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☕ | Ron Herman Cafe Zushi is right in front of the yacht harbor!Feel like a celebrity in a stylish space ♫


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Ron Herman Cafe Zushi is right in front of the yacht harbor!Feel like a celebrity in a stylish space ♫

 
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It is also good to charter from the evening and celebrate while watching Mt. Fuji and the sunset.
 

Ron Herman Cafe in Zushi is a stylish cafe with a spectacular view.On weekends, I come to pick up palm trees and photos ... → Continue reading

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Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji(Mt.Fuji,English: Mount Fuji) IsShizuoka(Fujinomiya city,Susono City,Fuji city,Gotemba,Sunto-gunOyama Town)When,Yamanashi(Fujiyoshida,Minamitsuru-gunNarusawa Village)active volcanoIs[Annotation 1].elevation3776.12 m,Japan's highest peak(Kengamine[Annotation 2] OfIndependence peakAnd that graceful appearance even outside JapanJapan OfSymbolIs widely known as. It is a subject of many works of art and has a great social impact not only on the artistic side, but also on the geological aspects such as climate and strata. It is composed of a basaltic stratified volcano with a suspension curve and its mountain body isSuruga BayExtends to the coast.

Since ancient timesSacred peakAnd especially at the summitAsama OkamiWas considered sacred because he was supposed to be seated there. To calm the eruptionRitsuryoku NationByAsama ShrineIs enshrined,Asama faithWas established. It is also the founder of Mt. Fuji ShugendoFuji superiorAs a result, it became recognized as a sacred place of Shugendo, and worship began. theseFuji faithDiversified with the times,Murayama Shuken,Fuji lectureTo form a school such as. Currently, there are many tourist attractions around the foot of Mt. Fuji, and during the summer seasonFuji mountain climbingIs thriving.

Three famous mountains in Japan(Three sacred mountains),Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)[4],Top XNUMX geological features in JapanHas been selected. Also, 1936(Showa 11)Fuji Hakone Izu National ParkIs specified in[Annotation 3]. afterwards, 1952(Showa 27)Special scenic spot, 2011(23)Historic site,further 2013(25)6/22Together with related cultural propertiesMt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of artIn the name ofworld Cultural HeritageRegistered in[6].

2020 TheNew coronavirus4 trails due to the spread of infection (GotenbaRoute, Subashiri route,Fujinomiyaroot,(I.e.Route) is the first ever[7]Closed[8].

Name

Etymology

The oldest record about Mt. Fuji is "Hitachi Country Culture] InMt. FukujiIt is said that it is a word. There are many other names,FujiyamaOrInexhaustible mountain[Annotation 4]There is also an old document written as. Also,"Taketori storyThere is also a legend in[Annotation 5].. Represents a long mountain slope called "Fuji"Yamato languageThere is also a theory that it was called Mt. Fuji after that. As the etymology after modern times,MissionaryBachelorMeans the name "fire-breathing mountain"AinuHe presented the theory that it was derived from "Funchinupuri". However, this represents the fire deity god enshrined in the hearth.Ape Fuchi KamuiThere is a counterargument that it is a misunderstanding that came from[Annotation 6].. As another etymology,MalayTheory,Maori languageTheory[10],Original polynesianThere is a theory.

Explicitly"Mount FujiIn the processSuruga countryThere is something that is said to be derived from[11], As a recordYoshika ToruIn "Mount Fuji"The name of the mountain is named Fuji."a.

Named after Mt. Fuji

Since Mt. Fuji is a famous peak of Japan, "Fuji" is attached to various parts of Japan.Place nameThere are many. Shizuoka Prefecture at the foot of Mt. FujiFuji city,Fujinomiya city,Fuji-gunIn Yamanashi PrefectureFujiyoshida,Fujikawaguchiko Town,Fujikawa TownThere is. Another place where you can see Mt. FujiFujimiOr (for example:SaitamaFujimi), a mountain similar to Mt. Fuji (mainlyStratovolcano)) with the name "Fuji" (Shinano Fujiand so on.Japanese immigrated outside JapanIn some cases, the mountains near the place of residence are sometimes called "○○ Fuji".

There are at least 321 mountains, including other names, throughout Japan, and there are mountains with the name "Fuji".Local FujiCall.

In addition to the place name, there are many names bearing "Fuji."

Also known as "Furong Peak" and "Futake" as synonyms.

Mount Fuji altitude

Mt. Fuji is often seen as an independent peak, and since it is the highest peak in Japan, its height has been noted for a long time.

Altitude measurement history

The following is the process of measuring the altitude of Mt. Fuji from the Edo period.[12].

The height of Mt. Fuji measured by the early Meiji era

TimeMeasurement yearMeasurerMeasuring method or instrumentResult (m)Remarks
Edo Period1727Fukudatrigonometry3 895.1
1803Tadataka Inotrigonometry3 927.7
1826SieboldExtant3 793Sexent: sextant
1834Kyō UchidaQuadrant, cylinder3 475.7
1860Orcockbarometer4 322*Measurement method is based on <Suzuki, 1998>
1860Fagan3 987
1860Williambarometer3 266*Measurement method is based on <Suzuki, 1998>
1860Ruby3 518
1860Knippingbarometer3 729
Meiji Era1874StewartOmni meter3 769
1874Fenton3 772
1874Fabre Brunton3 768
1880Seiki Nakamura, Yuji Wadabarometer3 823Menden Hall, Tanakakan Ai Tachibana and others carried out at the same time as the measurement of the summit gravity of Mt. Fuji
1880Takeshi NojiriRecalculation above3 812Different temperature compensation
1880チ ャ ッ プ リ ンTriangulation3 787.2
1880ラ イ ン3 745.5
1880Shut3 766.4
1880Milne3 882.3
1887Chief of StaffTriangulation and flat survey3 778

Eiichi Hakoiwa (2003): “Geological News” pp.23-30, October 2003.

* Hiromichi Suzuki (1998): "Height of Mountains", September 1998

Latest elevation

There are two things that are referred to as elevations.

Triangle point elevation (3775.51 m)

It is often quoted as the altitude of mountains. Near the highest point of the main mountainTriangular pointIs installed and its altitude is measured accurately (in centimeters). However, the triangular point is not always installed at the highest point of the mountain because the triangular point is installed with an emphasis on the visibility with the nearby mountains and the stability of the installation position.[13].

On Mount Fuji,KengamineIt is inSecond-order triangular pointThe height of "Mt. Fuji"3775.51 mIs. The number before the elevation revision on April 2014, 4 was 1m.[14].

The highest altitude of the mountain body (3776.12 m)

Since the height of the triangular point is not always the highest altitude of the mountain, the highest altitude value may be measured separately. For example,Geographical Survey InstitutePublishes about 1003 major Japanese mountains as "Japan's major mountain elevations"[15].. The highest elevation is not necessarily the elevation of a triangle such as the height of a rock body, so the mountain elevation is displayed in units of 3776 meter. According to the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan's "Major Altitude in Japan", the height of Mt. Fuji is 35m, and its position is 21 degrees 39 minutes 138 seconds 43 degrees 39 minutes XNUMX seconds.

The highest point of Mt. Fuji isKengamineIt is a rock about 12 m north of the location of Mt. Fuji at the second triangle, and the relative height to the second triangle is 0.61 m. Therefore, the elevation of this rock is3776.12 mAnd this is the highest altitude of Mt. Fuji[16][Annotation 7][17][18].

Geologically Mount Fuji

GeologyMt. Fuji above is typicalStratovolcanoIt has a beautiful ridgeline unique to this type of volcano. The present mountain body of Mt. Fuji is thought to be roughly divided into the following four stages of volcanic activity.

  • Sengotake volcano
  • Komitake Volcano
  • Kofuji Volcano
  • Shin Fuji Volcano

Among them, Sakikomitake is the oldest, and it was several hundred thousand years ago.PleistoceneI was able toVolcano.Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo 2004Went in Aprilボ ー リ ン グResearch has revealed that there are older mountains beneath Komitake.AndesiteThis fourth mountain body, which is mainly composed of[19].

Kofuji continued to erupt from about 8 years ago to about 1 years ago and erupted.Volcanic ashIt has grown to an altitude of less than 3,000m. The summitHoei craterIt is believed to have been 1–2 km north of.

In June 2009,GPSIn the observation of Mt. Fuji byCrustal movementWas confirmed. This is the first time since the observation started in April 1996. Due to this crustal movement, a maximum change of 4 cm appeared, and the distance between Fujinomiya and Fujiyoshida increased by about 2 cm. this ismagmaHas been accumulated (which is an active volcano)[20].

plateFrom the perspective ofEurasia plateAt the outer edge,North American plateOrOkhotsk plateContact withFossa Magna(Just westItoigawa Shizuoka Structural Line) To the southPhilippine Sea PlateIs the position where theSagami TroughSuruga Troughas well as the Izu, Ogasawara, Mariana Island ArcIs an intersection point that extends to the land), and the boundary area of ​​the three plates ((English edition). Underneath the Philippine Sea Plate subducting below Mt. FujiPacific plateIs sinking, and of Mt. FujimagmaIs in eastern JapanIsland arc volcanoIs derived from the Pacific plate as well as[21][22].. The characteristic of Mt. Fuji on the volcano is that there are many side volcanoes.[23]Most of Japan's volcanoesAndesitemagmaWhile many are gushing[23]Mt. FujibasaltSpewing a lot of magma[23]There is.

Mount Fuji
On the summitcraterThere is a (bowl) and this is called "Ouchiin". Eight peaks located to surround thisYagami PeakCall. The highest point on the southwest side of the craterKengamineThere isSecond-order triangular point(The point name is Mt. Fuji. Altitude 3775.51m Revised April 2014, 4[2]), the second triangular point on the north side of the crater (point name is Fuji Hakusan. Altitude 3756.23m (April 2014, 4 revision) has been installed. The structure of the crater isGeographical Survey InstituteAccording to the data, the altitude of the deepest part is 3538.7 m, the depth of the crater is about 237 m, the diameter of the summit crater is 780 m, and the diameter of the crater bottom is 130 m.[24].
Above the 8th station, excluding the trail, is in Fujinomiya City.Mount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaAlthough it is a private land ofPrefectural borderAnd the boundaries of municipalities are undetermined. At the press conference after the Mount Fuji World Cultural Heritage Council in January 2014,Heita KawakatsuAnd the governor of Yamanashi PrefectureMasaaki YokouchiDeclares that the prefectural border is not set[25].Geographical Survey InstituteIs published on the InternetTopographic mapThen, from October 2013, when a point on the map is specified, the function to display the address, latitude/longitude, and altitude has been added, but if the position is unconfirmed, the nearby confirmed address is displayed. Since it is set to be displayed, it is pointed out by Yamanashi Prefecture etc. that if you specify the summit of Mt. Fuji (Kengamine), it will be displayed as Fujinomiya city in Shizuoka prefecture. Was changed to[26][27].
Hoeizan
Hoeizan(Hoeizan) isHoei4 years( 1707)ofHoei Great EruptionIt is a side volcano (parasitic volcano) born in. Located on the southeastern slope of Mt. Fuji, the altitude is 2,693 m. A huge crater opens to the west of Hoeizan. There is also a mountaineering course where you can see these things up close.

Source river

The following sourcesRiverIs divided into 4 water systems, allThe Pacific OceanFlows to.

Mount Fuji and volcanic activity

Mt. Fuji eruption

Last glacial periodAbout 1 years before the end of the eruption, an eruption began on the west side of the mountaintop of Kofuji,溶岩Was ejected in large quantities.This lava formed Shin-Fuji, the current mountain body of Mt. Fuji.After that, it seems that the summit of Kofuji was on the east side of the summit of Shin-Fuji, but about 2,500–2,800 years ago.weatheringThe large summit of the old Fuji that has advancedMountain collapse("Gotemba rock avalanche") caused and collapsed.

It is believed that lava erupted from the summit of Shin-Fuji for 1 years, about 1 years ago – about 8,000 years ago, and 3,000 years, about 4,500 years ago – about 3,200 years ago.The last explosive eruption from the summit was 1,300 years ago[28], After this, there is no eruption from the summit, but Nagaoyama andHoeizanEruptions from the volcanoes on the side and the like occur sporadically.

Postponement19 years-21st year of the calendar ( 800 - 802) To Enryaku eruption (“Japanese later"In summary, "Mt. Fuji burned by itself, the light of the fire shined at night, the thunder ash fell, and the river water beneath the mountain turned red."Virtue6 years( 864)Aoki gaharaSpewing lavaJogan large eruptionHappened. The last time Mt. Fuji eruptedHoei4 years( 1707)ofHoei Great EruptionAnd the smoke isstratosphereReachEdoThen about 4 cmVolcanic ashWas piled up. Mt. Hoei was formed on the body of Mt. Fuji by the eruption of Hoei. Then volcanicEarthquakeAnd fumaroles have been observed, and the possibility of eruption remains in the future.

eruptionThe oldest record that the age ofJapanese sequel],Ten ONew Year ( 781It was a mountain where there was ash fall from Mt. Established in the early Heian periodTaketori story] Also has a description that suggests that Mt. Fuji was in an active period when the work was established. History books from the Heian period "Japan's third generation]Jogan large eruptionThe situation of is described in a powerful style, "Sarashina diary], there is a depiction of Mt. Fuji's fumarolic and ephemeral phenomena.

Hoei Great EruptionThe record aboutArai Shiroishiby"Folding shiba no ki] And many other documents, pictures, etc.
After that, although many records of volcanic smoke and rumbling are left, from the description, it is surmised that it was a short-term and small-scale activity.

Mt. Fuji has not been erupted for 300 years since the Hoei Great Eruption.dormant volcanoWas taught. However, as mentioned earlier, Mt.Fuji is still observing active activities.Japanese Meteorological AgencyAbolished the classification of dormant volcano,active volcanoIt is divided into.

August 2013, 7,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIs a collection of exploration data and geological survey data for about 1999 years from 15 at Fuji VolcanoGeological mapAnnounced as the second edition (Ver.2)[29], Modifications ended in 2016[28].. At the same time, it claims that there were at least 2000 eruptions of lava flow in the last 43 years.

Occurrence of mountain collapse

Due to earthquake and eruption activityMountain collapse(Debris (gansetsu avalanche)) is said to have occurred 5 times, including 3 times in the southwest, 4 times in the northeast, and 12 times in the east, including those with an unclear age.[30].. In addition, it is suggested that it exists directly belowActive faultBy the activity ofmagnitudeThere is also concern about collapse due to a 7-class earthquake.

Main occurrence history

Disaster countermeasures

  • Volcanic eruption prediction liaison meeting -Though not limited to Mt. Fuji, study volcanic activity in Japan. We will give an opinion depending on the situation, but we will not announce the date and time of the eruption. Regular meetings are held three times a year, but are held at any time during an eruption. When the number of low-frequency earthquakes on Mt. Fuji increased in October 3, a working group was established to intensively examine the collection and arrangement of basic data on Mt. Fuji, examination of the monitoring system, and volcanic information transmission methods.
  • Cabinet OfficeWebsite "Mt. Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures[35]Fuji,"Hazard mapInformation such as the Review Committee is provided.
  • Fuji direct control erosion control project- Osawa collapseGenerated from a large-scaleEarth and stone flowFrom now on, we are implementing a sabo project to protect downstream conservation targets.
  • Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures have created an "evacuation route map for Mt. Fuji eruption"[36][37].
  • Shizuoka City MayorNobuhiro TanabeIn a regular press conference on January 2016, 1, the city fire aviation team dropped a climber who slipped on Mt.Fuji from a helicopter during rescue in 22, and as a preventive measure against recurrence, this climber died Clarified that the city fire department has set an upper limit of 2013 meters to the height of a mountain that can be rescued by a helicopter[38].

Observation of crustal movements

Government agency (Disaster Prevention Research Institute, JMA,Geographical Survey Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) and local governments (Yamanashi Prefecture Fuji Scientific Research Institute) And university (Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo) Etc. have been observed.

  • Geographical Survey Institute:GeomagnetismObservation point[39]Is installed at Kanoyama Geodetic Observatory, Mizusawa Geodetic Observatory and Esashi Observatory. Also, at the summitGPSElectronic reference point.
  • JMA Observatory[40]: Seismometer (mountain, Gotembaguchi 8th station, Yoshidaguchi 6th station, Narusawa Hiruzuka Higashi, Tarobou), inclinometer (Tarobou), aerial vibration meter (Tarobou, Uide), GSP (Tarobou), telephoto camera (Hagiwara)
  • Disaster Prevention Research Institute[41]: VIsualization system for Volcanic Activity

Measures against eruption disasters

Mt. Fuji and the weather

climate

Even in August, the warmest month, the summit has an average temperature of only 8°C.[44],Köppen climate classificationIf the average temperature of the warmest month is above 0℃ and below 10℃Tundra climateare categorized. Due to the Pacific climate, January and February are dry, with March, April, May, and June accounting for the top 1 deepest snowfalls. The lowest temperature in the history of observation was -2°C, which was observed on February 3, 4, and it was observed several times in the past even when the maximum temperature was less than -5°C. There is no one day in Hokkaido where the temperature does not exceed -6℃.[45].

Mt. Fuji climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F)−1.7
(28.9)
0.0
(32)
1.0
(33.8)
4.7
(40.5)
12.2
(54)
12.3
(54.1)
17.4
(63.3)
17.8
(64)
16.3
(61.3)
10.4
(50.7)
6.9
(44.4)
3.6
(38.5)
17.8
(64)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)−15.4
(4.3)
−14.7
(5.5)
−10.9
(12.4)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.6
(38.5)
7.5
(45.5)
9.3
(48.7)
6.1
(43)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−12.2
(10)
−3.4
(25.9)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F)−18.4
(-1.1)
−17.8
(0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−8.7
(16.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
1.1
(34)
4.9
(40.8)
6.2
(43.2)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.8
(27)
−9.2
(15.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−6.2
(20.8)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)−21.7
(-7.1)
−21.5
(-6.7)
−17.8
(0)
−12.1
(10.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.4
(36.3)
3.6
(38.5)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−12.2
(10)
−18.3
(-0.9)
−9.3
(15.3)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F)−37.3
(-35.1)
−38
(-36)
−33.9
(-29)
−27.8
(-18)
−18.9
(-2)
−13.1
(8.4)
−6.9
(19.6)
−4.3
(24.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−19.5
(-3.1)
−28.1
(-18.6)
−33
(-27)
−38
(-36)
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[46][47] Average temperature (1981-2010) High and low temperature records (July 1932-7)

Meteorological observation at Mt. Fuji

Once meteorological agencyTokyo District Meteorological ObservatoryMt. Fuji was the meteorological office that was installed at Mt. CurrentlyMount Fuji Special Area Meteorological ObservatoryThe weather observation is performed by the automatic weather observation device.

Meteorological phenomenon

  • When strong winds blow on the mountain body, the sand is rolled up and may fall to nearby municipalities. On December 2010, 12, it was reported that black sand was piled up from the western part to the southern part of Kanagawa prefecture, and the sand of Mt.[48].
  • Mt. Fuji's "first snowfall"Kofu Local Meteorological ObservatoryHas been observed and announced. Separately from this, the Mt. Fuji section of Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, at the northern foot of Mt. doing[49].
  • In some parts of the northern foot of Mt. Fuji (currently Fujiyoshida City in Yamanashi Prefecture, etc.), farm birds appearing near the altitude of Mt.Remaining snowAccording to the time when) appears, there is a legend to judge the good harvest or bad harvest of agricultural products.[50].
  • At Mt. FujiMountain waveMay occur, and an aircraft crash has occurred (British overseas aircraft aerial disassembly accidentSuch).

Natural environment at the foot of Mt. Fuji

At the foot of Mt. FujiNatural treasureAs for "Mt. Fuji primeval forest andAokigahara"(Natural treasure : 1926Designated on February 2, added and renamed on March 24, 2010, "Fuji-fuana" (natural monument: 1929December 12 designated) etc.

Underground water

Rain and snow on Mt. Fuji have taken many yearsUnderground waterAsgroundwaterIt flows through the pulse. An example that is confirmed as spring water that springs from the highest point is at an altitude of 1670 m (near the second station of Fujinomiya Exit), and the other foothills are distributed in strips. The total amount of spring water at the foot of Mt. Fuji in 1968 was more than 1 million cubic meters per day. However, in recent years there is an example in which a decrease in the amount of discharge has been confirmed.[51].

RegionName
Southeast footKakita River(Japan's three major streams),Obama pond
South footYoshiwara springs
XiluYudama Pond(Special Natural Monument),Shiraito Falls(Specified by countryScenic spotas well as the Natural treasure), Inokashira springs
North footOshino Hachiumi(National natural monument)

Also, in someSuruga Bay,Fuji Five Lakes OfWest LakeIt is said that there is a spring at a water depth of around 25 m.[51].

Utilizing the underground water from Mt. Fuji, industries such as paper manufacturing and pharmaceutical-related manufacturing are actively carried out in the surrounding area. Also, the underground water of Mt. FujivanadiumBecause it contains abundantMineral waterAsPET bottlesIt is packed and sold.

Lava cave

More than 100 large and small around the foot of Mt. FujiLava caveA cave is formed.

Among them, the total length of 2139 m, Mitsuike hole (Fujinomiya city, Shizuoka prefecture) is the longest lava cave in Japan. Also, as the largest lava cave around the foot of the mountainWest Lake Bat Hole(Fujikawaguchiko Town, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture), and is designated as a national natural monument. Other,Narusawa Ice Cave(Naruzawa Village, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture) is also designated as a national natural monument.

Vegetation

Mt. Fuji has a high altitude, but compared to other high mountains in JapanAlpine plantPoor vegetation such as. This is because of the large-scale repeated eruptions from the summit of Mt. Fuji after the end of the last glacial period.EcosystemIt was because the mountain was destroyed and it was an independent peak, so the invasion of plants from other mountains was delayed. However, some alpine plants can be seen around Hoeiyama. At the top of the mountainPolygonaceaeOn Polygonum OfOntade(Gyotaya), on the hillsideAsteraceaeThistle OfFuji thistle(Fujinagi) grows naturally[52].. Above the forest limits of the high mountains of the central mountain rangeHimatsuIt is customary for the belt to spread, but there is no Himatsu belt on Mt.LarchThe forest is wide.

History of human relationships

Ancient times

Ancient timesMt. Fuji has become a subject of mountain worship, and it has come to be said that Mt. Fuji is regarded as a sacred mountain and also as an object of worship. Because it is a "sacred place"Meiji EraUntilFemale ProhibitionDue to the tradition of women, mountain climbing has long been prohibited. Especially with Asama Okami, who is considered as a spirit of Mount FujiKonohananosakubimeIs the main deityAsama ShrineAndSensetsushaAre scattered all over the country. At the foot of the main shrine of Asama ShrineFujinomiya cityIt is inMount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaIt is (Asama Shrine), and the god of Mt. Fuji is worshiped at "Hongu" in the city of Fujinomiya and "Okumiya" at the top of Mt. Fuji. From this history, Mt. Fujiworld HeritageAlso registered inworld Natural Heritage SiteWorld Cultural Heritage (Mt. Fuji-the object of worship and the source of art) Was as.

In ancient times, the idea that Mt. Fuji belonged to Suruga was universal. These are "The Takamine of Fuji, which is a high and noble river" (Akato Yamabe's "Manyoshu") and "Mt. Fuji is in the country of Suruga." "Mt. Fuji is the mountain of the country of Suruga (omitted). It is widely seen as "Aru" (Toroka, "Mount Fuji"), "Naruyama Narumu in Suruga no Kuni" ("Taketori Monogatari"). However, it is written with a shared view that it is a mountain that straddles the two countries of Suruga and Kai, such as "Surugawa no Kuni to Kochigochino" ("Takashi Mashi Maro" and "Manyoshu"). There are also valuable examples.

Later times,Jesuits OfJoan RodriguezSaid in his book "History of the Church of Japan" that "Mt. Fuji belongs to Suruga Kuni," it is probable that the relationship of "Surukawa Kuni" was maintained.

The mountain trail originated from the mountain trail opened by Suetsudai, and it is said that the first mountain trail was completed.MurayamaguchiIs. ThisFuji ShukenIs said to have been established. Other mountain trails are gradually being excavated, and Omiya/Murayamaguchi, Suyamaguchi, and Subashiriguchi exist.

God Buddha practiceMt. Fuji was no exception. The summit has come to be considered the world of Buddha and has a special meaning.[53].. As a precedentMasaka3 years( 1259) Is said to be an old wooden sitting image, which was the former principal image of Dainichido (Murayama). A book from the Kamakura period "Azuma mirrorThe names of "Fuji Daibosatsu" and "Asama Daibosatsu" have been confirmed in ". Eight mines at the top of Mt. Fuji (Yagami Peak) Is called "Yaha", which is also associated with the Shinto-Butsu tradition.BuneiIn the year (1264-1275), "Manyo-shu's commentary" says, "There is a ridge of Yachiha." The description of "Yaha" can be confirmed in many other books.

Edo Period

In the Edo period, under the patronage of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Edo Shogunate contributed more than the 18th station based on the fact that he gained priority in the construction of the main shrine, etc. The area above the seam is the precinct of Asama Taisha Shrine, except for the trail and Mt. Fuji weather station. Along with the popularization of mountain climbing, a group such as Murayama Shugen and Fuji Ko was formed, and the faith of Fuji was developed. Since the late 18th century when the rise of Fuji-ko was seen, it was considered that the use of Yoshidaguchi had become conspicuous because it could not be developed as a new religion on the old mountain trails. It was said that it was about the same as the sum total of the trailheads[53].

People visiting Fuji are called "guides," for example, "MyohojiIn the record of 9 (1500)GuideInfinite counselors, everyone to Kanto Ran Niyori SubashiriGuide"Tsukeya". In addition, the guides/leaders in mountain climbing are called "predecessors", and it has been confirmed that the names of the predecessors can be seen ("Koubun Fuji's document" and "Eiroku 6 years" in the text).

After the Meiji era

KeioIn 4 years (1868)Divine and Buddhist separation orderWhen is issued, the form of these Shinto and Buddhist practices will be greatly disrupted. Demolition of Buddha statues in Mt. Fuji and Murayama progressed[54].Mount Fuji Koboji TempleIs separated, Dainichido isHuman holeBecomes Sengen ShrineGongenThe company has undergone modifications such as being abolished.Kitaguchi Motomiya Fuji Asama ShrineThen Niomon and Gomado will be demolished.[53].. The Buddhist name has also been changed, and the name of "Yaha" has also been changed. In 1883 (Meiji 16), Gotembaguchi mountain trail, 1906Shin-Omiyaguchi was excavated in (Meiji 39).

Mt. Fuji was designated as a "historic site", which is a nationally designated cultural property on February 23, 2011. Mt. Fuji as a historic site is composed of multiple assets and is included as "Historic site Mt. Fuji". The designated range is Fujinomiya City, Susono City and Oyama Town in Sunto District in Shizuoka Prefecture, Fujiyoshida City in Yamanashi Prefecture, and Fuji Kawaguchiko Town and Narusawa Village in Minamitsuru District.[55].. At this time, the mountaintops of Mt. After that, a part of the Fujisan Hongu Sengen Taisha Shrine's company land, the human hole Fuji Ko ruins, and each trail were designated[56].

Mountain climbing history

There are many legendary parts in the tradition of climbing Mt. Fuji, and there are various theories.

Mt. Fuji's climbing history
Japanese CalendarADMessageSupplemental
Emperor Suiko 6 598Heian period OfKai's Black PieceIn tradition,Prince ShotokuThere is a description that says that he rode a Shinba and crossed Mt. Fuji.White among hundreds donated by various countriesWorthAfter seeing Kurokoma as a Shinma horse, and when the Prince went on a test ride in September of the same year, the horse jumped high in the sky and went to the eastern country, crossing Mt. Fuji.Shinano countryIt is said that he returned to the city after 3 days.
Emperor Tenchi 2 663Small angleWas exiledizu-OshimaThere is a legend that he secretly escaped every night and climbed Mt. Fuji.The role of Kokaku is also known as "the founder of Mt. Fuji. The climbing of this role, Ogaku, was published in Marcel Kurtz's Chronicle of the World Climbing, and although the record was revised, it was described as "the world's first climbing".
Virtue 17 875Heian periodIs a scholar ofYoshika ToruDescribes the summit crater in "Mt. Fuji".Always boils down to the summitCrater lakeThere is on the banktigerIt is thought that the person who actually climbed the mountain or interviewed the person who climbed the mountain because of the depictions that only the person who actually saw it could know, such as the rock that resembled the figure. It is not the summit eruption about 10 years agoJogan large eruptionwas there.
Hisasu 5 1149It is said that in the "Honcho Century", the supreme ancestors repeated hundreds of times.It is unknown whether the numbers match, but he is known as a person who has done many mountaineering.
Edo PeriodWhen you enterFuji lectureBecame popular, and many worshipers climbed Mt. Fuji.Especially in the late Edo periodKoshaThere were a lot of people, and Fujita had the character of acting as a substitute for the local community and the village community. At the height of the peak, near Yoshidaguchi aloneShukubo(Mountain hut)was there.
Bunsei 11 1828Attempt to measure altitude by barometerSieboldIs a disciple ofNinomiya KeisakuClimbed,(I.e.The altitude was measured by the change of.Tadataka InoSurveyed at 2603m-3732m[57]However, it was calculated to be 3794.5m in this measurement.[58].
Tempo 3 1832Takayama TatsuIs the first woman to climb.Female ProhibitionWas the time when was laid.
Kaei 6 1852Munehide Matsudaira(Munehide Honjo) Is the first ascendant as a modern-day daimyo.An old record called "Sode Nikki" written by the owner of a sake brewery, which is a tangible cultural property of Fujinomiya City,Miyazu DomainThere is a record that Munehide Matsudaira made a climb on Mt. Fuji. According to No. 6 in "Sode Nikki", Munehide began thinking about climbing Mt. Fuji while making a round trip between Edo and Miyazu, but the route of the shift of participation is the route designated by the Shogunate. It is not allowed to go through a course that deviates from No. 3 or to detour even if visiting a shrine. For this reason, he asked the shogunate to climb Mt. Fuji, but he didn't get a permit, and even after three years, he got a permit, but it was only up to the point called "horseback". (Horseback is a place below the first station, where mountaineers descend horses and climb mountains.)

So, on June 6, 1852, Soshu decided to keep climbing secretly to the Shogunate, starting from dawn and climbing the mountain, and reaching the summit in the afternoon. Munehide's summit of Mt. Fuji was the only record that the modern daimyo climbed Mt. Fuji.

MannobuFirst year 1860British MinisterAll cockIs the first foreigner to climb."Kojien』Records of allcock climbing (Fuji Heavy[Annotation 8]Has submitted to the shrine magistrate's office), and said, "Er. Fuji, the survey of Sulni, Omiya Tsukasa Yori Notification Form... On the 7nd heavy rain of the day, the 24th day of Hiratsu, Omiya Kokyu, and Murayama Tomari. It was fine on the 26th, we stayed at the XNUMXth station of Mt. Shishi, and the summit of the XNUMXth day was the summit of the fine weather..." Allcock entered Murayama from Omiya on July XNUMX, climbed, and climbed on XNUMXth.[54].
Meiji 4 1872The female prohibition is lifted.Meiji EraIn that case, faith mountaineering will gradually decline, and instead, it will be possible to climb as an entertainment or sport, and modern Western mountaineering technology will be adopted.
Meiji 25 Year 1892BritishWalter WestonIs the summit.I climbed the next year. After that, he published a book and introduced Japanese mountains such as Mount Fuji to the world.[59].
Meiji 28 Year 1895Nonaka ItaruIs the first winter climb.On February 2th, we climbed the Gotemba Exit alone. Meteorological observations were made at the summit from October to December of the same year.[60].
Taisho 12 1923Crown Prince Hirohito (laterEmperor Showa) MountaineeringOn July 7th, after going to Subashiri, I climbed on horseback until the 26th station, and then on foot from the 8th station onwards. After worshiping Okumiya and branding the Kongo stick, we descended from Gotembaguchi[61].
12th year of Taisho 1923Chichibu PalaceMountaineeringOn the evening of August 8, we climbed from Gotembaguchi and arrived at the summit the next morning. After visiting Okumiya, go down.
Showa 2 Year 1927Teru NakamuraIs the first woman to climb in winterClimbing from Gotembaguchi on January 1, with two men[60].
Showa 63 1988Tokujin HiromiyaMountain climbing (the then-now Emperor).8/1-2 DayI went back and forth from the Subashiriguchi to the XNUMXth station on the mountain climbing[62].. The summit was abandoned due to bad weather.
Heisei 20 2008Crown Prince Tokuhito has reached the summit.8/7After leaving Fujinomiyaguchi, enter the Gotembaguchi mountain trail and climb[63].

Conflict of rights over Mount Fuji

Mountain service money and house spending

There are mountain trails in each area at the foot of the mountain, especially Murayamaguchi, Omiyaguchi, Subashiriguchi and Suyamaguchi are ancient mountain trails, and Sengen Taisha in the area that manages them[Annotation 9]Had been collected. These areas are fighting each other over mountain services. Especially internal payment[Annotation 10]Is very expensive, so it was easy to become a source of contention. For example, the distribution to Subashiri Village is 1 in one year.BothIt is said that it has been exceeded, and that it will be calculated that about one car will be paid to each household[64].. The right to spend in houseDamingIt was contested mainly by the three regions based on the rights given to them. "Murayama" and "Subashiri"[Annotation 11]And "Omiya". In Murayama, 1533 (astronomical"Tsujinobo" of Sanbo Murayama in 2 years)Mr. ImakiHave been granted the right to get a house spending[65].. Subashiri in 1577 (Tensho 5th year)Mr. TakedaBy Yakushido (currentKusushi Shrine)ofOpen bookYou have the right to get the daily house spending[66].. Omiya in 1609 (Keicho14 years)Tokugawa IeyasuSent in house payment to Asama ShrineDonationAnd has the advantage of getting a house spending[53].. When Omiya Tsukasa of Asama Shrine climbed from Murayama, he had to take a mountain service, so there were some customs to avoid Murayama and worship from "Susashiri".[67].

The current Fujiyoshidaguchi, which is a newly created mountain trail, is without permission from "Subashiri" who manages the mountain trail, and Omiya Tsukasa of Asama ShrineFuji Shinanな どMr. FujiIf they pay themselves the mountain money, it will be a controversy because they will give permission for mountain climbing (make a mountain trail and build a mountain hut) without permission, despite using the mountain trail of "Subashiri".[Annotation 12]And "Yoshida" argued in 1810 about the mountain climbing route and the method of collecting mountain services, and in "Omiya" and "Yoshida" there is a history of fighting the distribution of funds in the Yakushido.[68].

Genroku controversy

GenrokuIn 16 (1703), there was a dispute that Susari Village sued Fuji Sengen Shrine main shrine (Asama Taisha) over spending money and management of mountain huts.Genroku controversyIs. Subashiri sideEast Exit Motomiya Asahi ShrineShinto priests and masters of the shrineFuji Shinanな どMr. Fuji[Annotation 13]I appealed them to the shrine magistrate. The complaint was three-way. One is dissatisfaction with Asama Taisha's recognition of Yakushitake's hut by Yoshida villagers. It is said that it is a thing that violates the vested right of Subashiri, and the third is that it is the custom that the Subashi side will get the second pick up in the institution's acquisition of fines, which Asama Taisha acquired. It is a complaint that there is. In response to this, the Sengen Taisha side went to Edo, Yakushitake was not in the suburbs of Subashiri village, and the entrance to Yakushido was built by the Sengen Taisha side, so the right is to Sengen Taisha Shrine. He argued that the second picking practice was groundless. They are treated as naisha entrusted to a third party, and in that naisai, "Do not let other people hang up" "Yakushido's entrance to Buddha is done by Subashiri Village." And Subashiri are divided at 1:2, and Subashiri will get the second pick up.[69].

Yasunaga's dispute

Ernst & YoungIn the first year (1772), a dispute that Subashiri-mura sued Asama-taisha for controlling the mountaintop was under the control of the village.[Annotation 14] Yasunaga's disputeIs. Looking at this, Fujiminsai on the side of Asama Taisha[Annotation 15]Also raised objections. In addition, there was a dispute between Yoshida-mura and Asama-taisha to determine the territory, so it was hoped that Omiya and newcomers, Yoshida and Subashiri, would settle the dispute, and there was a major dispute involving the service of accounts. It will be carried over in 8. The conclusion is that Ieyasu TokugawaMount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaThere was consideration by the shogunate side that they believed thatThree magistratesWith the approval of, finally above the 8th station of Mt.Fuji,Mount Fuji Main Palace Asama TaishaIt was decided to have[Annotation 16].

By the litigation resulting from the dispute between the two parties, the vagueness of the mountaintop and the whereabouts of other rights, which had been vague until now, have been clearly defined by the Edo Shogunate.

Mount Fuji and the view

Mt. Fuji as a special scenic spot

Mt. Fuji was designated as a "scenic spot" on October 27, 1952, and was designated as a "special scenic spot" on November 10, 7.[70].. On the Yamanashi side, the range of Fujiyoshida City, Funatsu Village (now Fujikawaguchiko Town), Narusawa Village, Nakano Village (now Yamanakako Village) was designated.[71][72].. Shizuoka Prefecture is located in the entire area surrounded by Gochumichi, in areas with an altitude of 1,500m or higher between the Fujinomiyaguchi Trail (Fujinomiya City) and the Gotembaguchi Trail (Gotemba City), and at the first or more Gochumichi that do not overlap. The Fujinomiyaguchi mountain trail and the Subashiriguchi mountain trail (Oyama Town) that reach the area[73].

View of Mount Fuji

At 128 points, 233 views, you can get a good view of Mount Fuji.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismKanto Regional Development BureauXNUMX views of Fujimi in the Kanto regionWas selected in 2005. In 17, the Ministry of the Environment and prefectures/municipalities played a central role in selecting 2017 "landscapes with Mt. Fuji". This is associated with the 100th anniversary of the designation of Fuji Hakone Izu National Park.

Haneda airportFor domestic flights to the west from, pass over Mt. Fuji. At that time, the captain often announces Mt. Fuji. Also for the new yearComing lightThere is also a scenic flight to see.

The farthest place where you can see Mt. Fuji is Wakayama PrefectureNachi Katsuura TownThe Shirakawa Fujimi Pass (separate from Mt. Myoho) is 322.9 km from the summit of Mt. Fuji.[74][75][76][77].. The northern limit of the view is Fukushima Prefecture on January 2017, 1.Kawamata TownIitate VillageStraddleHanazuka(At an altitude of 919m)Japan Map CenterCertified by (at a distance of 308km from Mt. Fuji)[78].. About 271 km away in the southeast directionHachijojimaIt can be seen from Mt. Mihara[76].. The prefecture where you can see Mt. Fuji was theoretically possibleKyotoWas successfully shot in 2014[79]As a result, it became 20 prefectures (Fukushima, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Niigata, Toyama, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Shiga, Mie, Kyoto, Nara, Wakayama).[80].

Mt. Fuji with various expressions

The expression of Mt. Fuji changes variously depending on the location, angle, season, and time. There are several figures with the name Fuji.

imageMt. FujiCommentary
Mount Fuji from yamankako village 2001-7-2.jpgAkafujiIn summer morning, the exposed mountain surface turned red due to the morning glow.
Painters, including Hokusai Katsushika, left paintings depicting "Akafuji."
Mount Fuji from yamankako village 2000-2-10.jpgRed FujiMt. Fuji covered with snow is dyed red in the morning sun and sunset.
"Morgenroth"(GermanMorgenrot) may be used.
01 Fujisan from Yamanakako 2004-2-7.jpgUpside down fujiAn upside-down view of Mt. Fuji reflected on the surface of the water with few ripples.
D XNUMX yen ticketThe upside-down Fuji of Lake Motosu was used for the design on the back.
Diamond Fuji at sunrise from Ryugatake (Yamanashi Prefecture) (photographed on December 2015, 12)Diamond FujiWhen the sun rises or sets,(I.e.Overlaps with the top of Mt. Fuji,
Near the top of Mt. FujidiamondPhenomenon that shines like.
Can be seen twice a year from the western or eastern location where Mt. Fuji can be seen[81].
Kagefuji frm kengamine.jpgShadow FujiThe scenery where the shadow of Mt. Fuji is reflected in the surrounding area by the sunrise or sunset.
From the top of the mountain when climbing Mt. Fuji,sea ​​of ​​cloudsMay be seen above.
Fujiyama-kasagumo 01.JPGKasamomoIt is accompanied by a cloud and a lens cloud. A landscape with clouds over the top of Mt. Fuji.
In that case, it often becomes cloudy or rainy at the base of the mountain.

"Front Fuji" and "Back Fuji"

Of Mt. FujiMountain hutThe expressions "front entrance" and "back entrance" can be seen as signs for mountain trails, and it is generally recognized that Mt. Fuji seen from Shizuoka prefecture is the front Fuji and the view from Yamanashi prefecture is the back Fuji.[82], This has a historical background. In the "Yaha-Kyuson-zu" created in 8, there is already a notation "Suru ga Kuchimo". There is also such a description in Volume 1680 of "Kunishi Kai".

Climbing road Ha Kitaha Yoshidaguchi, Minamiha Subashiriguchi, Murayamaguchi, Omiyaguchi no Yotsudo Nari, (Omitted) South side, front side, north side — "Kunishi Kai"

There are common descriptions in other materials as well, and it can be said that the idea of ​​using the southern foot as the front and the northern foot as the back was a general recognition. Separately, there is the word "Ura Fuji," which is Hokusai Katsushika's "Futake XNUMX Famous Views Ura Fuji".[Annotation 17]Some examples are used in the titles of works, such as "Thirty-six Views of Tomitake Minobu Kawaura Fuji" and Hiroshige Utagawa's "Thirty-Six Views of Fuji Kai Yumeyama Back Fuji".

Mount Fuji culture

Academic research

Mt. Fuji, which is an active volcano and the highest peak in Japan and has a vast foothills,natural ScienceHumanitiesBoth sides are the subject of research. Volcanic disaster prevention, geology, meteorology,EcosystemIn Yamanashi Prefecture Fujiyama Science Institute (Fujiyoshida City) in natural sciences such as, in interdisciplinary research including humanitiesShizuoka Prefecture Mt. Fuji World Heritage Center(Fujinomiya City)Fuji SocietyThere are also specialized research institutions and organizations such as.

Due to the steep topography and strong winds near the summit, only about 5-10% of Mt. Fuji can be field surveyed outdoors, and there are many areas where vegetation is unknown. Observation and photography from the sky,DroneThere is a restriction that the rising limit of 2750m[83].

Mount Fuji in art

Mount Fuji painting was in the Heian periodSong pillowDraw the sights of the countries that were described asFamous placeAlthough there is no existing example, it is believed that it was drawn as a famous picture screen painting of Fuji by this time. The oldest existing Fuji map isHoryuji Dedication Treasure"Shotoku Prince Eden" (1069, first year of Enkyu)Tokyo National MuseumKura), this isKai's Black PieceI got on a black piece based on traditionPrince ShotokuIs running up the mountain, and Fuji is depicted as a mountain landscape in the style of Chinese landscape painting.

In the Kamakura era, a method of describing a three-peaked Fuji with the summit divided into three peaks was established.Ise story"Emaki""Soga storyFuji, which is the stage with the establishment of story literature such as Fuji Makikari, is drawn.Fuji faithThe "Fuji Mandala diagram" as a worship image was also drawn with the establishment of the. Also, in pictorial maps, etc., it was recognized as a special existence because the peaks were drawn with white snow caps on other mountains that were arc-shaped and colored in green.[Annotation 18].

Muromachi Period"Color Fuji by Kinumoto"MandalaFigure” (Mt. Fuji Hongu Sengen Taisha holdings,Important cultural property) Depicts the three peaks of Mt. Fuji and the people who climb Mt. Fuji, asama shrine and Yudama pond, which were the places of sakage, and are reminiscent of what they were like at the time. In addition,SesshuProduct "Fuji Miho Kiyomiji Figure" (Eisei Bunko(Holding) isMatsubara of MihoIt is a work that put Mt.NihondairaIt is supposed to be a view from[85].. The Sesshu-shaped map of Mt. Fuji was used as a copy model throughout the Edo period,Kano schoolMany works are derived mainly from.

In the Edo period, in 1767 (4th year of Meiwa)Kawamura Minoru Picture bookPublished "Hundred Fuji" and presented the style of a series of Fuji diagrams.Katsushika HokusaiIs a series of prints by Fujizu, which uses the method of Minoru Kawamura.Thirty-six views of Mt.(1831-34, Tempo 2-5), and picture book "XNUMX views of Futaku』(All three editions. The first edition 1834, Tenpo 5 years) was published. In the former, we drew Fuji by making full use of techniques such as indigo that made use of imported pigments, and drew summer red Fuji.Kaifu fine weatherAnd 'Yamashita white rain], depicting the raging big waves and Fuji.Kanagawa Surfing] Is known. The latter is a mono-colored black ink, and it is more abstract, such as sticking to the weather description, not sticking to traditional attractions.[86].

In addition,Hiroshige UtagawaAlso published in the 1850s after Hokusai, "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji" and "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji". Hiroshige has traveled to various countries including Kai, and has been making sketches of actual scenes and using them in his works. 『Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido], but you can see many pictures of Mt. Fuji. Hokusai and Hiroshige et al. pioneered a series of works that had not been recognized as a good spot for Fujimi until then, and Fuji behind Kai from the side of Kai.CraftasHonamikoenCreated byEasy burning OfBowlI found the atmosphere of Mt. Fuji and called it "Fujiyama"[87].

Fuji is treated as a motif for all art, including Japanese paintings, paintings, crafts, photographs, and designs. In modern Japanese painting, Fuji was positioned as a symbolic design of Japan through the Sangyo Kogyo industry, and is widely used in commercial design including art. In painting, a painting of Mt. Fuji drawn from a modern point of view while continuing tradition is produced. It was Also, due to the development of transportation systems such as railroads and road networks, many literary figures and painters stay at the foot of Mt. Fuji as a summer resort and recreation area to make works on Fuji. As a painter leavingTomioka Tetsusai, In Western moviesWada EisakuAnd so on.

Mt. Fuji's motif art works were widely distributed in Europe at the time, and Mt. Fuji was also widely known in Europe. Traveled to Japan in 1893 (Meiji 26)Austria-Hungary EmpireSuccessor toGrand Duke of Franz FerdinandWrote in his diary as follows:

Fujisan, Fujinoyama. Who on earth does not know this Japanese symbol-usually called Fujiyama in Europe? It is already familiar to us because it is drawn on lacquer ware, ceramics, Japanese paper, metal, etc. as the most popular Japanese craft design in Europe.[88]. — August 8th

After that, Mt. FujiDainichi this empireBy the ruler of both Japanese and sacredEmperorJapan's unique political system centered onNational bodyPositioned as a symbol of, Fuji was drawn in various ways as a national symbol. this isPacific War(Second World War,Great East Asian War) Fought against Japanアメリカ合衆国Mt. Fuji was also featured in the fighting spirit-enhancing creations such as anime and posters that arouse anti-Japanese sentiment. An attack on the summit of Mt. Fuji was also carried out as a military target (described later).

After the war, as a "symbol of Japan" that was released from the image as a symbol of the national polity, the Japanese painterYokoyama Taikan,Kataoka KyokoThey drew Fuji. In the world of contemporary art, there is also a tendency to draw parody and satire as an antithesis to these traditional subjects, and Fuji as an icon.

Fukada HisayaDescribes "Mt. Fuji in Japan" as "a big simple that does not tamper with small works" in "Japan's XNUMX Famous Mountains", and says "Even young children draw Fuji's picture, but masters of the art circle are troublesome to show its trueness". ..

There is "Fujimi Saigyo" as a subject of all Japanese paintings, and a person like a bean kernel (monk,West lineThe composition is that the (master) looks up,Ink painting,EngravingBut it is drawn.

In modern times, it is also used for the design of banknotes and stamps.

  • There are many examples of Mount Fuji being used in the design of banknotes. In the old days, there were 1913 yen government bills issued in 50,AtagoyamaIt is Mt. Fuji from. The subsequent 1951 yen bills issued in 1969 and XNUMXOtsuki City OfKarigagasuriBased on Mt. Fuji from. The old 1984 yen bill issued in 2004 and the XNUMX yen bill issued in XNUMX are Mount Fuji from the shore of Lake Motosu.[89].
  • Depicting Mt. Fujistamp post officeReleased by[90].
    • Lake Kawaguchi, Lake Saiko, Lake Shoji, Lake Motosu, Lake Yamanaka (1999)
    • Hokusai Katsushika (1999 (Heisei 11))
    • Evening primrose・Yamanashi Prefecture (2005 (17))

Fuji in literature

Mt. Fuji is a wakaSong pillowIs often mentioned as. Also,"ManyoshuIn "," there are many songs about Mt. Fuji.

"If you go out from Tago no Ura Yuchi, you can get snow on the Takamine of Fuji, which is pure white" (3.318)Red man YamabeFamous byTanka(Antong).

In addition, next to this antique, there is a long poem whose author is unknown. ) While extinguishing the burning fire with snow (falling on the summit) and extinguishing snow (falling on the summit) with (eruption) fire," it can be seen that Mt. Fuji was performing volcanic activity at that time.

"Shinko Kon Wakashu] From. The smoke of Fuji is sung.

I'm afraid of my heart to the sky of the smoke of Fuji fluttering in the wind West line (# 1613)

Fuji is perceived as a mysterious mountain by the metropolitan people, and in the classical literature, Yoshika Tora's "Fuji Diary" records the state and tradition of Fuji.

"Taketori storyIs set in Fuji in the latter half of the story,EmperorIt is supposed that the immortal medicine given by Princess Kaguya was burned at the summit of the mountain closest to heaven by instructing Itsuki of Itsuki and a large number of men. Then there is a naming story that the mountain was named Fujiyama (Mt. Fuji) in honor of many people. In the Hina area of ​​Fuji City, Shizuoka Prefecture, at the foot of Mt. Fuji, there is still a place known as "Bamboo Mound."[91].

In addition,The Tale of GenjiAnd 'Ise story], but there are some points where Fuji is mentioned, but there are few cases where it becomes the main stage. It is precisely recognized that Fuji is located on the border of Koshun, and in ancient times it wasSuruga countryBecause it was attributed to, Fuji in the Suruga side is often the subject of classical literature.Tsutsumi Nakanagon Story] InWorthHe mentions Fuji on the side.

It is said that the word "Hachimen Reiko" was born from Mt. Fuji, which means that it has a beautiful shape in all directions.[92].

From the Middle Ages to the early modern times, Fuji worshipers traveled to the northern foothills of Fuji, and during the Edo period as a local literary artHaikuWas thriving. In modern timesTrainSuch as the development of transportation and Fuji(I.e.Under the influence ofFolklore Summer vacationI came to visit Fuji for my purpose, Jiro Nitta andShinpei Kusano,Horiguchi UniversityThey wrote works on the theme of Fuji and were drawn in many travelogues including mountain literature.

There are many writers who have stayed at the foot of Mt.Fuji, and Taijun Takeda wrote a novel "Fuji" set in a mental hospital at the foot of Mt. Fuji, and his wife, Yuriko Takeda, wrote a record of her life at Mt. Fuji after her death. Diary”.Yushima TsushimaIs a story of a family who spent a turbulent era looking at Fuji, modeled on the maternal Ishihara family who was a geologist in Yamanashi Prefecture.Mountain of Fire-Sanmon] Was written.

Also, as a literary man from the northern foot areaNaturalist literaturePerson ofNakamura SeikoOr postwarKorean Literature in JapanPerson ofLee RieIn each of the works, Fuji is depicted, and Seiko Nakamura also promotes regional literary arts.

Osamu DazaiThe novel "14" written byXNUMX views of FutakuIs well-known in Yamanashi Prefecture.Fujikawaguchiko Town OfMisaka PassThe inscription stands on.Naoki PrizeIs a writerJiro NittaIs based on the experience of working at the Mt. Fuji summit station.StrongNaoki Prize-winning work "Kaiden" and "Gouriki"Mount Fuji"[93]He has written many works related to Fuji including.

Kyoko TakahamaOf Fujinomiya City, Shizuoka PrefectureNumakubo StationWhen I got off at, I saw the beautiful Mount Fuji and sang a song. The song monument is built in front of the station.

"A certain stop at the foot of Mt. Fuji in the fall of bamboo/Namakubo's child-friendly flower niece"

Mount Fuji and regional promotion

Mt. Fuji's religious facilities, summer resorts, and tourist business for tourists aiming to climb Mt. Fuji are also actively carried out. However, at the foot of Mt. Fujihot springThe amount of hot water of the scale[94].

Regarding the use of Mt. Fuji, the Shizuoka prefecture attaches great importance to the protection of nature and culture, while the Yamanashi prefecture traditionally attaches importance to tourism development. Mountain peak ownership problem, mountain hut toilet problem, car regulation problem[95], World Heritage Registration Problem[96]As a result, the differences between the two thoughts have become apparent from the past to the present.

Mount Fuji and sightseeing

Fuji mountain climbing

Mt. Fuji's climbing knowledge, experience, and equipment are essential[97].. In general, it is possible to climb every year from the opening of the mountain on July 7st until the beginning of September.Outside the period, climbing of people who do not make thorough preparations is prohibited in principle[98]. In particularMountaineering during the snowy/remaining snow season is extremely dangerous[98].

Other tourism

From its graceful appearance, the place where you can see Mt. Fuji is often a famous tourist destination.

Mt. Fuji Day (February 2)

2/23There are some local governments that read "2:F・2:J・3:san" together and have established it as "Mount Fuji Day".

  • 2001 Ordinance was established in Fujikawaguchiko Town (then Kawaguchiko Town) in Yamanashi Prefecture.
  • 2002 (Heisei 14) Mainly in Fujiyoshida City, Yamanashi Prefecture, approved by 10 municipal forest associations in 2 municipalities at the foot of Mt. Fuji in Yamanashi Prefecture.
  • 2009 year (Heisei 21 year)12/21 The Shizuoka Prefectural Assembly passed the regulations unanimously. The regulations were established on December 12 of the same year.

In both Shizuoka and Yamanashi prefectures, Mt. Fuji is too integrated into everyday life, and it is a kind of "natural" atmosphere. Therefore, on "Mt. Fuji Day", various local governments, companies in the prefecture, etc. hold various events and participate in it, which is an opportunity to re-recognize Mt.Fuji that is too familiar and re-recognize it as a famous peak as a symbol of Japan. .. At the same time, it is hoped that local residents will be encouraged to move toward the World Heritage registration of Mt. Fuji.

The Shizuoka Prefectural Board of Education has requested that each municipality have “Mt. Fuji Day” as a school holiday from 2011 (23). Among the local governments that have incorporated them as holidays, the Fuji City Board of Education, which is located at the foot of the municipality, has decided that it will not be a holiday since 2011 because it does not fit into a specific day as a school holiday. However, from the significance of Mt. Fuji's day, we provide a place to learn at school,Fuji Children's CountryWe are also requesting the free opening of the site and the implementation of projects related to Mt. Fuji at social education facilities such as libraries and museums.

The day of Mt. Fuji was first declared at the "Forum of Mountain Views and Maps (FYAMAP)" in PC communication "NIFTY-Serve", which was announced online on January 1996, 1.

Mount Fuji number

Shizuoka Transport BureauWith 4 cities and 2 towns in the jurisdictionYamanashi Transport BranchSo-called targeting 1 city, 2 towns, 4 villages in the jurisdictionLocal numberAs from November 2008, 11Mount Fuji numberIssuance of was started. License plates with jurisdiction over two prefectures are rare[99][100].

Mt. Fuji test

Sponsored by the "Mt. Fuji test executive committee"Mt. Fuji testHowever, it is carried out by five members: Fuji Chamber of Commerce, Fujiyoshida Chamber of Commerce, Shizuoka Shimbun/Shizuoka Broadcasting, Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/Yamanashi Broadcasting, and the Fujisan Kenkyukai.

Inter-regional exchange

Exchanges of water from Mt.Fuji into Lake Biwa and water from Lake Biwa to the summit of Mt. Fuji have been carried out since XNUMX. Fujinomiya City and Shiga Prefecture, Shizuoka Prefecture.OmihachimanContinued between. This is "digging the soil of Omi and making Mt. FujiBiwa lakeIt has become a legend. Pouring the spring water of Mt. Fuji to Lake Biwa is called "water return", and pouring the water of Lake Biwa to the summit of Mt. Fuji is called "water catching".[101][102].

In 2014, the Japan Fujisan Association and the Republic of China Mountains AssociationYushanHas signed a friendly mountain tie-up[103].. Tamayama, which has an altitude of 3,952 meters,TaiwanDuring the Japanese era ofShin TakayamaIt was called the highest peak in Japan.

Other

Altitude of other mountains

  • Yushan(Taiwan)-Japanese eraShin TakayamaIt was called the highest peak in Japan. Altitude 3,952 meters.
  • Snow mountain(Taiwan)-During the Japanese eraNext TakayamaIt was called the second highest mountain in Japan. Altitude 2 meters.
  • Mt. Kitadake -The second highest mountain in Japan. Altitude 2 meters.
  • Hiyoriyama (Sendai City) -The lowest mountain in Japan. 3 meters above sea level.
  • Everest -The highest peak in the world. Altitude 8,844 meters.

Second World War

It was on the summit of Mt. Fuji on July 1945, 7.Mt. Fuji weather stationToU.S. ForcesbyMachine gun sweepThe attack was made[104].. Mt. Fuji is an independent peak with a distant view, and it was a place where you can see the movement of U.S. military aircraft conducting air raids on the mainland of Japan.HachijojimaSince the old mountain climbing hut on the summit was used as a relay base for the wireless communication line connecting the two, power transmission was started from the foot of the mountain, and power was also supplied to the weather station, which is important as a high-rise meteorological observation base. Also, from this weather station, in TokyoLight controlWas inspecting. In addition to the cultural meaning of being a symbol of Japan, the attack on the summit of Mt. Fuji, which was also a military base, was carried out at the end of World War II, and the fact that the observer was injured is recorded through the business diary "Cantera Diary".

In addition, the US military has devised a plan to dye Mt. Fuji bright red with paint to reduce morale in order to accelerate the surrender of Japan. However, the amount of supplies needed for the planB-29There is also an episode that the plan was canceled because it was unrealistic because it was a huge amount of about 3 aircraft and about 12 tons of paint.[105].

Text

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symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName
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MOUNT FUJI

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footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ Mt. FujiMt. Ontake-Mt. NorikuraThere are three.
  2. ^ Japan isYushan(Shin Takayama)TaiwanExcludes the period when the
  3. ^ 1936(Showa 11) Designated on February 2. The upper part of the mountain is the special protected area, and the surrounding area is the special and ordinary areas. There is also a prohibited area for vehicles[5].
  4. ^ (Example) "Yu Tago no Ura If you go out and look sincerely yoursSnow falls on the high ridges ofRed man Yamabe ("Manyoshu]). "Fuji" is said to be "there is no one in Japan's highest peak". In addition, there are books that use the letters “Nufu” and “Nunoji”.
  5. ^ In the last chapter of the Taketori story,emperorHowever, the immortal medicine given to the vassals by KaguyahimeSuruga countryThere is a description that it is ordered to burn at the summit of the highest mountain in Japan, which is closest to heaven in Japan. The mountain can be named "Fujinoyama". "Editor's footnote "The fashionable name of Mt. Fuji, a mountain rich in swords, was named because he climbed with a lot of swords (swords). At the same time, he burned an immortal drug, so he could put the spirit of "Mt. .. "[9][Detailed information for identifying documents].
  6. ^ Fuchi = Funch means "old woman", not "fire."[Source required].
  7. ^ The altitude of the second-grade triangular point "Mt. Fuji" is 2m. The highest point is the top of the rock about 3775.51m north of this triangle, and its height is 12m higher than the triangle (observed in 0.61).
  8. ^ In the document, it says "Fushi Omiya Fushi Honmiya Asama Omiya Tsuji Fushi Yahaka".
  9. ^ Concept like a mountain climbing fee.
  10. ^ The inn refers to the crater, and the act of spending money at this crater (the act of throwing money) was performed. The right to get that money.
  11. ^ Current Sunto-gun, Shizuoka PrefectureOyama Town.
  12. ^ An area that consists of Kawaguchi-shishi, etc. in Fuji Kawaguchiko Town, Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Prefecture today. It may be written as "Kawaguchi".
  13. ^ The document says it is a Fuji obi sword (Fuji Shinan). Other proponents/Koubun etc.
  14. ^ Odawara DomainOf the shrine magistrateTadajun MatsudairaA complaint was submitted to
  15. ^ Fuji Ouji. The document says it is Fuji Nakamitsu.
  16. ^ In addition, it was decided that the opening of Yakushido and in-house spending would be the same as before.
  17. ^ It is supposed to be viewed from the western part of the Kofu Basin
  18. ^ In modern-day Kaikuni pictures and drawings, there is a tendency to describe the appearance of Kaikuni as a spiritual place surrounded by mountains, but Mt.YatsugatakeMt. Shirane (Mt. Kitadake) With a deity expression that is depicted as a snow-covered white mountain, and it is pointed out that especially Mt.[84].
  19. ^ From Yuno area, Fujinomiya city.

Source

  1. ^ About the 4th standard stone reference point -GSI
  2. ^ a b c The altitude of the second triangle is 3,775.51m.Reference point results browsing service, Mt. Fuji (Kofu) - Geographical Survey Institute(Retrieved September 2015, 10)
  3. ^ "About selection of active volcano by volcanic eruption prediction liaison group and classification by volcanic activity (rank classification) (PDF)". Japanese Meteorological Agency (September 2003, 1). 2012/3/17Browse.
  4. ^ "Japan XNUMX Famous Mountains" Fukada Hisaya(Author),Asahi Shimbun, 1982,ISBN-4 02-260871-4, Pp269-272
  5. ^ Fuji Hakone Izu National Park Area Overview - Ministry of the Environment(Retrieved September 2010, 12)
  6. ^ "Mt. Fuji to be registered as a World Heritage Site". NHK News (NHK). (April 2013, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 5.. http://megalodon.jp/2013-0501-1919-26/www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20130430/t10014292061000.html 2013/5/1Browse. 
  7. ^ The two prefectures explained that all four routes would be closed during the July-September opening period, at least since 7, when Shizuoka Prefecture began managing three mountain trails.18 DayThe policy is to close the 3th to the summit of Mt. Fuji's 5 mountain trails managed by Shizuoka Prefecture during the period from July 7 to September 10, which is the opening period. Because there is concern about infection due to crowds of mountain climbers. All mountain huts on the route will also be closed. Yamanashi Prefecture announced on May 9 that it will close the "Yoshida Route" at the same time. Mt. Fuji is expected to be closed in summer.
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  9. ^ 56 Iwanami Bunko "Taketori Monogatari" ISBN 4003000714
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  16. ^ Measure the tide level for over 100 years nationwide What is the height? (Part 2), page 7/7, Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, March 2019, 3, "The current elevation of the triangular point is 12m due to recalculation. The highest point of Mt. Fuji is on the north side of the triangular point. On the rock is 3775.51m, 61 cm higher than the triangle."
  17. ^ Mount Fuji Information Corner What is the height and size of Mt. Fuji? , Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Fuji Sabo Office. The altitude of 2m, which is the second-magnitude triangular point described on this website, was revised to 3775.63m on April 2014, 4.
  18. ^ Mini knowledge about surveying Regarding the 12th standard stone reference point, "Actually, the highest point of Mt. Fuji is a rock about 3776.2m north of the position of the triangular point, and the altitude is 2013m when measured accurately according to the level." (This (Note that the description is from XNUMX), GSI
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  22. ^ Fuji volcano geological map -Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, March 2017
  23. ^ a b c Shizuoka University Volcano Disaster Prevention Center, Viewed in August 2020
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  25. ^ ""Mt. Fuji, no prefectural borders" Yamanashi, Shizuoka, and Governor Affirmed". Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 1). https://archive.is/aIXSt 2014/6/6Browse. (Archive version)
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  27. ^ "Hidden summit of Mt. Fuji, Geographical Institute HP "correction"". Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun(July 2014, 6). https://archive.is/L8itO 2014/6/6Browse. (Archive version)
  28. ^ a b Completely revised the geological map of Mt. Fuji for the first time in about 50 years Geological Survey of Japan, AIST 2016/07/15
  29. ^ Geological Survey of Japan Research Material Collection no. 592
  30. ^ Masato Koyama: Collapse of Mt. Fuji -Shizuoka University Disaster Prevention Research Center Shizuoka University Faculty of Education General Science Department Masato Koyama Laboratory *Published in Tokyo Shimbun (October 2012, 10)
  31. ^ Naomiya Miyachi: Large-scale eruption of Mt. Fuji and collapse of mountain body(11th Open Lecture) Volcanological Society of Japan (PDF)
  32. ^ Masato Oyama: Volcanic Disaster Prevention on Mt. Fuji-Current Status and Challenges (PDF) Shizuoka University Disaster Prevention Center Shizuoka University Faculty of Education General Science Department Masato Koyama Laboratory
  33. ^ Daily monitoring of the Fujikawa fault and prediction of the Tokai earthquake (PDF) Earthquake Prediction Liaison Bulletin Volume 46
  34. ^ Collapse due to earthquake motion in 24 Shizuoka University Disaster Prevention Center Shizuoka University Faculty of Education General Science Department Masato Koyama Laboratory
  35. ^ Mount Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures Cabinet Office
  36. ^ Shizuoka Fuji volcano disaster prevention measures Shizuoka
  37. ^ Yamanashi Evacuation route map at Mt. Fuji eruption
  38. ^ Helicopter rescue upper limit, 3200 m mountain... Mayor Shizuoka[Broken link]
  39. ^ Geomagnetic continuous observation (observation station) -GSI
  40. ^ Mt. Fuji observation point layout -Meteorological Agency
  41. ^ Volcanic activity continuous observation network VIVA ver.2 Mt.Fuji -Disaster Prevention Research Institute
  42. ^ Mount Fuji volcano hazard map Archived August 2012, 7, at the Wayback Machine.-- Fujinomiya City Hall
  43. ^ "Consideration of measures for Mt. Fuji volcanic ash / Minimize the impact of traffic / Central disaster prevention conference""Nihon Keizai Shimbun" morning edition September 2018, 9 (social aspect) September 12, 2018 reading.
  44. ^ Meteorological statistical information, past weather data search, Mt. Fuji average year value (year/month value) -Meteorological Agency (viewed January 2011, 1)
  45. ^ Meteorological statistics, past meteorological data search, 1st to 10th value in the history of observation (value throughout the year), deepest snow in the month - Japanese Meteorological Agency(Retrieved September 2013, 10)
  46. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency | Normal year value (year/month value) -Meteorological Agency (viewed January 2011, 8)
  47. ^ 1st to 10th value in the history of observation (value throughout the year) -Meteorological Agency (viewed January 2013, 7)
  48. ^ "Mysterious black sand, from Mt. Fuji?" Asahi Shimbun (April 2010, 17, 39 pages)
  49. ^ Mt. Fuji "First Snow Makeup""Asahi Shimbun" evening edition October 2017, 10
  50. ^ Mt. Fuji's "agricultural bird"(Mt. Fuji NET)-Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/YBS Yamanashi Broadcasting
  51. ^ a b Nihon University College of Arts and Sciences Earth System Science Department "Migrating the Mystery of Mt. Fuji-Earth Science and Disaster Management of Fuji Volcano" Tsukiji Shokan, 2008, 125,128, XNUMX pages.ISBN 978-4-80671-318-0.
  52. ^ "Japanese alpine plants (Sankei color directory)"Mountain and valley company, 1988,ISBN-4 635-09019-1, P107,502
  53. ^ a b c d Draft recommendation letter (PDF) -Mt. Fuji World Cultural Heritage Registration Promotion Joint Conference[Broken link]
  54. ^ a b Atsushi Kubota "Mt. Fuji: The Source of Faith and Art," Shogakukan, 2009.ISBN 978-4-09682-027-8.
  55. ^ About designation such as historic spots (Agency for Cultural Affairs, November 22, 11) (PDF) [Broken link]
  56. ^ About designation such as historic spots (Agency for Cultural Affairs, November 23, 11) (PDF) [Broken link]
  57. ^ Quarterly Ino Tadataka Research No. 9 (Autumn 1996 issue)
  58. ^ Measure Mt. Fuji Tadataka Ino VS Siebold(Finally the best QMEMS story 4)-Epson crystal device. January 2010.
  59. ^ "Mountain climbing and exploration in the Japanese Alps" Walter Weston (Author), Ero Aoki (Translation) Iwanami library, 1997,ISBN 4003347412, P372
  60. ^ a b Mountain and Keiyasha "Visual history of mountaineering in Japan" and its chronology of Japanese mountaineering history, 2005,ISBN 4635178145
  61. ^ Miyaji, Naoichi, Hirono, Saburo "History of Sengen Shrine" Sengen Shrine, Kokin Shoin <Study of Fuji, 2>.NCID BN13895599.
  62. ^ "Japanese famous mountains I want to walk" Saitosha, 2004,ISBN-4 791-61227-2, P170
  63. ^ “Achieved a long-cherished wish for the first time in 20 years, Crown Prince climbs Mt. Fuji” Sankei Shimbun (August 2008, 8)
  64. ^ "Oyama Town History Volume 2"
  65. ^ "Former Tsujibo Katsurayama's document", the address is "Mt.
  66. ^ "Documents owned by Subashiri Asama Shrine", "Fujisannai Innoseki (San) Sen, (Omitted) Subashiri Asamanomiya Kasai Shuzonoyuki..."
  67. ^ Fuji faith(Mt. Fuji NET)-Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/YBS Yamanashi Broadcasting
  68. ^ Shuichi Aoyagi "Fuyakudake 2002 Views" Kadokawa Shoten, 233, XNUMX pages.
  69. ^ "Oyama Town History Volume 2" "Oyama Town History Volume 7"
  70. ^ Shizuoka Prefectural Board of Education Cultural Section Yamanashi Prefectural Board of Education, Academic Cultural Assets Section, "Fuji, Shizuoka Yamanashi Cultural Assets Guidebook" (2006) illustrates the range of special scenic spots on the map.
  71. ^ Yamanashi Prefectural Board of Education, "Yamanashi Cultural Properties: National Designation", 1971
  72. ^ Yamanashi Prefecture HP (main cultural properties (scenic spots))[Broken link]
  73. ^ Shizuoka Prefectural Board of Education Culture Section, "Special Scenic Mount Fuji Conservation Management Plan" P4-6, 2006
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  76. ^ a b Mt. Fuji, has the range of sight expanded? More observations from the city center-environmentasahi.com (Asahi Shimbun) April 2010, 4
  77. ^ The farthest place where you can see Mt. Fuji Tourism Industry Division, Nachikatsuura Town, Wakayama Prefecture
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  79. ^ Finally taken! Mount Fuji from Kyoto
  80. ^ Take the night view of Mt. Fuji and Nara
  81. ^ Diamond Fuji Spot(100 views of Fujimi in Kanto)-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Kanto Regional Development Bureau
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  84. ^ (Takahashi Osamu 2008).
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  86. ^ Iso 1961.
  87. ^ Karakuro KatoEdition "Primary Color Ceramics Dictionary"Tankosha, 1972,ISBN 4473000907, P.843.
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References

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