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🍴 | Let's take in miso and soy products well.Miso has great expectations for liver cancer prevention!


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Let's take in miso and soy products well.Miso has great expectations for liver cancer prevention!

 
If you write the contents roughly
It has been confirmed in animal experiments that miso suppresses "liver cancer".
 

The liver is located in the upper right of the abdomen and weighs 800-1200 g in adults and is the largest organ in the human body.The liver is absorbed from the diet ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Animal experimentation

Animal experimentation(Animal) is broadlyAnimaluseExperimentRefers to the general, but usuallyHuman capitalIt means that chemical substances and devices that may pose a risk to humans are first tested with animals before being applied to humans.

medical technology,Medicine,Cosmetics,Food additiveIn addition, it is conducted to study the safety and effectiveness of all substances and the danger of operation.InevitablyHuman experimentation(Clinical trial) Is unavoidable, and in order to carry out the experiment scientifically and ethically properly, it is an animal experiment to collect scientific knowledge in advance, and in this contextPreclinical study,非 臨床 試 験Also called.

necessity

Animal experiments are mainlyMedical scienceFor the development ofpublic healthIt is unavoidably implemented as necessary in order to contribute to.The need isResearch on humans OfResearch ethicsOne of the principles, i.e.Helsinki DeclarationIt is clearly shown in.

"Medical research in humans follows generally recognized scientific principles based on sufficient knowledge of the scientific literature, other relevant sources and appropriate laboratory experiments and, as needed, animal experiments. There must be.The welfare of the animals used in the study must be respected.'

— Declaration of Helsinki Scientific Requirements and Research Plan 21. (Japan Medical Association website)[1]Than)

OnceUnethical human experimentationReflecting on the time whenResearch on humansThe Declaration states that sufficient scientific knowledge must be obtained before doing so.

ethics

Animal testing can be accused of being unethical.The reason is that animal experiments are often the happiness of animals, that is, of animals.Quality of life(QOL),Activities of daily living(ADL), andStandard of livingThis is because it damages (SOL).In addition, it is in a broad sense that the target drug or toxic substance is mixed, administered, or exposed while anticipating that the happiness of the other party will be impaired.Animal crueltyHits.

Regarding the pain that accompanies the experiment,Animal welfareFrom this idea, there is an idea to consider mitigation and removal as much as possible (see also 3R below).[2].

Laboratory animal

Laboratory animal TheHuman capitalIt is thought that the closer to is the more likely to obtain good quality data, so mainlymammalianIs used.As a large animalmonkey,Dog,minipigEtc. as a small animalRat,mouse,Guinea pig,RabbitEtc. are used.However, biologically (evolutionarily), "monkeys are closer to humans than rats" does not mean that "monkeys can obtain better data than rats". ..It should be noted that it is necessary to use an appropriate animal species according to the purpose, and that its "appropriateness" is not always known.For example, it occurred in humansthalidomide OfTeratogenicityHas been found to be limited in rats and in rabbits and monkeys, not in mice and hamsters.Alternatively, SMON symptoms caused by quinoform that occur in humans are seen in dogs and cats, but it is difficult to confirm even long-term administration in mice, rats, monkeys, and guinea pigs.In the safety evaluation of pharmaceutical products, many test items are currently being switched to alternative methods and proposals are being made, but when animal experiments are indispensable, multiple animal species will be selected.

In Japan, regarding dogs and cats in the past,Health centerSome of the pet dogs and cats brought into the area and some of the captured (eradicated) dogs were sold to local governments nationwide for animal experiments.But,TokyoStarting with, local governments have decided to abolish the surplus, and as of 2006 (Heisei 18), such a system has ended nationwide.Currently, animals that have been bred for experiments from the beginning for the purpose of ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of experimental results and securing a stable population (Laboratory animal) Is common sense.

this house,mouse,Rat such asRodentAs for, SPF animals whose cleanliness has been improved by microbiological control, disease model animals that develop specific diseases, and hairless animals (nude mice, etc.) are being commercialized for experimental purposes. Furthermore, a specificgeneRecombined (transgenic animal) or deficient (knockout animal)Genetically modified animalIs being produced.

Animal protectionHowever, in consideration of the physiology, ecology, and habits of the animal species, it is also called welfare, well-being, animal welfare, well-being, etc., and the 3Rs are important.[3]..Improving the breeding environment is called environmental enrichment, and its purpose is to promote the well-being of animals. Specifically, stimuli and structures that facilitate the expression of behaviors specific to the animal species. And the provision of resources is stipulated in the International Guidelines (ILAR 8th Edition)[4].

3R

The 3Rs are the philosophy of animal experiment standards, and represent the three, "Replacement," "Reduction," and "Refinement."1959 Was proposed by a British researcher (Russell and Burch).

  • Replacement: A low-level animal species without consciousness or sensation,vitroSubstitution to (in vitro experiment), elimination of duplicate experiments
  • Reduction: Reduce the number of animals used, use the minimum number of animals scientifically required
  • Refinement: Pain relief, euthanasia, improvement of breeding environment, etc.

* Some people advocate the concept of 3R, which is the sum of 4R, Responsibility, Review, etc.

Where to end animal experiments (life of individual animals) is an important issue according to the 3Rs philosophy.Now, if it is determined that the animal suffers more than the findings obtained by continuing the experiment, prioritize ethics over the achievement of the purpose of the animal experiment and follow the humanitarian endpoint.EuthanasiaLet me.Euthanasia should be done in accordance with the law and should be done in a way that is as painless as possible to the disposed animal.

SCAW Pain Classification

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), a gathering of North American scientists, presents an experimental distress classification, which is divided into five categories, A to E.[5].

  • Category A: No organisms or plants, bacteria, protozoans, invertebrates.
  • Category B: Uses vertebrates with little or no discomfort.
  • Category C: Vertebrates are used and there is slight stress or pain (short duration) on the animals.
  • Category D: Vertebrates with unavoidable severe stress and pain.
  • Category E: Gives unanesthetized, conscious animals the greatest and more pain they can tolerate.

Regulation

Regarding regulations related to animal experiments, mainly legal regulationsEUMainly on types and self-regulation of researchersAmerica, Divided into Canadian type.

The UK requires legal approvals for experimenters, experimental plans, and experimental facilities.Under the British Animal Law, it is clearly stated as cost-benefit analysis, and it is considered that the experiment will not be approved unless the significance of the experiment that exceeds the pain felt by the animal can be confirmed.[6].

There are no direct legislation on animal testing in the United States, but it requires facility registration and the establishment of an ethics committee.

In Japan, the people concerned want an American-style self-regulatory route,Ministry of the EnvironmentStandards andMinistry of education-Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareEach research institution has its own standards in accordance with such guidelines.

In response to the tightening of regulations in Europe and the United States, China is developing large-scale facilities against the backdrop of loose regulations and is achieving results, and it is expected that researchers will gather from countries with strong regulations.[7].

Direction of animal experiments

In recent years, around the worldAnimal welfare,ethicsDue to the above problems, the actions of groups opposed to animal experiments are becoming active.Animal rightsIs one way of thinking, and there is controversy about how humans treat animals equally.Animal rights theorists such as Francion want to abolish animal testing[8][9].

In research institutes and the manufacturing industry, minimize animal testing itself, if necessary麻 酔In addition to minimizing pain by usingBacteria,昆虫Other species such asCultured cells, On the computersimulationReplace withAlternative methodTechniques such as developing are being taken.Such movements have been seen since the 1990s, and research that makes heavy use of animal experiments (especially large animals such as monkeys) is being reviewed.However, in a system using cultured cells, there are many points that are significantly different from the overall physiological and biochemical mechanisms in an actual individual, and it is impossible to obtain all the information.

In recent years, in the EU, along with the activation of the movement against animal experiments, there has been a tendency to ban the sale of "animal experiments" and products that have undergone animal experiments, but the realization has been postponed due to the backlash from major cosmetics manufacturers.However, it is only a matter of time before the ban on animal experiments in the EU and the ban on the sale of cosmetics and raw materials for which animal experiments have been conducted are enforced, and companies can use alternative methods to replace animal experiments as a global framework. It has become a problem that cannot be ignored as it grows in the environment.Developed without animal testingCosmeticsAnd industrial productsCruelty freeThere is also a movement to differentiate by displaying.

In the EU, animal testing has been phased out since the 1990s, and in 2009, with the exception of some toxicity studies, the sale of cosmetics developed using animal testing was banned. From March 2013, 3, all animal experiments have been banned.This also applies to imported extraterritorial products[10].

Current status of animal experiments in Japan

In Europe and the United States, a license is required to handle laboratory animals.In the case of Japan, animals are based on the "Basic Guidelines for the Implementation of Animal Experiments, etc. at Research Institutions (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Notification No. XNUMX)" and "Basic Guidelines for the Implementation of Animal Experiments, etc. The institution that conducts the experiment is required to set up an "animal experiment committee" to examine the experiment plan submitted by the experimenter and decide whether or not to approve it, and to carry out appropriate animal experiments. There is.As a result, research institutes such as universities have begun to spread license systems and animal experiment committees based on their own seminars, but there is no license system that conforms to national qualifications for the handling of laboratory animals.

A related qualification in Japan is the "Laboratory Animal Engineer" certification test by the Japan Laboratory Animal Association.The exam consists of a departmental exam and a field exam, both of which require a high degree of specialization.The content of the test includes not only knowledge and skills, but also content related to laboratory animals, society, and animal welfare.

To take the exam, you need to have a certain level of work experience specified by the association.Some require national qualifications by the state, but due to political background, this has not been reached.

Companies and universities are improving their efforts for animal welfare based on certain standards (AAALAC, etc.).

footnote

  1. ^ Helsinki Declaration
  2. ^ Nakagama et al. 2008, p. 22.
  3. ^ Naoko Kagiyama "Clarification of 3R principles in the Act on Welfare and Management of Animals and proper breeding and storage of laboratory animals"Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association," Vol. 63, No. 6, June 2010, 6, pp. 20-395.
  4. ^ Kiminari Koyama "Current status and future of environmental enrichment in Labotech animal experiments (PDF) "Labio 21" No. 65, July 2016, pp. 7-36.
  5. ^ "Commentary on the pain classification of animal experimental procedures". National University Corporation Animal Experiment Facility Council (September 2004, 6). NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ Naoko Kagiyama "Ethical guidelines for animal experiments and practice of operation"Journal of Pharmacology, Japan, Vol. 131, No. 3, March 2008, 3, pp. 1-187," two:10.1254 / fpj.131.187.
  7. ^ Animal experiments spreading in China's "monkey kingdom" Europe and the United States to tighten regulations - Asahi Shimbun, August 2018, 1.
  8. ^ Sue Donaldson, Will Kymlicka, Political Community of Humans and Animals, Shogakusha, 2017.
  9. ^ Gary L. Francion, "Introduction to Animal Rights," Ryokufu Shuppan, 2018.
  10. ^ "Sale of animal experiment cosmetics banned entirely in EU". French news agency (September 2013, 3). NovemberBrowse.

References

  • Hitoshi Nakagama, Kazuhiro Kitada, Takashi Kuramoto "Mouse / Rat Experiment Note" Yodosha <Invincible Biotechnical Series>, 2009.ISBN 978-4-89706-926-5.

Related item

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  • Draize test

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