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Now of the Asian community (XNUMX) = New immigrants struggling in São Paulo = Tomoko Oura = Bangladesh <XNUMX>

 
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In the kitchen, Bangladeshi chef Shadu is currently working every day.
 

Chef Shadu (center) and Amin of the halal restaurant "Taj Mahal" used by Muslim merchants ... → Continue reading

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バングラデシュ

Bangladesh
গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ
Bangladesh flag Bangladesh National Emblem
(National flag) (National emblem)
National motto:None
National anthem : My golden Bengal
Bangladesh location
Official terminology Bengali language
capital Dhaka
Largest city Dhaka
政府
President Abdul Hamid
(English edition) Sheikh Hasina
area
Grand total 147,000[1]km2(91 bit)
Water area rate 7.0%
population
Grand total(2015年) 159,400,000Man(7 bit)
The population density 1084 people/km2
GDP(Display home currency)
total(2013年) 11 billion[2]Hawk
GDP (MER)
total(2013年) 1,413 billion[2]Dollar (59 bit)
Per person $ xxx
GDP (PPP)
total(2013年) 3,251 billion[2]Dollar (43 bit)
Per person 2,080[2]Dollar
independent
 -Declaration
 -Approval
パキスタンThan
1971å¹´3/26
1971å¹´12/16
currency Hawk(BDT)
Time zone UTC +6 (STD: None)
ISO-3166 1 BD / BGD
ccTLD .bd
International phone number 880

Bangladesh(Bangladesh Jinminkyowakoku,Bengali language: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), popular nameバングラデシュIt is,South AsiaA republican nation in.British CommonwealthIt is a member country and the currency isHawk, Population 1 million, the capitalDhaka.

North and east and westIndia, In the southeastMyanmarBorder with.SouthIndian OceanFacing.India adjacent to the westWest Bengal, Adjacent India on the east sideTripuraと と も にBengali languageBelongs to the category.

1971年ToパキスタンIndependent from.Bangladesh is Bengali for "BengaliIt means "country".City stateThe most in the world exceptThe population densityIt is a country with a high population and has the 7th largest population in the world.

Bay of BengalTaiga pouring intoGanges RiverHave.From abundant water resourcesRice,JuteSuitable for the production ofGolden BengalIt was a rich area called "[3],InfrastructureCurrently in Asia due to underdeveloped and inefficient administrationPoorest countryBelongs to[4]..However, in recent years, the multinational manufacturing industry has made remarkable progress, paying attention to the abundance of labor force and the low labor cost of the lowest level in Asia.Emerging countriesExpected asNEXT11Is one of.

Country

formalNameIt is,গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ(Bengali: Latin transcription is Gôno projatontri Bangladesh).Commonly known asবাংলাদেশ pronunciation [ˈBaŋlad̪eʃ] ( Audio file)

EnglishThe official notation ofPeople's Republic of Bangladesh(People's Republic of Bangladesh).Commonly known asBangladesh [ˌBæŋɡləˈdɛʃ] ( Audio file)..The national adjective is Bangladeshi.

JapaneseIs written asBangladesh.. Popular name,バングラデシュ..In Bengali, Bangla means "Bengali (person)" and Desh means "country", which together means "Bengali country".Bangladesh,Bangladesh,Bangladesh(The latter two are unnatural notations for Bengali pronunciation).JapanAtKanji notation TheBengal, With one letterMengAlthough abbreviated as, it is rarely used.Newspapers in Japan見 出 しAnd so onBanglaSometimes abbreviated[5][6][7].

Bangladesh flagRepresents the sun rising red and the earth rich in green.There is also a theory that it is a red circle that shows the blood shed for independence on the green ground that represents the rich nature.The red circle is closer to the flagpole from the center.First President of BangladeshMujibur RuffmanDaughter ofSheikh HasinaThe prime minister testified, "My father referred to the Japanese Hinomaru."[8].

History

Until modern times

Now called BangladeshRegionFor a long time文明Has developed.Current BangladeshBengalIt corresponds to the east side of.4th century BC OfMaurya dynastyから6st century OfGupta morningNumerousdynasty OfDependentMet.BuddhismTempleFrom7th century BCIt was proved that there was a civilization in社会The structure is11th century BCIt is thought to date back to, but there is no definitive proof of this.Early civilizationBuddhismAnd (or or)HinduismWas influenced by.Remains in northern BangladeshRemainsThese effects can be inferred from.

8st centuryIn the middle leafPara morningThe Buddhist dynasty prospered.12st centuryHinduSena dynastyWas replaced by.13st centuryToIslamBegan to change[Annotation 1].13st centuryIslamicBengal Sultanate MorningUnder this, it has developed into a center of commerce and industry.Since then, Bengal has become the richest and strongest country in South Asia.16st centuryToMughal EmpireUnder, it developed into the center of commerce and industry. The Bengali language developed between the 11th century (Sena dynasty) and the 16th century (incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1574).Around this time, with the growth of the Bengal economy, development began in East Bengal, which had many jungles, and development was being promoted mainly by Islam. In the latter half of the 16th century, Muslims became the majority in East Bengal.Also, in the middle of the 17th century, Muslim peasant groups became noticeable.[9].

British era

15st centuryAt the endEuropeTraders came to visit18st centuryThe end of theUK OfEast India CompanyByColonyIt was made.With this East Indies company, Britain takes control from BengalIndian subcontinentExpanded to the whole area (British India).Bengal has been serious many times during this period of British rulefamineWas attacked and a huge amount of human life was lost.From the eastern and western parts of BengalCotton fabricAnd rice exports were booming, and at the end of the 17th century, it became Asia's largest export region to Europe, where a large amount of silver flowed in, was cast into silver coins, and was invested in forest reclamation funds.[10]..The East Indies company expanded its control throughout India, and the prosperity of its central region, Bengal, continued. It was during this period that it came to be praised as "Golden Bengal".

In due timeIndiaAs in other regions, the national movement (a retrospective movement called Forage since the 1820s) has become active in Bangladesh.To stop this, Britain plans to divide the Indian power in Bengal.1905年ToPartition of BengalWas promulgated and divided Bengal into Hindu-centered West Bengal and Islam-centered East Bengal.(English edition)Was established (today'sバングラデシュAnd in northeastern IndiaAssam,Meghalaya,Arunachal PradeshEquivalent to).1906年The founding competition was held in Dhaka.This measure led to a backlash from both religious groups,1911年Although it was withdrawn, there was a gap between the two religions, which eventually led to the independence of India and Pakistan.

At that time, in East Bengal, the consciousness as a Bengali and the consciousness as a Muslim coexisted,1929å¹´All Bengal Proja Party (based on Muslim upper peasants) was formed1936å¹´Developed into the Peasant Prussian Party.1930 eraThe Bengali consciousness temporarily receded, and the consciousness as a Muslim rose.1940å¹´Muslim FederationLahoreAt the convention, Bengal politician Fozururu Hock proposed a Pakistani resolution.1943å¹´Famine killed 150 to 300 million people[11].. In August 1946, a Muslim and Hindu clash in the Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) riot killed more than 8 people.

Indian eastern Bengal

Under such circumstances, British India1947年Despite achieving independence, due to religious issues, the Hindu regionIndia, Islamic region divided into east and west across IndiaパキスタンAsIndependenceWill be(English edition)(1947年 - 1955年) Decided to join Pakistan.

Pakistan east Pakistan

BothパキスタンWhen was established, the current Bangladesh region became East Pakistan.However, although there was not much difference in population between the two regions, there was a large difference in economics and culture, and the land was separated by India by more than 1000 km.Such differences caused friction here and there.The first problem was言语It was the difference.Bengali languageIn contrast to the east, which is almost unified inUrduConflict arose because the official language was.Although this issue was settled by making both Bengali and Urdu the official languages, a policy biased toward the west, which was the center of politics, was implemented.1970年11 of the monthBora CycloneThe damage caused by the government further increased dissatisfaction with the government.East Pakistan surpasses the population in the December elections of the same yearAwami LeagueWon the election, the West Pakistan-centered government delayed parliament and the following year1971年In March, the military intervened and detained East Pakistani leaders.This made the conflict between East and West Pakistan decisive, and East Pakistan became a civil war with West Pakistan (now Pakistan) in search of independence (now Pakistan).Bangladesh Revolutionary War).India, which was in conflict with Pakistan in the west, supported the independence of East Pakistan, andThird India-Pa WarEnded with an Indian victory, and Bangladesh's independence was confirmed in 1971.

Independence, Mujibur Rahman administration

After independenceAwami League OfSheikh Mujibur RuffmanBecame prime minister.Even before independence from India, the Pakistani government with Islam as its flag and the indigenous peoples had a bad deal, and Juma (Chittagong Hill TractsThe situation was exacerbated when Bangladesh became independent in 1971, as the indigenous peoples continued to be tense because they did not want to be incorporated into Pakistan in the first place.For this reason, the indigenous peoples were in 1972.(English edition) A political party called (PCJSS) was formed, and from the following year it became a subsidiary of PCJSS.(English edition)And the Bangladeshi army entered a state of battle.Due to economic exhaustion caused by civil war and floods1975年ToCoup d'etatMujiburu RahmankillIs done.

Ziaur Rahman administration

Then from the militaryZiaur RahmanMajor General became president. Since 1979, the policy of the Bangladeshi government has led to the mass settlement of Bengali in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, and the population ratio of Juma to Bengali in the Chittagong Hill Tracts has become almost 1: 1.

El Shad administration

1981年Ziaur Rahman was killed in a coup d'etat inside the army1983年In 12 monthHussain Mohammad El ShadThe lieutenant general reestablished a military junta.1988年IsChittagong Hill Tracts Of(English edition)Upstream(English edition)Only in JapanHydroelectric power plant(230MW) The construction forced nearly 10 residents to evict, of which 2 went to Burma (now Myanmar) and 4 went to India.refugeesHas immigrated as.

The El Shad administration is due to the democratization movement1990å¹´Resigned to.

Democratization

1991å¹´Centre-right faction in March general electionBangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)Awami League Defeating (AL), BNP leaderCaleda ZiaIs the country's firstFemale prime ministerWas appointed to.1991å¹´Since the general election was held in Japan, the democratically elected government has ruled. May 5thGeorge HW BushHumanitarian assistance to the disaster area was provided by Operation Sea Angel under the direction of the president.After 20 years of the Chittagong Hill Tracts1992å¹´Ceasefire.1997å¹´Although a peace agreement was signed with, the underlying problems remain and the conflict continues.

1996å¹´The constitutional amendment introduced the Non-Party Care-Taker Government, headed by the former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (adviser to the Prime Minister).This system is to prevent abuse of authority by the incumbent cabinet to interfere with election campaigns and manipulate voting results, and is appointed after the dissolution of parliament.[12].1996å¹´In the June general election, AL won this time,Sheikh HasinaWas appointed as the country's second female prime minister.

2001å¹´In the general election held on October 10, opposition coalitions such as BNP won by a large margin over the ruling party AL.Caleda ZiaHas returned to the prime minister.It is said that it emphasized economic construction, appealed for moderate reforms, and gained the support of city citizens.

Return to military and civil administration

2002å¹´The vote to appoint the president scheduled for September 9 is based on the candidateUniversity of DhakaProfessor'sIajudin AhmedSince there was only one person, he was not elected.

2006å¹´October, under military pressureCaleda ZiaThe BNP administration, which he led, resigned and the Ahmed Caretaker Government (provisional administration) was inaugurated.The interim government will eradicate corruptionIslamic extremistsWe are working on countermeasures.2007å¹´A general election was scheduled for January 1, but the situation deteriorated due to a conflict within the political parties.The general election was postponed to 11.Iajudin AhmedPresidentIt is,Emergency declarationAnd issued a curfew all over the country.[1]

2008å¹´In the 12th general election held on December 29, among the 9 seats to be elected,Sheikh HasinaLed by the former Prime MinisterAwami LeagueWon 230 seats (48.06% of the votes), and the "Great Union" consisting of the Kuomintang and others won 300 out of 262 seats.[2].. On January 2009, 1, Hasina was appointed Prime Minister.The four-party coalition centered on the former ruling party's BNP has plummeted to 6 seats.Voter turnout is as high as 4%.

2014å¹´In the 10th general election held in Tokyo, the general election was held with the 18 opposition coalitions led by BNP boycotted, and the ruling Awami League won overwhelmingly.[13].

Politics

1991å¹´ToConstitutionHas been amended,President(Symbol)HeadToParliamentary Cabinet SystemWas established[12].

Head

As a former British colonyBritish CommonwealthBecause it is a republican governmentGovernorWithout putting, the head of statePresident.Head of stateThe president is, in principle,RitualJust do the jobSymbolOfStatusIs.He has a five-year term and is elected by the National Assembly.The President will act on the advice of the Prime Minister, except for the appointment of the Prime Minister and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.However, when the parliament and the government confront each other and political turmoil occurs, the parliament is dissolved.Provisional governmentHas the authority to launch.

Administration

Executive branchIs the head ofprime ministerThe president appoints the leader of the winning party after the parliamentary elections.CabinetThe prime minister chooses the ministers and the president appoints them.

One of the causes of poverty in Bangladesh is the poor governance of the government.corruptionIs terrible, 2011Corruption Perception IndexIs ranked 2.7th in the world at 120, which is a considerable improvement from 2003 in 1.2, but still at a low level.Also, the local administration is particularly weak, which is why the administration is not functioning well.Various types to assist itNGOThere are many, and it is in the form of carrying out the development function.In particular, "Asia's largest NGO"BRAC"Or"Grameen BankIs large and well-known.

legislation

ParliamentIt is,Unicameral systemso,Jatiya Sangsad(国会).All 350 seats.With a term of 5 yearsSingle-seat constituency systemElected by election.In addition to the regular 300 seats, 50 seats exclusively for women were prepared to reflect the opinions of women in the legislation, but they were abolished in May 2001.

After democratization, the administration changes with each general election, but the change of administration by election is becoming established.[14]..However, there are many problems with the political parties responsible for parliamentary politics.[15]..Elections are generally fair, but there are many problems with political parties and political climate.Each political party has a political organization under its control[16], Mobilize them in each election to hold the election.After the election, defeated parties often resort to strikes and protests, often leading to riots.

judicial

Military

軍隊 TheVolunteerIt is a system and has about 14 troops.Bangladesh ArmyPKOWe are actively sending personnel to.Bangladesh Army has been several times in the pastMilitary regimeEstablished, and still has a great voice in politics. In 2006, he retired from the BNP administration and launched the Ahmed Caretaker Government.

国際 関係

India, which borders most of the borders except for a part of the south, had a friendly relationship at the beginning of independence due to the circumstances during the Revolutionary War and the fact that the ruling Awami League at the time of independence was a pro-Indian political party. With MuslimsHinduThe relationship eventually cooled, partly because the conflict prompted the transfer to Pakistan.Bangladesh Nationalist PartyTake a slightly anti-Indian attitude, and converselyAmerica,ChugokuThere is a tendency to emphasize friendly relations with.

バングラデシュは多くの難民を受け入れ、また送り出す国である。東パキスタンとして独立した時には両国内の非主流派の信徒がお互いに難民として流れ込み、またバングラデシュ独立時にもパキスタン軍の侵攻を逃れて100万人近いバングラデシュ人が難民となってインド領へと流れ込んだ。さらに、チッタゴン丘陵地帯では政治的緊張が続いており、この地域の仏教系先住民がインドへと多く難民として流出している。

また、バングラデシュは隣接するMyanmarFrom muslimRohingya帰国民を多く受け入れている。

Since Bangladesh is a poor country, it receives a large amount of financial assistance from all over the world.Japan is one of the largest donor countries, but the amount of aid has been declining slightly in recent years.other,Asian Development BankAnd America, United Kingdom,World Bank,European UnionThere is a lot of support from such.

Geography

Most of Bangladesh's landIndian subcontinent OfBay of BengalFormed alongBengal Deltaと 呼 ば れ るDelta zoneIs[Annotation 2]..Big and small in this deltaRiver,curlと 呼 ば れ るwaterwayIs running like a mesh of nets.With swampsジ ャ ン グ ルLowlands with many[17]And the jungleBengal tigerKnown as the habitat of.Surrounded by the southern foot of the Himalayan Mountains to the north, the Shillong Plateau (Meghalaya Plateau), the Tripla and Chittagong hills to the east, the Rajumohor hills to the west, and the Bay of Bengal to the south.[18]..Hills with an altitude of 100 to 500 m spread in the eastern part and the southeastern part.

HimalayasFrom the west with a water sourceGanges River(Poda River in Bengali), from the northBrahmaputra River(Brahmaputra) merges almost in the center of the lowland and at the most downstreamMeghna riverIt merges with the delta area, which has a basin area of ​​173 million square kilometers.The delta is extremelyThe population densityIs high.BangladeshsoilBecause it is fertile and blessed with waterPaddy fieldSuitable for cultivation, but洪水とdroughtVulnerable to both, oftenRiverFloods and causes a lot of damage.The hills in the country are in the southeastern partChittagong Hill Tracts(Highest point:Keokradong Mountain, 1230m) and in the northeastSylhet DivisionLimited to

Tropic of CancerNear Bangladeshclimate The熱 帯By sex, the winter season from October to March is warm.The summer is hot and humid from March to June, and from June to October.monsoonInvades.Attack this country almost every year洪水,Cyclone,竜 巻,Sea lionNatural phenomena such as these are not limited to temporary damage.deforestation,erosionEtc., causing further damage to the land.

The fact that most of the terrain is flat and the terrain changes frequently due to floods make Bangladesh's land survey extremely difficult.JapaneseGeographical Survey InstituteWith the cooperation of 1 / 25,000Topographic mapHowever, a detailed national map has not been completed even in 2016.[19].

The largest in Japancity ThecapitalDhakaIs.Other major citiesChittagong,Khulna,RajshahiIs.Located south of ChittagongCox bazaarIs the longest natural in the worldbeachKnown as.

Local administration division

Bangladesh divisions english.svg

There are eight top administrative unitsDivisionIs.Each is named after the central city.However, the province has no substantive function and is below it.Prefecture (Bengali: Zila, English: District) is the main unit of local administration. As of January 2005, there are 1 prefectures.Below the prefecture is a county (Bengali: Upazila, English: Sub-District), and below that is an administrative village (Bengali / English: Union) that summarizes several villages. ..At the time of independence, there were four districts, but new districts are being established as the population grows.

Economy

世界銀行によると、2019年のバングラデシュのGDPは2,099億ドルであり、一人当たりのGDPは1,855ドル[20].United NationsBased on the criteria byLeast developed countriesIs positioned as[21]。2016年時点で人口の24.3%貧困線以下である[22].

The country boasts one of the richest lands in the world, recharged by the flooding of the Ganges, from the outside.InvasionAlso did not stop. There was a time when it was called "Golden Bengal", and it has high economic potential because it has a huge population and labor force, but now it is affected by natural disasters such as floods.Poor countryCan be counted as one of.

Despite Bangladesh receiving assistance both domestically and internationallyExcessive populationAnd politicscorruptionStill bypovertyI can't get rid of it.Frequent occurrences are hindering the development of BangladeshCycloneGeographical and climatic factors such as inundation and inefficiencyState-owned enterprise, Improperly operatedHarborな どInfrastructureHuman factors,Primary industryのみでは賄い切れない増加するWorking populationなどの人口要因、能率の悪いEnergyUsage and not enoughPower supplyResource factors such as, plus political internal conflictscorruptionなどの政治的要因、国内で頻繁に行われているゼネラルストライキの一種であるハルタル(ホルタル)が挙げられる。しかし近年は後述の通りTextile industryFrom 2005 to 2015, the average annual average is 6.2% due to the rise ofeconomic growth rateIs recording[23]..Also, the huge working population and cheapness are highly evaluated.NEXT11It is also counted in.

Agriculture:

42.7% of the populationAgriculture:に従事し[22]、国民の7割以上がRuralLive in.The main agricultural products arericeAnd jute (Kouma-Corchorus olitorius).Rice production is the fourth largest in the world, and the production is increasing slightly year by year.United Nations Food and Agriculture OrganizationAccording to (FAO), the grain self-sufficiency rate is over 90%, and almost all of the consumption is self-sufficient, especially for rice.

Bangladesh rice is divided into three types: Aus rice, which is cultivated in the first half of the rainy season, Aman rice, which is cultivated in the latter half of the rainy season and is the center of harvest, and Boro rice, which is cultivated in the dry season.ClimaticallySecond cropAlthough it is possible to make three crops, the area where it can be done was limited because the water level of the Ganges River drops during the dry season.However, due to the spread of wells and the spread of improved varieties, the agricultural production of boro rice, especially in the dry season, increased significantly, and the production of Aus rice and Aman rice also increased accordingly.Thereby,Second cropThe number of areas where three-stage cropping is possible has also increased, and rice production has increased significantly.[24]..This is "" in BangladeshGreen revolutionIt is the promotion of modernization of agricultural production.The Green Revolution was a national policy, but the Green Revolution forced farmers to spend more on capital investment.On the other hand, there is a problem that the increase in production volume does not cover the burden.

JuteIs the most important export product as an agricultural product, but its importance has been declining since the 1980s due to the push by chemical fibers.Next to jute, export agricultural productsBlack teaIn India, which is known as a famous black tea producing areaAssamIt is mainly cultivated in the northern Sylhet region adjacent to. In the 19th centuryblueAlthough it was the world's largest producer of chemical dyes, production dropped sharply due to the invention and spread of chemical dyes.

Textile industry

The development of the textile industry has begun to stagnate textile production due to economic growth South Korea,Hong KongIn the wake of investment from1970 eraBegan to happen.in recent yearsChugokuWith the rise in labor costs in Bangladesh, the low labor costs in Bangladesh (monthly salary is 1/3 that of China) are attracting attention.fiberProducts, etc.light industryProduct exports are increasing.As a result, the light industry has finally developed and is achieving economic development.Currently, 80% of Bangladesh's exports are made up of textiles.China +1It is attracting a great deal of attention as a manufacturing country, and many major textile manufacturers are making inroads, making it a major industry responsible for the Bangladesh economy.

Heavy industry

Not only the light industry but also the heavy industry is developing.JapaneseHonda Motor Co., Ltd. オ ー ト バ イBesides building a factory[25],Dismantling of abandoned shipsからshipbuildingBusiness is growing[26].

Labor export

Bangladesh's trade balance is always in the big deficit, with less exports than imports.It is to foreign countries to fill this up to some extentMigrantIt is the remittance income of the workers who went to.1997年The total number of migrant workers has exceeded 40.The migrant destination isIslamic countryThe biggest migrant destination isサウジアラビアOccupies two-thirds of migrant workers inクウェート,アラブ 首長 国 連邦OtherPersian GulfMany workers are also heading to Kishi oil-producing countries.In the eastMalaysia,SingaporeThere are many.About 1 people in JapanBangladeshis in JapanExists[27].

NGO

In urban areas such as DhakaNGO, In rural areasGrameen BankbyPoorRelatively low tointerest rate OfLoanBusiness to do (Micro credit) Has attracted international attention as it has made a significant contribution to women's independence and poverty alleviation.2006å¹´Grameen Bank and its founder and general managerMuhammad YunusBecause of "contribution to building the economic and social infrastructure of the poor"Nobel Peace PrizeAwarded, Bangladesh's firstNobel PrizeBecame a winner.In 2008, the Internet network was expanded to rural areas, schools, etc., and this was celebrated in a big way. The first is among the many NGOsBRAC(Bangladesh Rural Advancement committee, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, commonly known as Black). Founded in 1972, BRAC has offices in all prefectures and is active in rural and urban poor people.

洪水

Most cultivated areas in Bangladesh are submerged by rivers during the rainy season.Occasionally, not only cultivated areas, but also residential areas and highways that are piled up and raised are damaged by flooding.While these floods are called "Bonna" and are considered to cause destruction and calamity, moderate floods that occur each year are called "Borsa", which bring fertility to the soil and abundant fishing grounds. It is believed that there is abundant water and blessings that bring about a good harvest.The occurrence of bonna has an adverse effect on the production of Aus and Amon, but even in 2004 and 2007, when the recent floods occurred, the production of Amon decreased by only about 10%.[28]Besides thisRiverbank erosionLand outflow due to the above has caused serious damage in the past, but it has been improved by recent infrastructure development.

Mining

BangladeshMineral resourcesAlthough not blessed with, the world's largest in Chittagong due to low labor costsShip dismantlingThere is a place, and 60% of the iron used in the country comes from hereRecycled productsCan be covered by[29].

The only underground resourceNatural gasIt was discovered in 1908.After that, development continued during the period of British rule, and after independence, a production sharing method by foreign capital (PS method) Was advanced.The government has been promoting the exploration and production of natural gas resources since the 1970s, and started the operation of the Bakurabad gas field (Chittagong) in 1984.Gas fieldWas developed. In 1997, the whole country was divided into 23 mining areas, and corporate bids were held. Mining volume as of 2003 was 435 trillionJules.. As of 2008, it is capable of producing 12 billion cubic feet per day from 53 gas fields and 13 wells.The gas fieldBrahmaputraIt is distributed further to the east andpipelineIt is being transported by.CurrentBogura cityHas reached.Reserves ("Oil & Gas Journal』April 2002 article), production and proved and confirmed reserves are 4 trillion cubic feet.In the Asian region, reserves are second only to Malaysia's 28.8 trillion and Indonesia's 80 trillion.There are various trial calculation methods for reserves, and each has a large difference.About 72% of gas is consumed by power generation, about 50% is used by factories, and about 40% is used by private households and commerce.Gas pipePersonal consumption has increased with the extension of the laying distance, and has exceeded 10% annually in the last 10 years.[30].

currency

The currency unit isHawk..The rate is US $ 1 = 83.28 Taka (as of February 2018, 2).

Labor force

Employment is poor,Unemployment rate Theネ パ ー ルIt is almost the same as, and it exceeds 40%.According to 2016 data, the labor force ratio by industry is 42.7% for agriculture, 36.9% for service industry, and 20.5% for mining industry, which is still essential even now that industrialization is progressing due to the rapid growth of the textile industry in recent years. ToAgricultural countryIs[22]。しかし、貧富の差や農地面積に比してToo large populationTherefore, only about 4% of households can make a sufficient living from farmland, and the remaining 6%.Peasant,Day laborerMake a living as.in recent yearsGrameen BankEtc. proceedMicro creditPoverty is still a serious problem, although there are signs that some of the poor are improving their lives due to the expansion and economic growth.

Due to low labor costs, ship dismantling and disposal sites, etc.3Kの仕事を先進国から引き受けている。労働人口は(2017年)6,664万人である[22].

Transportation

Located in the delta areawaterwayBecause it is a terrain that is stretched around道路Is not very well developed.Instead, the waterways that can be transported by boat extend over 3800 km and occupy an important position for transportation in Bangladesh.(I.e.と(I.e.Then, the water level is different, and there is a big difference in the use of land and waterways.The main trading port is Chittagong in the east, which is a seaport.Another seaport in the westMongla harbor(Former Port of Charna) is big, and also Dhaka and BolizarNarayongonjiLarge scaleRiver portThere is.

道路

Asia Highway Line 1Leads from the north through Dhaka to the western border.

Train

TrainIs a national railwayBangladesh RailwayOperated by, total length 2706km.Brahmaputra RiverOn the borderGaugeIs different, 1676mm west of Brahmaputrabroad gauge, 1000mm east of Brahmaputra (including Dhaka and Chittagong)Narrow gaugeIs.The broad-gauge line is 884km and the narrow-gauge line is 1822km.

Air transportation

空港Is in DhakaShahjalal International AirportAnd ChittagongShah Amanoto International AirportState-owned airlines based at Shahjalal International AirportBiman Bangladesh AirlinesEtc. are operated by airlines.Bangkok(Kingdom of Thailand),KolkataMainly by air to (India).Domestic flights are Chittagong,Jashore,SylhetThere is an airport, but it is unstable and rarely used.[31].

People

population

BangladeshSingapore,バーレーンIt is the most densely populated country in the world except for countries with small areas such as. The population per square kilometer2012年Today there are 1173 people, often in IndonesiaJavaIs compared with.Population explosionBecame a social problem, and the government1992年It is trying to control the population growth by promoting population control, and is achieving some results. There were 1992 in 4.18Total fertility rateDropped to 2001 in 2.56 and to 2011 in 2.11.[32][33].

The population growth rate was 3.4% (1975) at the beginning of independence, but has decreased sharply to 2.02% (1995), 2.056% (2007 estimate), and 1.26% (2008/2009).In recent years, the population growth rate has been at the lowest level in South Asia.[34][35].

residents

98%Bengali.. Other,en: Stranded Pakistanis,(English edition),(English edition), Tippers,(English edition), Mrs,en: Mughal tribe, Sylheti,en: Kurukh people,en: Khasi people,bn: খুমি,Garo, টিপরা,bn: পাংখো, পাংগোন, মগ,en: Meitei people,bn: মুরং,bn: রাজবংশী,en: Santali people,bn: হাজং,en: Rakhine people,en: Magh people,(English edition),bn: কুকি (উপজাতি),bn: চক (জাতিগোষ্ঠী),bn: হাদুই,bn: লুসাই,bn: হদি,bn: বাওয়ালী,bn: বনযোগী,bn: মৌয়ালী

言语

Bengali language Official terminologyIs.CharacterDevana GullySimilar toBengali lettersIs used.In addition to Bengali, EnglishGovernment office,Educational institutionIt is used in and is a de facto official language.Residents are Bengali speakersBengaliMost of them make up 98% of the population.Other,UrduSpeak,Biharな どIndiaNon-Bengalis from all over the worldMuslimOccupies 2%.Besides, in the southeastern partChittagong Hill TractsToJumaMore than 10 collectively calledMongoloidsystemIndigenous peopleExists.The total population of Juma is estimated to be between 100 and 150 million.

Religious

IslamIs 89.7%,HinduismIs 9.2% and others are 1%.For other religionsBuddhism,キ リ ス ト 教Etc. are included.Bangladesh has a majority of Muslims, but the population of Hindus is also quite high, and the two coexist generally peacefully.Also,Ruins of Buddhist temples in PaharpurBuddhism was so prosperous in the past that Buddhism is still worshiped in some areas, as can be seen in.It is important to know which religion you believe in, but more importantly, the consciousness of being the same Bengali people is more important, and both are respected.This kind of consciousness is on the Indian sideWest BengalBut it can be seen in the same way.

婚姻

Some women change their surname at the time of marriage (same surname of the couple) and others do not (the same surname)Family name by couple)[36].

Hygiene

The majority of the peoplelandDo not own or live in lowlands where there is a high risk of floodinghealthThe condition is extremely bad[37].. For this reason,WedThroughcholera,dysentery such asInfectionThe epidemic is occurring frequently.To improve this situationInternational organizationIs active.Especially to improve the hygiene of drinking waterwellAfter independence, many wells were originally developed.StrataWas insideArsenicIt is contaminated with high concentration and has become a new problem.44% of the whole country, 5300 million peopleCarcinogenesisBelieved to be at risk of arsenic poisoning, including[38].

Education

1990 eraThe current education system established in Japan is a 5-5-3 system of primary education (elementary school) 2 years, secondary education (junior high school) 2 years (first 5 years, middle 5 years), and upper secondary education (high school) 2 years. ..Primary and secondary education cannot be promoted without passing the annual end-of-year exam. After completing the 8th grade (3rd year of the first half of secondary education), the career paths will be divided into liberal arts, science, and commerce.Those who have completed the 10th grade (second year of secondary education) can take the first national unified examination SSC (Secondary School Certificate), and if they pass, they can qualify for admission to higher education.Those who have been educated for two years here can take the second national unified examination HSC (Higher Secondary Certificate), and if they pass this, they can obtain university entrance qualifications.The test results of these two tests areResumeThe current Bangladesh is super because you have to write for a lifetime and it also affects your lifeEducational societyIt has become.

識字率は2018年時点で73.9%(男性76.6%:女性71.2%)である[22]。義務教育は小学校5年のみである[39]。就学率は2015年には97.7%である、しかし修了率は78%ほどである[40].

culture

Food culture: 

As a food culture, the staple food is rice, which can be obtained in large quantities.United Nations Food and Agriculture OrganizationAccording to the statistics released in 2011, the daily consumption of rice per capita is the highest in the world.[41]..Ganges river basin and coast,Brackish waterCan be taken in large quantitiesFishIs also an important source of protein.

literature 

theater,PoetryThe work is also active.

Sports

cricketIs the most popular sport. In 2011Cricket world cupWas co-sponsored by the three countries of India and Sri Lanka.Domestic professional leagueBangladesh Premier League.International Cricket CouncilIs a regular member of.

world Heritage

In Bangladesh,UNESCO Ofworld HeritageRegistered in the listcultural heritage2 cases,Natural heritageExists.

Islamic Architecture in Bangladesh:

ShundolbonCrosses India and southwestern BangladeshmangroveBangladesh occupies two-thirds of the wetlands of the forest.Bengal tigerIn order to protect the natural environment and inhabit rare species such as, human inhabitation is prohibited.

Public holidays

Date Japanese notation Local language notation Remarks
Moveable feast, 3 days Eid al-adha Eid-ul-Azha Islamic festival. February.
2/21 Bengali Language Movement Anniversary Shoheed Dibosh Before independenceBengali languageAnniversary of the dead due to the crackdown of the movement
Moving holidays Archer Ashura
3/26 independence Day Shadhinota Dibosh
4/14 Bengal New Year Pôhela Boishakh
5/1 may Day Me Dibôsh
Moving holidays Buddha誕祭 Buddha Purnima Buddhist festival. May
Moving holidays Muhammad Birthday Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi Islamic festival. May.Almost the same day as the Buddha's Birthday
Moving holidays Krishna John Masutomi Shree Krishna Janmashtami Hindu godKrishnaHoly Birthday. August
Moving holidays Durga Puja Durga Puja 女神DurgaA Hindu festival to celebrate. Late September
Moving holidays Shove Borat Shab-e-Barat Islamic festival.Fasting monthThe previous festival. The meaning of "Night of Fate".
11/7 Revolutionary Solidarity Anniversary Nationl Revolution & Solidarity Day 1975å¹´Commemorating the seizure of power by the coup d'etat
Moving holidays Shobe Kodol Shab-e-Qudr Islamic festival.The 27th night of the fasting month.
Moving holidays Jumatul Vida Jumat-ul-Bida
Moveable feast, 3 days Fasting monthDawn Festival Eid-ul-Fitr Islamic festival.
12/16 Victory Memorial Bijoy Dibosh Pakistan ArmyTo commemorate the surrender of
12/25 Christmas Christmas / Boro Din

refugees

In August 1971, due to the great damage caused by the Bangladesh Liberation WarUKRock musicianGeorge HarrisonとIndiaFromRavi ShankarThe charity event "Bangladesh Refugee Relief Concert" was held in New York.This concert was made into a movie, and the live record "Bangladesh ConcertThe entire proceeds, including the entrance fee to the concert, were donated to Bangladesh.This project was the forerunner of the charity business in the rock world.George Harrison has also released a single record, "Bangladesh," which has been donated in full.

person

Famous people

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ 1204, TurkicMuslim OfSurprise attackThe Muslim kingship was established by
  2. ^ The Bengal Delta is a land formed by the sedimentation of the three major rivers, the Ganges (Podda), Brahmaputra (Jomna), and Meghna rivers.

Source

  1. ^ "Bangladesh People's Republic Basic Data”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2018/11/5Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2014". IMF (June 2014). 2014/9/28Browse.
  3. ^ It was one of the richest economical states during the Mughal Empire, and was the earliest in British India to be influenced by Western culture during the British colonial rule, leading the way in Westernization and modernization. It was the area where it was. (Nariaki Nakazato "Old History of a New Country" / Masaaki Ohashi and Mayumi Murayama, "60 Chapters for Understanding Bangladesh [2nd Edition]"Akashi bookstore 2009 page 20)
  4. ^ It is a rural country, and according to 2000 statistics, 75% of the total population lives in rural areas. (Makoto Nagahata "Rural Poverty Problem" / Masaaki Ohashi and Mayumi Murayama, "60 Chapters for Understanding Bangladesh [2nd Edition]" Akashi Shoten, 2009, p. 222)
  5. ^ “Multilateral PKO Exercise in Bangla, 4 participants from the Self-Defense Forces”. Asakumo Shimbun(July 2012, 2). http://www.asagumo-news.com/news/201202/120214/12021405.html 2012/2/9Browse. 
  6. ^ "Election of non-permanent members, support for Japan ... Prime Minister Bangla". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2014, 9). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20140906-OYT1T50124.html 2014/9/7Browse. 
  7. ^ United Nations Security Council non-permanent member election results of Japan's past elections(Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  8. ^ Kenji Shimizu (June 2014, 5). "Prime Minister of Bangladesh: Flag for reference to Hinomaru ... Japanophilia appeal". Mainichi Newspapers. http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20140528k0000m030031000c.html 2014/5/29Browse. 
  9. ^ Masayuki Usuda "When the number of Islamic people increased" / "60 chapters to know Bangladesh" [2nd edition] page 28
  10. ^ Masayuki Usuda "The time when Islamic people increased" / Masaaki Ohashi et al. 28-29
  11. ^ Nariaki Nakazato "Old History of a New Country" (Reference "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition], p. 22
  12. ^ a b Hiroshi Sato "The Whereabouts of Parliamentary Democracy" / Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition] Akashi Shoten 2009 Page 40
  13. ^ Bangladesh Basic Data-Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
  14. ^ BNP = 1991-1996, AL = 1996-2001, BNP = 2001-2006
  15. ^ Hiroshi Sato "The Future of Parliamentary Democracy" / Masaaki Oshima et al. 41 pages
  16. ^ Boryokudan and student organizations (BNP nationalist students, etc .: JCD, Awami League-based Bangladesh Student Federation: BCL, Islamic Party-based Islamic Student Front: JCS) Hiroshi Sato "The Future of Parliamentary Democratic Oilism" / Masaaki Oshima Page 43
  17. ^ The Bengal lowland, about 400km east-west, about 560km north-south, the altitude is 40-50m in the north, 2-3m in the south, and it is roughly divided into the diluvial plateau and the alluvial lowland, and the plateau extends to the central and northwestern parts. The capital, Dhaka, is located at the southern tip of the plateau.The height difference between the plateau and the lowland is about 10 meters or less.Mainly upland farming, paddy fields are distributed in shallow valleys. (Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama, "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition] Akashi Shoten, 2009, pp. 44-45)
  18. ^ Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition] Akashi Shoten 2009 Page 44
  19. ^ "The future created by maps”. Japan International Cooperation Agency. Retrieved October 2017, 10.
  20. ^ "バングラデシュ基礎データ”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2021/2/1Browse.
  21. ^ "Least developed countries”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2020/3/8Browse.
  22. ^ a b c d e "WORLD FACT BOOK”. CIA. 2021/2/1Browse.
  23. ^ "バングラデシュ”. JICA. 2020/3/8Browse.
  24. ^ Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama ed., August 2003, 8, 8st edition, 1st edition, "60 chapters to know Bangladesh" p40-41, Akashi Shoten
  25. ^ Started operation of new motorcycle plant in BangladeshHonda Motor Co., Ltd. News Release (November 2018, 11) Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  26. ^ "Bhangra, the rising shipbuilding industry, the ship breaking industry supplies materials"Electronic version of Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2012, 4) Read December 20, 2018.
  27. ^ "Bangladesh Basic Data Bilateral Relations 5 Number of People in Japan”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2020/3/8Browse.
  28. ^ [Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics 2012
  29. ^ ""Ship Graveyard: South Asia"”. Global News View (GNV). Retrieved May XNUMX, XNUMX.
  30. ^ Takeo Matsuzawa "Natural Gas and Electricity" / Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition] Akashi Shoten 2009 pp. 133-134
  31. ^ Shunsuke Satomi "From Rickshaw to Jumbo Machine" / Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition] Akashi Shoten 2009 Page 137
  32. ^ Masayuki Usuda "The Time when Islamic Beliefs Increased" / Masaaki Ohashi and Mayumi Murayama, "60 Chapters for Understanding Bangladesh [2nd Edition]" Akashi Shoten, 2009, p. 27
  33. ^ [Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics 2012
  34. ^ Census、1974年7130万人、1981年8994万人、1991年1憶799万人、2001年1億2925万人、(臼田雅之「イスラーム教徒がふえた時期」/ 参考文献『バングラデシュを知るための60章』[第2版] 27ページ)
  35. ^ "Report for Celected Countries and Subjects”. International monetary found. 2020/3/8Browse.
  36. ^ Bangladeshi Culture, Cultural Atlas.
  37. ^ "Report: Flooded Future: Global vulnerability to sea level rise worse than previously understood" (English). climatecentral.org (September 2019, 10). 2019/11/4Browse.
  38. ^ Takafumi Fujii, Mohammad Masudo Karim, "About groundwater arsenic pollution in Bangladesh, "Hydraulic Engineering Papers" Vol. 42 (1998) P 397-402
  39. ^ "◆国・地域の詳細情報 (平成29年12月更新情報)”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2021/2/4Browse.
  40. ^ "バングラデシュ国教育プログラム準備調査準備調査報告書”. JICA. 2021/2/4Browse.
  41. ^ "Bangladesh eats the most rice in the world, Japan is the 50th”. TRIP ADVISOR (April 2015, 4). 2020/3/8Browse.

References

  • Masaaki Ohashi, Mayumi Murayama "60 Chapters to Know Bangladesh" [2nd Edition] Akashi Shoten 2009 ISBN 978-4-7503-3094-5

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Coordinate: 23°48'N 90°18'E /23.8 degrees north latitude 90.3 degrees east longitude / 23.8; 90.3

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