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🍴 | A hot stewed menu from Big Boy! Ginger and spices make it fluffy


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A hot stewed menu from the Big Boy! Ginger and spices make it fluffy

 
If you write the contents roughly
Habanero sauce, which has both spiciness and fruitiness, pickled jalapeno with moderate acidity, and spicy "devil's spice (chili pepper)" add layered spiciness to tomato sauce.
 

On January 1th, Big Boy Japan will offer a hot stew menu "7 kinds of ginger stew fair" "3 kinds of chili ... → Continue reading

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Red peppers

唐辛子 レジスタンスの出演者

Overview

The genus Peppers originates in Central and South America andメキシコIts history is so old that it dates back to 6000 BC.However, it was not until the 15th century that it spread to countries around the world.[1]..The genus Peppers grows naturallySouth AmericaThen,UrpikaWild species such as are also used as spices.

The pungent ingredient of pepper isCapsaicinKind.This spiciness is very stimulating and people like it.MucosaIf you ingest more than the proper amount to hurtStomachIt may cause problems such as.It often causes pain, especially when attached to weak areas of the skin.[1][Source invalid]..If you touch the mucous membrane with your hands to harvest, process, or cook the peppers, you will be strongly irritated.

boar,monkeyAlthough it is not that they do not eat peppers in the foraging test (although there are some species that are particularly disliked such as gamblea innovans), they may be planted on the outer circumference of the farmland because they are crops with low preference for wild animals.[2].

birdsIt is thought that there is no receptor that senses capsaicin and that it does not feel the spiciness of peppers, and it is thought that this evolution has been made as a seed spraying strategy.wildmammalianEtc. generally do not like the spiciness of capsaicin,mouseThere is also an experimental result that says that if you feed a small amount of capsaicin-containing food, you prefer the capsaicin-containing food.[3].

Taxonomic position

There are dozens of species belonging to the genus Peppers, of which the following five are cultivated.

JapanPeppers are mainly cultivated inOkinawa,Izu IslandsThen, of the varieties of Tabasco pepperIsland pepperAre cultivated.

hot flavor

Common pepper

Commonly used peppers:

Ash, jalapeno pepper3,500-10,000 SHU (Scoville value)
Cayenne pepper, Serenade30,000-50,000 SHU
habañero pepper, Scotch Bonnet, Birds Eye, Finger100,000–350,000 SHU[4]
Naga855,000-2,200,000 SHU

World peppers

The hottest pepper in the world:

AmericaCarolina Reaper2.2M SHU[5]
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTrinidad moruga scorpion2.0M SHU[6]
IndiaGhost pepper1.58M SHU[7]
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTrinidad Scorpion Butch Taylor1.463M SHU[8]
UKNaga Viper1.4M SHU[9]
UKInfinity chili1.2M SHU[10]

Name

The kanji for "Peppers" is "唐Transmitted fromMustardHowever, historically, this "Tang" is vaguely "Foreign countriesIt is said to be a word that refers to.SimilarlyNanban mustard(Nanbangarashi), abbreviatedNanbanThere is also a name.[11].

KyusyuPart ofNaganoPeppers are sometimes called "pepper" in northern regions (""Yuzu pepper"Pepper" is also a pepper). In the sense of "outpatient"Nanban pepper,Koryo pepperAlso calledOkinawaThen "KoregusuIs called in the dialect.One theory is that in areas where trade with the continent (Tang dynasty) was abundant, the name "Togarashi", which sounds like "Tang dynasty", was avoided.Also, in other areas, "pepperIs sometimes called "Western pepper" for the sake of distinction.

In English, they are called "Capsicum pepper, red pepper, chili pepper", etc.[12]..The reason why it is called "pepper" even though it has nothing to do with pepper isIntroduced peppers to EuropeChristopher Columbus IndiaMisunderstoodAmericaThis is because when he reached, he regarded the pepper as a type of pepper cultivated in India.Since then, all the fruits of the genus Peppers have come to be called "peppers".[Source required].

Number

pepperLike other spices such asCuisineUsed to spicy.Also, stomach medicine, chilblainsfrostbiteIt is also used as a medicine for treatment and hair growth.fruitCan be eaten in green.Generally, the green onesGreen chili, Ripe red onesRed peppersIs called.There are also varieties of capsicum for viewing the fruits.

edible

Fruit

It may be eaten raw or used after it has dried.Chipotle pepperlikeSmokeIt may be used after that.

Soy sauce,vinegar,AwamoriWhen soaked in such as, it gives them a spicy taste, so it has a different flavor than usual.seasoningCan be.Take out the pickled peppers and chop them.saladIt can also be used for such purposes.

In the 1960s, about 7000 tons were produced and exported annually in Japan. On the contrary, in the 21st century, imported products are the main products, and in 2018, the import volume is 1 tons, while domestic production is about 4000%.By municipality, "Tochigi Mitaka" is produced.TochigiOtawara CityDominates most of the year[13].

It is relatively recent that peppers have become popular in cooking.1980 eraAfter that, before ethnic dishes became popular and "" etc. occurred, it was used for condiments and aromas.Chili pepperAnd Japan peculiarseven spice blendIs only used in small quantities and is commercially availablecurryHowever, there were only a few dry products.Even now, there are many elderly people who are not good at the spiciness of peppers.

India,Thailand, South KoreaIn countries and regions where peppers such as these are used on a daily basis, they gradually get used to the spicy taste from a young age, making the tongue and gastrointestinal stimuli stronger.On the other hand, if you do not have a habit of using it on a daily basis, it will be recognized as "pain" rather than pungent taste, and will be avoided.In fact, capsaicinReceptorTRPV1 is classified as a pain-related receptor[14], The pungent taste of pepper is the "pain sensation" in the mouth[15].

From this, it can be said that the preference for pain as a taste is probably due to sociocultural conditioning.It is the reason why these countries actively consume peppersメキシコ,West Africa,ChineseSichuan Province-Hunan ProvinceThere are many hot areas in summer, which promotes appetite and sweating.Losing the heatIs said to be to prevent.However,Taiwan,OkinawaWhile there are some areas that do not like peppers even though the hot season is long, South Korea,ブ ー タ タThere is also a food culture that especially likes peppers in areas that are not so hot (Korea is also strongly influenced by the continental climate and it gets hot in summer, but the hot season is not long).It can be seen that the taste of pepper is not just a climatic factor but a cultural factor.[Source required].

leaf

フィリピンIn Asian countries such as China and China, leaves (leaf peppers) are sometimes fried and eaten in the same way as green vegetables, or used as soup stock.Even in Japan, you can stir-fry leaf peppers and eat them.BoiledIt may be.

Nutritional value

Capsaicin has an appetite-promoting effect[16].

Vitamin AとVitamin CBecause there are abundantSummer bateIt is highly effective in preventing sickness and is often used especially in hot areas.It also has an insecticidal effect,GardeningThen other作物Plant withInsect damageIt may be cultivated for the purpose of reducing the amount of food, or it may be used for food preservation.Salmonella,E. coliThere is no action to sterilize the causative bacteria of food poisoning such as[17],Food poisoningCannot be prevented.

Longer life

Harvard UniversityFaculty of Public HealthThe study found that people who ate pepper almost every day had a 14% lower risk of death.According to study author Lu Qi, some evidence from other studies is:CapsaicinBiologically active ingredients of peppers such as "bad"cholesterolとTriglycerideDecreaseInflammationSuggests that it may improve[18].

Adverse effects

Countries that eat a lot of pepperGastric cancer,Esophageal cancerIs said to have a high carcinogenic rate.A link between overdose of peppers and carcinogenesis has been pointed out[19][20][21][22][23]But,International Cancer Research Institute Capsaicin alone is not recognized as a potentially carcinogenic substance by (IARC)CarcinogenicDoes not have.

High carcinogenic rates occur during the storage of peppersMoldProduceMold poisonIs believed to be the cause[24].

Use other than food

  • Basho-The crude drug name for pepper is called Bansho.Has a healthy stomach and sweating effect.Also warm as an external medicineCompressUsed for, etc.Topical capsaicin has no effect on dilating peripheral blood vessels[Needs verification]..The feeling of warmth is a pseudo-occurrence that occurs when capsaicin stimulates sensors such as pain sensation and high temperature.Put it in your shoes in cold climatesChilblainsAnd frostbite preventionFolk remediesThere is.
  • Togarashi tinki(Medicine)
  • Capsicum spray
  • RiceDried peppers are used to avoid insects.
  • Dried peppers are also used for indoor and outdoor decoration.

Traditional history

Details about the exact year of transmission and transmission within Europe are unknown.Currently widely used in countries around the world,AmericaOther than that, it is historically new.Christopher Columbus 1493ToスペインI brought back my first pepper to, but forgot,BrazilRediscovered inPortugueseIt was propagated by and had a great influence on the food culture of each region.

  • 1492, during Columbus' first voyageWest IndiesDiscovered inOld continentIt is said that it was transmitted to Japan via[12]..Columbus remained misunderstanding pepper as pepper, which later confused the names of pepper (red pepper) and pepper (pepper) around the world.
  • In late 15th century Europe, of net importspepperAs a self-sufficient spice to replaceSouthern EuropeSpread around.
  • 1542, German botanistLeonhart FuchsIn his book "Current Affairs Origin Magazine"Calicut・ Described under the name of "pepper"[1][Source invalid].
  • Introduced to India in the 16th century, variousCuisineHas come to be used as a spice.Balkan PeninsulaAround andハンガリーToOttoman EmpirePropagated in the 16th century via.In addition, there is a theory that the introduction to India came directly from the New World and a theory that it was transmitted via Portugal.[1][Source invalid].

Chugoku

現代 のChinese cuisineMakes heavy use of peppers, especiallyYangtze RiverIn the middle basinSichuan cuisine,Hunan cuisine,Hubei cuisine,Guizhou cuisine, Shaanxi Cuisine (Southern Shaanxi Province) is known for its spiciness[25]..However, there are many unclear points about the transmission of peppers. Three routes are speculated[26].

  1. From Central Asia by landSilk roadIn western China新疆ThroughXi'anI arrived at.
  2. By sea, it crossed the Pacific Ocean from its origin, Mexico, and reached the continent via the Philippines.
  3. Portuguese colonies by seaGoreBased in Southeast Asia, newly colonizedMacauAfter that, in southern ChinaGuangdong,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionI landed around.

Li Shizhen"Herbs(Completed in 1578), the peppers have not yet been seen, and in the literature, Takamaki (died in 1620)'s "Kusahanafu" and "Hachimoku" (published in 1591).[27], And the Qing dynastyHaozi Chen"Flower mirror(Published in 1688)[28]The one that can be seen under the name of "Bansho" is old.It seems that it was mainly for ornamental use in the early days[25]..It is even later that it was used in Sichuan cuisine.QianlongThe year (18th century) Lee Ka Kusunoki and Lee T'iao-yün's "Kakuenroku" is the oldest book on Sichuan cuisine, but peppers have not been used yet.KakeiThere is a record of cultivating peppers in Sichuan for the first time in a year.[25]..Therefore, it is thought that the food in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River became spicy in the early 19th century.

Japan

There are various theories about its introduction to Japan.In the early days when it was introduced to Japan, it was not used for food, but was used for ornamental purposes, poisonous drugs, and as a chilblain by putting it in the toes of tabi.[Source required].

Koseunotane Satoshibo Yori came.Eggplant Tanefuel hour and minute two planting Toaru, planted today.Eggplant species Nosama Nisho Kuhira Kiya, Eggplant skin Akaki bag ya.Among them, there are many nicknames.Red-skinned nokarasa liver disappeared.Koseuno taste Nitemo Muyuki, unrivaled spicy.
—Hidetoshi Nagamibo, "Tamonin Diary"[29]
  • Agricultural scholar in the late Edo periodNobufuchi Sato(Nobuhiro)In "Kusagi Rokubu Cultivation Method" (1829), "The 蕃 褒 was originally generated from the East Seaside of Hakua (Brushria) in South America.astronomicalIn the 1542th year (XNUMX), the people of the wave cocoon (Portuguese) will bring it. ”With the seeds of pumpkin,“ The first mid-Western people to visit Bungo Province in the astronomical year ...[30]It is written.However, "Tenbun XNUMXth year" is"Tenbun 1552st Year" (XNUMX)[31] Of[Original research?]It is a clerical error.
  • "Kaf"[Detailed information for identifying documents]And "Yamato herb』(Kaihara Ekiken(Author)[Detailed information for identifying documents]It is written that it came from Korea, saying, "It wasn't in Japan in the past, and when Hideyoshi cut down Korea, it was commonly called Koryo pepper because he fetched seeds from his country."This seems to contradict other theories that "it came to Korea from Japan", but when the peppers were first introduced to Japan, they spread only mainly in western Japan, and then.Hideyoshi ToyotomiThere is an interpretation that there was a Japanese who thought that he came to Japan from Korea because the peppers were reimported to Japan by the soldiers who were engaged in the Korean troop dispatch.[32][33].

Korea

In the 1614 "Shibamine Theory", "Nanbansho is very poisonous and started from Wakoku, so it is popular.PoppyIt's called (Korean mustard), but I've seen it planted these days. " Since showing the theory, it has become a popular theory in both Japan and South Korea.As a reason for transmissionKorean troop dispatchAt that time, soldiers from Japan (blinding and poisoning) or as a frostbite preventive drug due to blood flow enhancing action (Kiyomasa Kato) Brought in.

1460Suppose that there is a word "Jajangmyeon" in "Food Therapy Summary" published inGochujangThere are also Korean researchers who claim that there was already a Korean-specific pepper that is different from the Japanese-introduced pepper.[32]..However, in response to this theory, many of them appear in the 1670 cooking book "Food and Drink".KimchiNone of them used peppers, and there are some doubts about the use of peppers in Korean foods in the 19th century.[34].

Examples of seasoned foods using pepper

Use of peppers around the world

Americas

メキシコ
In the country of origin of peppers, there are many types that are cultivated, and they are used in various ways, such as raw, dried, and smoked.The famous one is "jalapeno pepper"Or"habañero pepperA variety called ".
ボリビア
On the Bolivian tableLokoto,Ahi AmarilloUsedYahweh (Lyahua)It is normal that the salsa (source) is placed.Urupika is also edible.
ペルー
Ahi Amarillo is often used to season and color dishes such as salsa and papa a la huancaina.To locotoPhallusThere is also a dish packed with.
コロンビア
A condiment called Ahi is used to season dishes.With pepperLeek,TomatoFinely choppedsalt,LemonMake by mixing the juice.
アメリカ合衆国
It was former Mexican territorySouthwestern United StatesThen,Tex-Mex cuisinePeppers are often used in Mexican dishes.Inspired by West African cuisineLouisiana OfCreole food,Cajun cuisineThe same is true for red peppers (a type of red pepper) and jalapenos.TabascoThe sauce is a specialty of the state.Also,Chili con carneUsed for seasoningChili powderThe main ingredient of is medium spicy pepper.
ハイチ
Haitian foodPeppers, a kind of Capsicum chinense, pickled with other vegetables in vinegar are often used as seasonings.

Europe

イタリア
Italian foodOften used in (mainly Southern Italy).It is common to use crushed red pepper.Basicspaghetti(OrpastaGeneral) cooking method "Ario Orio PeperoncinoPeperoncino means pepper.Scented olive oil with peppers and various herbsPeperonciniThere is a herbal oil called[Source required].
ギリシャ
Crushed red pepper家庭Often used in vegetable dishes.
ハンガリー
RipepaprikaDried and powderedGoulashSuch asStewsUsed for.
Iberian Peninsula
Peppers-like powdered peppersausage(ChorizoEtc.) used for seasoning and stewed dishes.In Portugal, it is a kind of tabasco pepper and has a strong pungent taste.Piri PiriIs also used.
Basque Country
EspeletteThe variety is famous.

Asia

Japan
There are many kinds of Japanese peppers[35]Is.In the past, Japan was a major exporter of mustard, producing more than 50 types of pepper.[36]However, imports have increased since then.CookingpicklesIt is widely used as a condiment forJapanese buckwheat noodlesAt the shop front, Shichimi and Ichimi are placed on the table, and you can add them to your dishes according to your taste.Okinawa sobaToKoregusuIs indispensable.Consumption per capita is not very high.
Korean Peninsula
Kimchi,ChigeThere are many dishes that use peppers.Before the pepper was transmitted,Japanese pepperThe fruit was often used.The pepper used for kimchi is a large pepper with less spiciness peculiar to Korea, and has a slight sweetness.GochujangIs also used for seasoning.Also, when a boy is born, it is customary to put a pepper in a rope and put it up in the doorway.
Chugoku
Southwest ChinaIt is often used in.Sichuan cuisineIs a pepper and "Zanthoxylum bungeanumI often use a kind of Japanese pepper called ".Hunan cuisineIs a pepper and vinegar, characterized by a sour spiciness.It is the one that makes the taste of pepper particularly strong.GuizhouWith cooking雲南In cooking, especially in YunnanThaiEthnic minority dishes such as are characterized by the most spicy dishes.OtherMiao,YaoEtc. also use a lot of peppers.Cantonese cuisineAlthough they don't use much pepper, some people prefer pickled green pepper called "Noyama pepper".HangzhouThen.ShishitoUse "stakes" similar to the above for stir-fry like peppers.
Thailand
タ イ 料理ToTom yam kung(Soup)Green curryThere are many spicy dishes that use a lot of peppers.Pepper (before the pepper is transmittedタイ 語(Called Prittai) was used. "Pricky Nou" is a small, very spicy variety that is usually used in blue.
ブ ー タ タ
The pepper itself is regarded as a major vegetable and is cooked and eaten.Therefore, it is the hottest dish in the world.Before the introduction of peppers, Japanese pepper fruits were used.
India,バングラデシュ
I used spicesCuisineHas a long history.Depending on the region, there are areas where a lot of peppers are used to produce spices and other areas where a lot of spices are used.Also, in general, there is a tendency to use more peppers in dishes that use meat rather than vegetables.Of pepperpickles() Is also made.Guinness BookWas certified as the hottest pepper in the worldGhost pepperIsAssamIt is native.
Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan foodIs often spicy with peppers, as is the case with Indian food.
トルコ ,アルメニア
Peppers-like powdered peppers are used in stewed dishes.

Africa

Maglib(Especiallyチュニジア)
With peppercoriander(Actual),cuminCrushed with spices such asHarissaTheCouscousYou can add it as a seasoning to dishes such asOlive oilMix with and add to sliced ​​bread as an appetizer.
エチオピア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
A mixed seasoning made mainly from pepperWattUsed for seasoning such as.

Gallery

Source

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d Kobe Tamotsu "Red pepper"Life Hygiene" Vol.31 (1987) No.2 P115
  2. ^ "Contents of damage prevention measures (PDF)". Ministry of Agriculture. 2019/10/10Browse.
  3. ^ Eyes are ten 950th September 2008, 9[Broken link]Nippon TV
  4. ^ "Chile Pepper Heat Scoville Scale”. Homecooking.about.com. 2013/4/14Browse.
  5. ^ "Confirmed: Smokin Ed's Carolina Reaper sets new record for hottest chilli”. Guinness World Records (April 2013, 11). 2014/11/8Browse.
  6. ^ "Trinidad Moruga Scorpion wins hottest pepper title" Retrieved 11 May 2013
  7. ^ Joshi, Monika (March 2012, 3). “Chile Pepper Institute studies what's hot”. Your life (USA Today). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 3.. https://www.webcitation.org/667FrVkGP?url=http://yourlife.usatoday.com/fitness-food/story/2012-03-11/Chile-Pepper-Institute-studies-whats-hot/53490214/1 
  8. ^ "Aussies grow world's hottest chilli" Retrieved 12 April 2011
  9. ^ “Title of world's hottest chili pepper stolen --again”. The Independent (London). (April 2011, 2). http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/title-of-worlds-hottest-chili-pepper-stolen--again-2225925.html 2011/2/27Browse. 
  10. ^ Henderson, Neil (February 2011, 2). “” Record-breaking ”chilli is hot news”. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-12505344 2011/2/20Browse. 
  11. ^ As a general term for peppersHawk clawSome people use, but to be precise, "hawk's claw" is one of the capsicum species.VarietyIsPepper "Hawk's claw"Sakata Seeds(Retrieved September 2019, 11)
  12. ^ a b Yasushi Takahashi "Historical consideration of the production and transmission of peppers mainly in Asia[Broken link]"Asia Development Studies" (1994) No.2 p.75-115, AN10402609,
  13. ^ [Food Frontier] Japan's No. XNUMX Tochigi / Otawara / Leader Training Hot TownNikkei MJ] December 2019, 11 (food side)
  14. ^ Makoto Tominaga "Capsaicin receptor"BRAIN and NERVE-Advances in Neurological Research," Vol. 60, No. 5 (May 2008) pp. 5-493
  15. ^ Yusuke Ishida, Shingo Murakami "Pungency receptor VR1 is localized to the papilla of the tongue"Oral and Pharyngeal Department," 2002, Vol. 15, No. 1, p.127, two:10.14821 / stomatopharyngology1989.15.1_127
  16. ^ "Increase appetite with spices and flavored vegetables (PDF)". Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Corporation Ebara Hospital. 2019/10/10Browse.
  17. ^ Toyomi Miyakawa, Kazuo Kawamura "Stunting effect of flavored vegetables against food poisoning bacteria"Wayo Women's UniversityBulletin of Home Economics ”(29), p13-19, 1989-03 / The journal of Wayo Women's University 29, 13-19, 1989-03-31, ISSN 0916-0035
  18. ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. “Spicy foods associated with longer life, Harvard researchers find". Harvard Health. 2020/11/13Browse.
  19. ^ Shinjuku Health School News October Issue "Dysgeusia" [Health Index] FINE-club ~ Healthy and healthy living information
  20. ^ Mathew A, Gangadharan P, Varghese C, Nair MK (2000). “Diet and stomach cancer: a case-control study in South India”. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 9 (2): 89–97. two:10.1097 / 00008469-200004000-00004. PMID 10830575. 
  21. ^ López-Carrillo L, López-Cervantes M, Robles-Díaz G, et al (2003). “Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori positivity and gastric cancer in Mexico”. Int. J. Cancer 106 (2): 277–82. two:10.1002 / ijc.11195. PMID 12800206. 
  22. ^ Archer VE, Jones DW (2002). “Capsaicin pepper, cancer and ethnicity”. Med. Hypotheses 59 (4): 450–7. two:10.1016 / S0306-9877 (02) 00152-4. PMID 12208187. 
  23. ^ López-Carrillo L, Hernández Avila M, Dubrow R (1994). “Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study”. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139 (3): 263–71. PMID 8116601. 
  24. ^ Yoshikazu Horie et al.About mold that contaminates spices"Food Hygiene Magazine," 1971, Vol. 12, No. 6, p.516-519, two:10.3358 / shokueishi.12.516
  25. ^ a b c Xuande Era, Xuande Era Revelation: Ming Dynasty Pioneer Misu, Lianzhu Publishing, 2013, pp. 160-161.ISBN 9789570842838.
  26. ^ "Road of Ra: A Trip of 2500 Kilometers of Peppers"(平凡 社), ISBN 9784582836431
  27. ^ "Shinsei Hachimoku" Volume 16・ Bansho "Crowding white flowers, first child baldness, pungent color red, sardine. Child species."
  28. ^ Haozi Chen "Secret flower mirror』Volume 5, Bansho, Hiraga Gennai proofreading, 1829.
  29. ^ Shinichi Suzuki "Tabemono no Akira" (Heibonsha, 1986) p.70
  30. ^ Kusaki Rokubu Cultivation Manuscript
  31. ^ There is no record of visiting Tanegashima or Bungo Province in 11.Otomo Yoshinori is his father's book(Yoshiaki)It was in Tenbun 19 (1550) that he succeeded the landlord after his death, and he was a missionary.(Norwegian version)A group of priests on behalf of Xavier in ChinaShangchuan IslandThere is a record that it was the 21st year of Astronomy (1552) that went to Bungo via Tanegashima from (Shangchuan, an island near Cantonese) (XNUMX).Missionary Retsuden to JapanTherefore, the 11th year of Astronomy is an error of 21 years.
  32. ^ a b June 2009, 2JoongAng Daily News"Peppers, also in the early Joseon Dynasty'[Broken link]
  33. ^ Toshio Asakura"World Food Culture 1 Korea"ISBN 4540050095
  34. ^ February 2009, 2 "JoongAng Ilbo"[Fountain] Kimchi Mystery[Broken link]
  35. ^ Botanical picture book Pepper[Broken link]
  36. ^ Pepper production area and import volumeGlico(Retrieved September 2019, 11)

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