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(4) When baked, serve on a plate and top with parsley and black pepper!
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Wikipedia related words
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- Black pepper
- alias"Black pepperIt is also called, and is made by drying the unripe green fruits from the pepper tree over a long period of time and turning them black.Wrinkles occur on the skin when it dries, but use it as it is without peeling it off.It has a strong and unique flavorMeat dishIt goes well with.In addition, "kosho", which is common in Japan, is a mixture of black pepper and white pepper, which will be described later.
- White pepper
- alias"White pepperAfter harvesting after ripening to red, it is dried and then soaked in water to soften the outer skin and peel it off to produce white fruits. Weaker flavor than black pepperfish dishesIt goes well with. This is commonly used for medicinal purposes (see belowMedicinalSee section)..Some people may feel a strong unpleasant odor in white pepper, but this is because when the raw material is soaked in water in the manufacturing process to rot and remove the exodermis, components that generally make people feel unpleasant odor are likely to occur. ..The strength of this unpleasant odor depends on the manufacturing process of white pepper, and it is also known that if the exodermis is decomposed while running water for several days, it is possible to produce white pepper in a beautiful state with almost no unpleasant odor..
- Blue pepper
- Harvested with unripe fruit, but unlike black pepper, salted orfreeze dryProcessed one. It is called blue pepper, but the actual color is green. It has a "fresh and characteristic spiciness" and is said to be compatible with meat and fish dishes..タ イ 料理,Cambodian foodNow, let's use the fruit as an "ingredient" for stir-fry, not as a spice. In addition, as another name, "Green pepper』Although this is also calledgreen pepperAnd blueRed peppersPlease note that it may point to.
- Red pepper
- It is harvested after it is fully ripe in red, but unlike white pepper, it is used as it is without peeling off the outer skin. Like black pepper, it has a wrinkled outer skin. The color is dull red.ペルーな どSouth AmericaOften used in cooking, it has a mild flavor and good color. Another name is "Pink pepperIs called, but as it is, "Red pepper] May be displayed. In addition, it is native to South AmericaRhus familyPlant "PepperThe fruit of "Pink pepperIt is sometimes used in French cuisine and dishes from all over Southeast Asia and South Asia, but it is not exactly pepper, which is called "Posable Rose" in French... Unlike red pepper, it is wrapped in a red or pink wrinkle-free glossy outer skin and is light in weight. Also,Rowan,PeppertreeIt is very similar to the fruit of.
- The literal translation of red pepper is "Red pepper』, But this isRed peppersIt also refers to.
Pepper is often sold as "salt pepper" that is ground into flour or mixed with salt, but if you want to enjoy the original flavor,Pepper MillIdeally, you should grind it every time you use it. Pepper mills come in many varieties, from disposable "pepper with mills" to well-designed wooden works of art with a cylindrical body and giboshi-like handles.
The expiry date of pepper is about 2 to 3 years, depending on the manufacturing method and storage conditions. After grinding, the flavor is easier to fly than before grinding, so it is shorter. In addition, dried "white pepper" and "black pepper" will last longer than undried ones such as "blue pepper" and "red pepper". Before the development of logistics such as during the Great Voyage, "blue pepper" and "red pepper" were used as spices and ingredients in the place of origin, but in Europe, which was far from the place of origin, "white pepper" and "black pepper" were used. Many dishes were used. Nowadays, this distinction disappears due to the development of logistics, the ability to produce pepper all over the world, and the spread of national cuisine all over the world.
Pepper has been around since ancient timesIndiaIt was a major local export. At the beginning of the 4th century BCAncient greeceBotanistTheoflastusIsFloraWith pepper inLong pepperIs being considered. Pepper has been precious since that time and is a Roman historian of the 1st century ADGreat PlinyIs 1lbThe value of long pepper (about 500 grams) is 15Denali, White pepper is recorded as 7 denari, and black pepper is recorded as 4 denari. ancientMediterranean worldSo, it is believed that mature long pepper becomes black pepper, and that mistake continued until it was corrected by the 16th century... Long pepper was treated at a higher price than black and white pepper, but it began to compete with black pepper in the middle ages and was no longer used by the late medieval period.
Pepper isPiperineby (piperine)Antibacterial-Antiseptic-Insect repellentIt is also an indispensable part of cooking in the Middle Ages, when its action was known and refrigeration technology was underdeveloped.Age of DiscoveryIt was extremely prized for long-term storage of food.EuropeVariousCuisineIt is also used in various dishes influenced by it. For this reason, it was very useful in Europe until the route to India was found.CrusaderThere is also a view that one of the purposes of the Age of Discovery was pepper... The high price in the transaction is1st centuryIn RomeFri,SilverIt is also expressed as if pepper was exchanged with the same weight., Also used as a substitute for money in medieval Europe.. Was importingVenicePeople called it "the seed of heaven" by referring to pepper, and it was said that it also increased its value..
germaneTribal leader (West GoatWas the King ofArarique IToRomeWhen the siege is siege, the citizens pay the price of breaking the siegeFri£ 5Silver£ 3, silkTunicAgreed to give 4 pieces of leather, 3 scarlet-dyed leather, and 3 pounds of pepper.
However, in the 12th century, a large amount of pepper was imported from the Orient, causing a price plunge. Pepper has come to be used as a pseudo-currency, and the cases where taxes and salaries are also paid with pepper can be seen how much pepper was flowing into Europe at that time. Around the 13th century, it will be traded at a lower price than ginger. As a result, pepper has lost its rarity. This can be confirmed by the decrease in the description in the cookbook at that time. In cookbooks written by royal aristocratic cooks who cook court dishes, pepper was a regular spice in Roman times, but in the Middle Ages it was reduced in number. Arnaldus de Villaneuve's "Regimen Sanitatis" states that "pepper is a farmer's sauce, and they eat pepper mixed with vulgar legumes." Described in contrast to the source.
In China, it means spices that came from the west.pepperWas called (Hu TheSogdianIt is a character that refers to different ethnic groups in the west and north when viewed from China.pepper TheKahokzan ShowAroundZanthoxylumIt is a character that refers to spices.JapanToChugokuIt has been introduced through the process of pepper, and is therefore called pepper in Japan.Tenpyo Katsuho8 years old (756),Emperor ShomuThe relics on the 77th anniversary ofTodaiji TempleDedicated to.List of the offerings "Todaiji offering book], Pepper is described.Pepper was in Japan at that timeCrude drug(Even in the "Miscellaneous Soldier Story" written in the early Edo period, "If you grab a grain of pepper every morning (on the battlefield), it will not hit the heat of summer or the cold of winter." It turns out that there was a medicinal demand.. ). Pepper was subsequently imported intermittently,Heian periodCame to be used as a seasoning.
Red peppersBefore it was introducedJapanese pepperIt is used in more dishes as a spice along withUdonIt was also used as a condiment for. Karafune averages 5.7 tons per year throughout the Edo period, Dutch ships weigh 1638 tons in 78 recordsIs imported. Even nowSenba soup,Shio soup,, etc.SoupPepper is used as a condiment, mainly for speciesJapanese cuisineRemains. (There is also a record that there was a dish called "pepper chazuke"). When the pepper was first introduced, it was called "Nanban pepper" or "Koryo pepper" as a subspecies of pepper. For this reason, even nowKyusyuThere are areas where peppers are called "pepper", mainly in rural areas. Manufactured in northern KyushuYuzu pepperAndOkinawa OfKoregusuThe raw material of (Koryo pepper) is pepper. In areas where pepper is mainly used for peppers,P. nigrumIs sometimes called "Western pepper" to distinguish it.
NormallycuttingIt is cultivated and it is very difficult to germinate from seeds. The height reaches 5 to 9 meters, and the woody vine stems are wrapped around struts and grown. From the 3rd year of cuttings, the flowers begin to grow little by little and bear fruits. 50 to 60 fruits per bunch reach their peak in 7 to 8 years and can be harvested for 15 to 20 years thereafter. The annual yield of dry matter from one vine is about 1 kg..
Continuous cropping disorderThere is plant parasitism depending on the soilNematodeOccursIt is susceptible to diseases and has been devastating when cultivated in South America... Pepper cultivation isfertilizerPrices are cheap for the cost and labor, and some farms are left unattended..
On the other hand, in the 21st centuryInformation technologyWith the progress of, it became possible to check the distribution status and market price quickly, which made it possible to adjust production.People's Republic of China,IndiaDue to increased demand in populous areas, pepper prices have risen again, between 2005 and 2014.Yokohama portCustoms clearance unit price in Japan has quadrupled.
Native to Southeast Asia belonging to the same genus PepperPiper retrofractum(P. retrofractum)AlsoOkinawaIt has been used as a spice for a long time. The shape is similar to that of Piper retrofractum.Long pepper(P. longum,Long pepper) Was once used in Europe as well, although it was generally confused with pepper.
Pepper that appears in literature
- Ibara Nishitsuruof"Nihon EiyozoThere is a description of the circumstances of Japanese pepper. In the past, pepper was imported from China, but Tojin used to pour boiling water over the pepper grains so that they would not be cultivated in Japan before handing them over, so even if they were sown in Japan, they would not sprout. At one pointKoyasanThree at a timestoneAfter sowing (about 540 liters) of pepper, only two roots were grown, and then the pepper spread throughout Japan.
- Squeezing lecture,Stick --Rakugo with pepper
As an ingredientalkaloidare categorizedPiperineWas included and expected medicinal effectMedicineUsed for cooking.. Indigestion as an effect,Vomiting,diarrhea,stomach acheFor symptoms such as, Also anti-cancer effect,antioxidant effectIt is said that there is also. For diet etc.supplementAs it has the effect of increasing the absorption rate of other ingredientshealthy foodAlso used forIt has also been reported that it enhances the effects of medicines taken with it.However, since it interacts with other medicines when taken in large amounts, the possibility of health damage cannot be ruled out and caution is required..
- ^ a b c d e Namba 2000, p. 105
- ^ P.122. Spicy different from salted fish.Shizuyuki Ota, Akiko Furugen, Hiji Kusaka et al. (1983), “Effect of pepper on salty taste” (PDF) Cooking science (General Incorporated Association Japan Cooking Science Association) 16: 122-126, two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1968.16.2_122, ISSN 09105360, NOT 110001171688, NCID AN00382866
- ^ https://www.sbfoods.co.jp/products/detail/13456.html
- ^ "Role of the Fermentation Process in Off-odorant Formation in White Pepper: On-site Trial in ThailandJ. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (15), pp 6056–6060 (2005). two:10.1021 / jf050604s. 2017/7/9Browse.
- ^ "Green pepper (green pepper)". GABAN (2004). 2013/6/23Browse.
- ^ Chuko Shinsho"Folk Studies of Spices" P115.
- ^ Dolby 2004, pp. 139-148.
- ^ Takahashi 1990, p. 247
- ^ An example of Portugal during the Age of Discovery.Takahashi 1990, p. 269
- ^ House foods 1999, "Spice was a valuable item!"
- ^ Takahashi 1990, pp. 249-250
- ^ Takahashi 1990, p. 251
- ^ Takahashi 1990, p. 252
- ^ J. Norwich (1989). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. Knopf. Pp. 134. ISBN 978-0394537788
- ^ Shunichi Ikegami (Associate Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts, University of Tokyo) (1996). “Image of food in the Middle Ages of Europe”. Urakami Foundation Research Report VoL5.
- ^ From the section "Tanegashima Ashigaru Small Head Asahi Deemon"
- ^ Shinichi Suzuki "Tabemono no Akira" Heibonsha, 1986, pp.68-69
- ^ Very dense depending on the time. Reference: Shinya Suzuki and Mutsuhiko Minami "Pepper excavated from the tomb of Edo" (Vegetation History Research No. 14-1 p.29-33 2006.1)
- ^ Kazuhiro Yukitake, "Quantitative trading conditions of modern Japan-Ran trade: Decoding and analysis of "accounting books" created by the Dutch Trading Post in the first half of the 17th centurySocio-Economic History 2007 Vol. 72, No. 6, p.673-693, two:10.20624 / sefs.72.6_673.. The purchase price is 33150 guilders (about 3 million yen today). The amount of modern Japanese imports is about 6500 tons per year, and the international market price is about 8000 to 30 million yen per ton.
- ^ a b Japan Pepper Association. “Origin and type of pepper". 2015/6Browse.
- ^ Kazunori Nakazono and others, "Plant-parasitic nematodes in pepper cultivation in the Dominican Republic (plant nematodes)Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Applied Animal and Insects (36), 222, 1992-09-10,NOT 110001086347
- ^ "100 Years of Brazilian Immigrants Amazon Agroforestry "
- ^ "Pepper cultivation and neglected pepper garden" Osaka Prefectural Social Studies Study Group HP
- ^ "Pepper soaring, producers are not rushing to increase global demand, Yokohama Port, 2015 times in 6 years" (June 29, XNUMX,Kanagawa newspaper）
- ^ a b Takashi Hasegawa et al. 2010, 1st PDF
- ^ "It is used as a raw material for so-called health foods because it has the effect of increasing the absorption rate of other supplement ingredients."Takashi Hasegawa et al. 2010, 1st PDF
- ^ As a diet effect."Fat burning system”. Jimbo ClinicSendai (2009). 2013/4/7Browse. "Piperine, a spicy ingredient with a high diet effect"
- ^ An example of a supplement."Diet power (no stimulant)”. Boston Vitamin. 2013/4/7Browse. "Black pepper (containing 9% piperine) 100mg"
- ^ Takashi Hasegawa et al. 2010, 3st PDF
- "Pepper trade and planting" Osaka Shinpo 1921.2.8 (Taisho 8) (Kobe University Library)
- "Pepper: From its cultivation to its use" Takao Goto (International Agriculture and Forestry Cooperation Association, 1983.2.) Bibliographic information
- Yasushi Takahashi "Pepper production and trade in South and Southeast Asia until the early 16th century", 1990, pp. 247-272. NOT 120002815816. NCID AA1080427X.
- Tsuneo Namba "Principle of medicinal food and its effects of food and medicinal materials (2): Familiar food used for medicinal food" "Journal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science" Volume 33, Journal of the Japanese Society of Cooking Science, pp. 100-106, 2000. NOT 110001170018. NCID AN10471022.
- Takashi Hasegawa and others "About the piperine content in so-called health foods containing black pepper" (PDF) "Chiba Prefectural Institute of Health Annual Report" Vol. 59, Chiba Institute of Health, Pharmaceutical Laboratory, pp. 70-73, 2010 .
- Translated by Andrew Dalby and Sachiko Higuchi, "Human History of Spices," Hara Shobo, 2004.ISBN 4562038004.