by year.[2][50]..Factors include the fact that low-priced beer products have been subdivided and demand has shifted to the third beer, and that beer companies are non-alcoholic with high profit margins.Beer taste beverageThe influence of focusing on such things is mentioned.[2][44].

2008(HeiseiThe shipment volume in 20 years) was overtaken by the third beer, and became the lowest in the composition ratio of beer for the first time.[51].

2009"Rich <raw>" newly released on June 6nd[52]Became the last regular new product in Suntory's low-malt beer, and the company has not released any new regular products since then.[47]..Sales of the "rich" were also sluggish, and production was discontinued by the end of the same year.

2010What is the market share of low-malt beer in (22) by manufacturer?Kirin BeerWas the leader with 66.2%[53].

2011(23), Asahi, Suntory, and Sapporo announced a policy to reduce the happoshu business.[47][54]..However, he has expressed a negative view regarding withdrawal, citing the situation that "each brand has a certain fixed number of customers and can sell to some extent without spending sales promotion expenses".[55]..Among them, Suntory is considering stopping the production of low-malt beer depending on the sales situation, and the sales plan for 2011 is 58% decrease from the previous year.[47], In mid-March 2012, "Diet student"of[56], The production of "MD Golden Dry" was discontinued around June 2012, and it was temporarily withdrawn from the low-malt beer business.[57][58].

On the other hand, Kirin's Tanrei brand is doing well, Kirin Tanrei <raw> is ranked 4th in the overall beer rank, and Tanrei Green Label is a standard product in the functional category and has a high name and image. Therefore, it is said that it will actively invest management resources in low-malt beer.[44][54][55][59].. In 2011, the market share of beer (beer, low-malt beer, third beer) was 15.4%.[2].

2017The Liquor Tax Law was amended in (29),2026(Reiwa8 years)10/1The tax rates for happoshu and beer, including third beer, have been unified.Prior to that2023(Reiwa 5) From October 10st, the category of third beer will be abolished and integrated into low-malt beer.[15][60].

The limelight of sparkling liquor with zero purines and sugar

2014(26), a big change occurred in the happoshu market.Sapporo Beer's Goku ZERO, which is a beer with zero purines and sugar,IRSIn response to the indication from, the standard was changed from the fourth beer to low-malt beer, but sales remained strong.Upon seeing this, the three companies Kirin, Asahi, and Suntory sang the so-called "purine body, sugar 4, etc." on September 3.Functional systemIt was decided to release the sparkling liquor called "" and follow the leading Sapporo.In particular, Suntory has re-entered the low-malt beer business for the first time in two years and three months.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b The definitions of other major alcoholic beverages are as follows in Article 3 of the Liquor Tax Law.
    • beer
      • malt,hopas well as the WedFermented from raw material.
      • Fermented from malt, hops, water, wheat and other articles specified by Cabinet Order.However, the total weight of the raw materials specified by the Cabinet Order shall not exceed 100/50 of the weight of malt.
    • Liqueur
      • Alcoholic beverages and sugars and other alcoholic beverages (including alcoholic beverages) with an extract content of 2 or more (alcoholic beverages listed in Article 3-7 to 19 of the Liquor Tax Law, Article 2-1 of the same law) Except for powdered beverages that can be dissolved to make beverages with an alcohol content of 1 degree or more specified in the section and alcoholic beverages whose properties are similar to mirin, as specified by the government ordinance).
    • Other brewed liquor
      • Alcoholic beverages fermented from grains, sugars and other articles (excluding alcoholic beverages listed in Article 3, items 7 to 18 of the same law and other items specified by Cabinet Order) with an alcohol content of less than 20% (extract content). Is limited to those with 2 times or more).
    • Miscellaneous sake
  2. ^ a b c d e Happoshu “sunset”, fading existence No. 3 ・ With the rise of non-alcoholic drinks, sales volume is reduced to one-third (3/1) --Sankeibiz February 2012, 2
  3. ^ a b c Liquor tax rate list (May 18, 5-) (PDF)
  4. ^ a b Akira Ohgusa "first"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, 2004, p. 8.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  5. ^ a b Did you know ??In Japan, all fruit beers are [happoshu] St. Gallen, July 2011, 6 (viewed March 22, 2014).
  6. ^ Toru Machida (October 2015, 12). “Do you know why Belgian beer is treated as "happoshu"?Strange and weird story about beer tax hike". Contemporary business. April 2019, 1Browse.
  7. ^ "The ban on "mixed beer" has been lifted due to the revision of the Liquor Tax Law.Can Kirin and Asahi beat Belgium?”. Business + IT (June 2018, 4). April 2019, 1Browse.
  8. ^ What is the "raw" draft beer in the first place? -Excite News October 2006, 6
  9. ^ Judgment on Article 3, Paragraph 2 of the Trademark Law "Honsei Case" (PDF) Report Material of Judgment Research Group, Japan Trademark Association July 2007, 7
  10. ^ Fair competition terms for beer labeling (PDF)
  11. ^ As an example
  12. ^ Is there a local beer company that doesn't have a beer license? St. Gallen, July 2011, 6 (viewed March 24, 2014).
  13. ^ Are there any preferential treatments for liquor tax for craft beer companies that only have a low-malt beer license? St. Gallen, July 2011, 6 (viewed March 24, 2014).
  14. ^ a b Low-malt beer - Koto bank
  15. ^ a b c d "Summary of revisions to the Liquor Tax Law, etc. (PDF)”. National Tax Agency. P. 1. April 2018, 4Browse. “The lower limit of the malt ratio of beer (the ratio of malt to the weight of raw materials excluding hops and water) has been lowered to 100/50, and the range of 100/XNUMX of the weight of malt used. Fruits (including dried, boiled or concentrated fruit juices) and flavors (certain flavors such as coriander) are added as auxiliary ingredients that can be used within. "
  16. ^ a b c How to make and product knowledge / Miscellaneous liquor: Happoshu, third beer (PDF) --The story of alcohol (Independent administrative agencyLiquor Research Institute) No. 9 March 2006, 3
  17. ^ a b c Akira Ohgusa "Chapter XNUMX Happoshu Genesis and its Renaissance"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, August 2004, pp. 8-62.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  18. ^ a b c d History of sake brewing in Kanagawa "Postwar Kanagawa sake brewing" Happoshu
  19. ^ a b Akira Ohgusa "Chapter XNUMX Happoshu Genesis and its Renaissance"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, August 2004, pp. 8-73.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  20. ^ a b Akira Ohgusa "Chapter XNUMX Happoshu Genesis and its Renaissance"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, August 2004, pp. 8-69.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  21. ^ a b Akira Ohgusa "Chapter XNUMX Happoshu Genesis and its Renaissance"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, August 2004, pp. 8-83.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  22. ^ Akira Ohgusa "Chapter XNUMX Happoshu Genesis and its Renaissance"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, 2004, p. 8.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  23. ^ Patent News June 40 Table of Contents (IP & S News)
  24. ^ a b c Akira Ohgusa "Chapter XNUMX Happoshu Genesis and its Renaissance"Beer, craft beer, low-malt beer"Literary company, August 2004, pp. 8-88.ISBN-978 4835582948.https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wItKq6gJxfYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ja#v=onepage&q&f=false.April 2012, 5Browse. 
  25. ^ Nippon Style 14th Dream Betting on Golden Color ~ "Takara Beer" ~
  26. ^ a b Suntory's "Do Minahare" management, which found a way out in its beer business [4] Nikkei BPNet December 2009, 4
  27. ^ a b c d Challenge to mature markets with premium strategy (PDF) - Waseda UniversityIndustrial Management Research Institute Working Paper 2008 No. 1
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Happoshu / new genre competition in the beer industry (PDF) --Kousuke Mizukoshi (Tokyo Metropolitan University) Private Market Strategy Laboratory
  29. ^ Products that survive while changing --Protopics September 2009 issue
  30. ^ a b c d e f g 100-year history of research and development: Frontier products created by the spirit of Minahare - Suntory
  31. ^ Tanrei History 1994-1998 --KIRIN
  32. ^ a b c Trademark Trial Decision Gazette Dissatisfaction 2008-4257 Business Application 2007-36439 Rejection Decision Appeal Trial Case (Final Date: January 2009, 1) --Trademark decision database
  33. ^ Fall 2001 "Magnum Thanksgiving Cashback Campaign" --Suntory December 2001, 8
  34. ^ Four mainstay beer companies Suntory = "Hop's" leap forward --The Japan Food Journal December 1994, 12
  35. ^ a b Sapporo Breweries Completes Nationwide Expansion of "Drafty" --The Japan Food Journal December 1995, 6
  36. ^ Super Hops Product Overview --Suntory December 1997, 12
  37. ^ Since its release in 1998, "Kirin Tanrei <Nama>" has sold more than 2 billion units! --KIRIN January 2009, 1
  38. ^ Analysis of advertising effectiveness in the beer industry (PDF) - Keio UniversityFaculty of Economics Keiki Kawai Study Group 5th gen member 15Mita Festivalpaper
  39. ^ With the entry of Asahi Breweries, the Happoshu front gets even hotter - Nikkei BP Net April 2001, 2
  40. ^ a b c Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd. 2002 interim financial results briefing (PDF) --KIRIN January 2002, 8
  41. ^ Food Hit Award Special Feature: Excellent Hit Award = Diet <Raw> (Suntory) --The Japan Food Journal December 2002, 2
  42. ^ a b On the 5th, Kirin continued to grow, and happoshu with a purine cut was released. --Stock Weather December 2002, 12
  43. ^ a b Food Hit Award Special Feature: Excellent Hit Award = Tanrei Green Label (Kirin Beer) --The Japan Food Journal December 2003, 2
  44. ^ a b c Happoshu “sunset”, fading existence No. 3 ・ With the rise of non-alcoholic drinks, sales volume is reduced to one-third (3/1) --Sankeibiz February 2012, 2
  45. ^ -Simple raw that is extremely "easy to drink" and "easy to buy" unique to low-malt beer- "Kirin Gokusei <Gokunama>" is now on sale --KIRIN January 2002, 1
  46. ^ a b Happoshu, hot 10 yen war as early as --Nikkei BP Net July 2002, 3
  47. ^ a b c d Suntory, the originator of low-malt beer, will not release new products President announced -Asahi Shimbun April 2012, 1
  48. ^ Domestic beer and low-malt beer April taxable shipment quantity, low-malt beer share record high --The Japan Food Journal December 2003, 5
  49. ^ The third beer2006The tax rate has been raised in (18).
  50. ^ More home drinks and 11 years away from beer, shipped for the first time less than half -Asahi Shimbun April 2012, 1
  51. ^ Shipment volume at least record-high company-wide operating profit increase 2008 beer market and 2009 outlook --J-marketing.net (JMR Life Research Institute) February 2009
  52. ^ Launched "Raw", a new low-malt beer made from brown rice --Suntory December 2009, 4
  53. ^ 2010 annual beer, low-malt beer, new genre tax announcement headline --Kirin Beer / Sales Status
  54. ^ a b With the advent of the third beer, the production of three major companies will be reduced. Kirin will aggressively invest management resources in the strong "Tanrei" --Yomiuri Shimbun January 3, 3
  55. ^ a b Happoshu “sunset”, fading existence No. 3 ・ With the rise of non-alcoholic drinks, sales volume is reduced to one-third (3/1) --Sankeibiz February 2012, 2
  56. ^ "Diet student". Low-malt beer. Suntory. April 2012, 5Browse. "The diet <raw> has been manufactured in mid-March and has been discontinued."
  57. ^ “Suntory: Happoshu is no longer sold”. Daily jp. Mainichi Shimbun(July 2012, 7). http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20120720k0000e020224000c.html April 2012, 7Browse. 
  58. ^ After that, the Magnum Dry series was named "Magnum Dry Hon Dry" on April 2019, 31.Beer-style new genre alcoholic beverage(The so-called fourth beer belonging to "Liqueur (foaming) ①") was put on the market for the first time in about 6 years and 9 months.
  59. ^ Health-oriented beer-based beverages, the top name is "Kirin Tanrei Green Label" --Nikkei BP Net July 2008, 4
  60. ^ "Chapter3 Consumption Taxation --- 29 Tax Reform: Ministry of Finance". www.mof.go.jp. April 2020, 6Browse.

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