"Return 10" Sakurazaka and Yuka Sugai are "porori", "poor", "isn't it bad?"
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Was it risky to go to a Chinese restaurant in white clothes?
Yuka Sugai from "Keyakizaka46" has released "Return Monday Mikketai !!" (TV Asahi) broadcast on January 1th. → Continue reading
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Chinese cuisine(Chinese food,繁体字: Chinese food,Simplified characters: 中国 菜,pinyin: , John Guo Tsai)ChugokuHas been eaten inCuisine, Or its techniqueseasoningMade usingCuisineIs.In China, which has a relatively large land area, the climate, geography, history, andFoodstuff・ There are uniquely formed cooking methods and seasoned dishes due to differences in eating habits.Widely used worldwide including JapanLocalizationIs also progressing.
With a variety of techniques and tastes,The world's three major dishesIt is listed as one of.Excluding Russia,EuropeIt has a vast land area comparable to the total area of all the nations ofGeographyof,climateIn China, where the characteristics of each region are different, such as the conditions, the ingredients are different in each region, andHan peopleAssimilated into, or once dominated the Han ChinesePeopleBecause it is based on, there are large regional differences in its cooking method and seasoning (Regional classificationSee).Strongly influenced by the Chinese civilizationJapan,Korea,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euEven in neighboring countries such as, it has a great influence on the cooking method of that country.Also, since modern times, he has traveled all over the world as an immigrant.OverseasThey brought it to the country of immigration, so it was transmitted to many countries.Among them, "Chinese food" that has evolved not seen in mainland China, fused with the cuisine of the country brought in, used ingredients that do not exist in mainland China, and devised by local chefs. There is also Chinese food that should be called "wind".
For this reason, it is difficult to mention the character common to Chinese food,Former generationSince then, in China, it has been emphasized to eat hot cooked meals, soWokUsingJapanese cuisine,Western cuisineUses stronger firepower thanStir fryIs conspicuousoil(lard,Sesame oilEtc.) tend to be used a lot.vice versaRaw vegetablesUse less or cold dishes (traditional dishes include cold noodles, powdered skin,Apricot tofudegree).Cold water is not preferred for drinking water in Chinese cultureServed in the form of tea, plain hot water or room temperature[Annotation 1]..As for seafood, overall except for the Cantonese region near the sea and the Guangdong region.Freshwater fishIs more likely to be used.
Also in ChinaReligiousTypicaltabooByBuddhismSword (Tibetan BuddhismExcept),TaoismFor believersVegetarian foodAsVegetarian dishAndIslamFor people豚 肉And its processed products, do not use lardChinese Islamic(Pure cuisine), But there are similarities in cooking utensils, techniques, unavoidable ingredients, and seasonings.
Ancient timesChinese food was quite different from what it is today.Stewed, grilled on an open fireCaneThere are many (hot things), and today they are goneDeafness(sashimiRaw meat and fish dishes like this) are also often eaten, and "discipline and blow the roasting" and "roast the population" ("roasting" is grilled on an open fire).Grilled meat) ”, Etc. from ancient Chinaこ と わ ざ-慣用 句You can also see.For ancient Chinese food, see "General civil arts] Is detailed.
The stir-fry technique that requires strong heat, which is often used in current Chinese cuisine, isNorthern Song DynastyOriginally in the age ofcoalProcessedCoke(Coke)But磁器Used in the production of, it is for cookingFurnace,FurnaceIt was created by being diverted to..After thatSouthern Song DynastyからyuanStir-fried foods became popular over the generations.From around the same timeWoodblock printingDue to the development ofRecipesMany collections (recipe)PublicationCame to be[Annotation 2].
Since then, it has evolved by actively incorporating ingredients and seasonings from all over the world, digesting and applying them, and creating original dishes.Mabo tofu OfRed peppersAndBlue crab meat Ofgreen pepperEtc. are indispensable ingredients for Chinese food, but what was introduced to China16st centurySince then, it is an ingredient introduced in the early modern period from the historical background.Also,Cantonese cuisineIndispensable forOyster sauce The19st centuryDeveloped at the end20st centuryIt became popular after enteringFujian cuisineOften used in Cantonese cuisineSatayThe source isインドネシア,MalaysiaIt incorporates the seasonings that came from.
In addition, while Chinese food has a great influence on foreign countries, the method of Chinese food is alsoJapanese cuisineIt is not uncommon to be greatly influenced by foreign cuisine, including, and to achieve its own development.From the style of separating the dishes served on the platterFrench cuisineThe dishes served for each person are served in the order of the course, and the ingredients and cooking methods are modernly refined.Nouvelle ShinovaIs an example.
Greater ChinaNot only by the World Chinese Food Association, which gathers Chinese food related organizations from all over the world including Japan1992年The world championship of Chinese food is also held from.
In ChinaEight cuisinesThe regional classification (XNUMX major Chinese dishes) is most commonly used.In addition, there are a number of ways to divide it, such as rough four major vegetables and detailed classification methods.In JapanFour major Chinese dishesIs generally classified as (described later)Four major Chinese dishes in JapanSee also).
Eight major vegetables (eight major Chinese dishes)
- Shandong cuisine
- Jiangsu cuisine
- Zhejiang food
- Anhui cuisine
- Fujian cuisine
- Cantonese cuisine
- Hunan cuisine
- Sichuan cuisine
As it is commonly said, "Cantonese people eat anything other than their parents if they have two legs, desks and chairs if they have four legs, cars other than cars if they run, submarines if they swim, and airplanes if they fly in the sky." The ingredients are diverse and diverse.For this reason, there are an extremely large number of types.The same applies to the cooking method.How to fryThere are nearly 10 types of stir-fry, such as stir-fry, stir-fry, stir-fry, stir-fry, and stir-fry, depending on the technique and the length of time.Furthermore, if the seasoning used for this is changed, more than 100 kinds of dishes can be made with the stir-fried green vegetables alone.As a result, one Chinese cook can cook tens of thousands of dishes.
- Fry with a small amount of oil.
- One of the standards of Chinese food.
- A cooking method that cooks in a short time.
- "fryA method of frying at once over high heat.
- How to cook fried food.
- Cut the ingredients to the same size and shape so that they are cooked evenly and fried evenly.
- A cooking method that bake both sides well.
- Ankake..Thicken and finish.
- Stew (on a simmering fire), simmer.
- Boil the fried ingredients quickly.
- Stew the fried ingredients.
- Boil quickly.Hot water.
- Steam.Pass steam.puff.
- Lightly boil the sliced ingredients.
- Make it shabu-shabu.
Water and oil mixture system
- One of the standards of Chinese food.
Stewed or roasted cooking method.
- Add seasoning and simmer over low heat for a long time.It may also indicate baking over low heat.
- A cooking method that is grilled over an open flame.
- Soy sauce(Gien)
- Salt it. (Widely) Put it on miso, soy sauce, etc.
- Stir, mix.Dare.
how to cut
- Sliced and sliced.
- Dicing, diced.
- A void(Soon)
Cantonese cuisineone ofDim sumIn the case of, when you make tea, tap the table with your index finger.This is a thank you to the person who pours it.this is,点心When you eat, you usually enjoy talking and eating, so if you thank the person who pours the tea, you will break the conversation with other people, so this is to prevent it.
When eating Chinese food in many, do not hold the plate by hand.For soupsLotus flowerThat's why it comes with (dust).Also, when eating soups and noodles, do not make a noise...Rice and soup are spoon spoons, side disheschopsticksuse.Basically, there are no chopsticks on the platter, and each one uses their own chopsticks directly, so the chopsticks are thick and long..
When visiting as a guest, there are many dishes that cannot be eaten.In addition, because there is a culture of taking leftover food home, there are many stores in China where you can "take away" leftover food.
When ordering in the course, the noodles and rice come out last in the order of appetizer, soup, main dish, and other dishes.
Chinese food in the world
Mainly by Guangdong Chinese, Western and Japanese,Southeast AsiaIt has become widespread in such countries and is being localized."Original" Chinese food that does not exist in China also exists in each country, for example, Japanchilled Chinese noodles,America OfChapsui,インドネシアEtc.Nasi goreng, South Korea OfChajangmyungAnd so on.In Southeast AsiaGuangdongに 加 え てFujian ProvinceMany immigrants fromFujian cuisineIs also popular.Shabu shabuIs "rinseLamb(Schwann Yang Roh, pinyin: Shuàn yáng ròu) ”is said to have been devised in Japan with a hint of a lamb pot.AlsoTaiwanOriginatedMongolian barbecue(Mongolian barbecue) is based on teppanyaki of lamb called torture lamb, and is a popular dish in the United States.Both of these have their roots in the best way to eat lamb in Mongolia (later China).Do not keep the original shape[Original research?]..In addition, there are many chefs around the world, including Japan, who are aiming for new creative Chinese cuisine that incorporates ingredients and cooking methods of other genres.
Chinese food has become established as one of the daily and / or hare day meal options in Japan, and there are many local Japanese cooks as well as Chinese and overseas Chinese cooks in Japan.Japan OfChinatownMost of them are said to be of Cantonese origin, and onlyNagasaki Shinchi ChinatownOnly Fujian has been considered, but in recent yearsNortheastern ChinaThe number of immigrants from various places is increasing.Former ManchuriafromRepatriatorA dish derived from northeastern China (partly due to the influence ofGrilled dumplingsEtc.) are also quite pervasive.Also in JapanSichuan ProvinceNative chefChen Jian NHK"Today's dishes”, And the recipe was released.Shrimp chili,Mabo tofu,Dantan noodlesSuch asSichuan cuisineIs widespread.Arranged according to the tastes of Japanese people, it is widely used not only for eating out but also for home cooking.RamenAnd shrimp chili,sweet and sour pork,Babao, Mapo tofu, etc. are often different from those in China.Okinawan cuisineEven inOkinawa regionDeeply related to China from the historical background ofRafute(Dongpo porkPork dishes like (Dongpo pork) is the originator)ChamplooSuch as popular tofu and stir-fried vegetables, "OkinawaThere are many Chinese dishes that have been made.
Also, in JapanChinese cuisineWhen we call it, it refers to popular dishes (so-called "Chinese food" style) created by devising seasonings and cooking methods for Japanese people, and ramen and dumplings are often the representative dishes.Chinese food(Or give it a region name and say "Cantonese cuisine","Shanghai cuisine","Beijing food","Sichuan cuisineWhen we call it, it often refers to the original Chinese cuisine.
Four major Chinese dishes in Japan
|Types of Chinese food|
|Peking duck,Zhajiangmian,boiled gyoza||Wheat, pig, sheep||Strong and salty|
|Mabo tofu,Inui-yaki Etsuhito,Hot and sour soup||Rice, pork, chicken, soybeans||SpicesThere are many spicy dishes using|
|,Fried rice,Kashaki,Wonton,Shrimp||Rice, pork, seafood, rock paste||Make the best use of the taste of ingredients with a light taste|
|Babao,Steamed Shanghai crab,Small basket parcel,Shengjian mantou,Wonton||Rice, pork, seafood||Strong sweetness|
Main menu popular in Japan
- Dantan noodles(Tantanmen)
- Zhajiangmian(Jajar noodles)
- Wonton noodles(Wonton noodles)
- Sword noodles
- rice flour(Rice noodles）
- Beef noodle
- Ramen(Major differences between Japan and China)
- Fried noodles(Major differences between Japan and China)
- Cantonese noodles(Chinese food originated in Japan)
- chilled Chinese noodles(Chinese food originated in Japan)
- Side dishes and main dishes
- Mabo tofu
- Mao eggplant
- Shrimp and prawn(Shrimp chili)
- Blue crab meat
- sweet and sour pork
- Fried meat(Major differences between Japan and China)
- Peking duck(Peking duck)
- Shanghai crab
- Kashaki(Char siu, very different in Japan and China)
- Fried chicken(Major differences between Japan and China)
- Oil goose chicken
- Chinese soup
- Desserts and sweets
WesternEven in countries such asChinatownChinese food is popular, but Western Chinese residentsGuangdongImmigrants fromOverseas,Chinese) Was also a backgroundCantonese cuisineThere are many.In some cases, the seasoning is changed according to the tastes of the locals.For exampleAmericaThen.ketchupIt is much sweeter and deeper than in China, with plenty of it added.Since these dishes do not fit the Chinese tongue, there are cases where the same dish is prepared in two types, one for Americans and one for Chinese...Due to such localization, the taste of the same store has long been changed within a few months after opening.There are also factors such as the purpose of matching the taste and the difficulty in obtaining authentic seasonings.
- ^ There is a similar tendency in Taiwan.This is not the case for Chinese restaurants outside of China.
- ^ As an example of the recipe, Hong Lin of the Southern Song Dynasty "Yamake Kiyoto", the original author unknown "Ie Necessary Things Complete Book", QingYuan Mei"Suiyuan Shidan"and so on..The recipe is "dailyLeishuOverlaps with.
- ^ "Differences in lifestyle between Japan and China "Japanese who like cold water and Chinese who like hot water" = Chinese media (March 2019, 3)”(Japanese). Excite News. 2020/6/1Browse.
- ^ Miyazaki city fixedAuthor,Mamoru TonamiEdited by "Coal and Iron in the Song Dynasty", "Chinese Civilization Theory", Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Bunko>, 1995.ISBN 9784003313312.
- ^ Takashi Nakamura Translation "Chinese recipe"Heibonsha Toyo Bunko, 1995.ISBN-978 4582805949
- ^ Sakade, Yoshinobu"About Daily Leishu" "Introduction to Chinese Classical Literature for Beginners" Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma Gakugei Bunko>, 2018 (Original 2008).ISBN 978-4480098696.
- ^ "The 5th Chinese Cuisine World Competition held in Guangzhou, China". Japan Chinese Cuisine Association. 2017/10/31Browse.
- ^ "World Chinese Cooking Association". Baidu. 2017/11/6Browse.
- ^ Tourism Business Division, General Policy Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism; Japan Transportation Corporation (public interest incorporated foundation) (June 2008). Manual for foreign customers with diverse food cultures and customs (Report). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. P. 108 2016/8/25Browse..
- ^ June 2020, 4 Chunichi Shimbun morning edition Sunday edition 12 page
- ^ * Author name:Imperial ShoinEditorial department (Misao Moriya), Book title: New edition, Junior high school social studies map (first edition), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook 46 (Imperial) Map-704 For junior high school social studies, Teikoku Shoin editorial department, Publication year: 2008 / 1/25, Reference page: 21 Page From the bottom.
- ^ "" Inquisitive NY Chinatown "one dollar higher in the same menu" delivered on March 2007, 3 Sankei iza
- ^ Masatoshi Okouchi, "Mika", p118, 1947, Tokyo, Yujosha
- General civil arts
- Chen Jian
- Chen Kenichi
- Zhou Futon
- Kazuhiko Tei
- Rift oil
- Chinese restaurant process