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📊 | List of 2020 Large-scale Retail Location Law Notifications in November 11 Summit in Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture, Life in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture…


List of 2020 notifications of the Large-scale Retail Location Law in November 11 Summit in Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture, Life in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture ...

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Note 1) This table is a compilation of the outline of the notification items reported once a month by each Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry with the cooperation of prefectures and ordinance-designated cities.

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announced 2020 notifications of the Large-scale Retail Location Law for November 11.This month, "(tentative name ...)" in Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture → Continue reading

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Government-designated city

Government-designated city(I'm sorry)Japan OfBig cityOne of the systems.2021(Reiwa3 years) Currently 20 nationwideCityExists and accounts for about 20% of Japan's total population[1].Abbreviation TheOrdinance city(Seirei)[† 1]Is often used, but the official abbreviation is "Designated city"(Local government lawArticle 252-19[2])[3]. However,Police law,Road lawAnd so onDesignated cityIs used.

Legal populationOf the cities with more than 50 peopleCabinet Order[4]Migrate from the general city if specified in[† 2]Is made ("#Population requirementsSee).

Local autonomyInPrefecturesIs located higher than general cities, but the cities designated by the system are delegated much of the authority of prefectures.

In the cityAreaIs installed, but in the metropolitan systemspecial areaEstablished a ward council inWard mayor Direct electionOn the other hand, the ward of the systemAdministrative districtThere is no ward council, and the mayor is also appointed by the mayor.


The designated city system (ordinance-designated city system) includes three special systems for large cities in Japan (in addition to the system).Core city,Special city),1956(ShowaOperation started in 31)[5].. Precede this1947(Showa 22), the countryBig cityBecomes independent of prefectures and prefecturesSpecial cityAlthough a system was established, the prefectures that would be deprived of their authority rebelled violently, and instead, the government-designated city system was established as a system to transfer only part of the authority from the prefectures.[6]..Local Autonomy Law[2]第2編第12章第1節「大都市に関する特例」に、指定都市に関する、特例を中心とした規定がある。指定都市は「人口50万以上の市」とされている(第252条の19第1項)。特例制度の他の2つは、第2節に規定がある中核市の制度(人口30万以上、1995(Start), special city system stipulated in Section 3 (population 20 or more,2000Start)[2][5]. ("#Administrative capacity requirements","#Population requirementsSee also)

Designated cities are supposed to have wards by ordinance (Article 252-20, Paragraph 1).[2]).This ward is in Tokyospecial area(Tokyo 23 WardIn distinction from each ward ofAdministrative districtIs commonly known as. ("#OrganizationSee also)

The designated city system was implemented from September 1956, 31 (Showa 31), as part of the partial amendment of the Local Autonomy Law (Act No. 147 of 9).From the same day, a cabinet order designating a designated city[4]Was enforced and 5 cities moved to designated cities.Since then, a new city has been designated by a partial amendment of this Cabinet Order, and it has been transferred to a designated city from its enforcement date.[4][7].

The designated city system has replaced the two old systems for large cities.[5].. One is,Five big citiesAdministrative supervision Niseki Suru Law[8][† 3]It is a system based onKyoto City,Osaka,Nagoya city,Kobe City,横 浜 市(These five cities are the first designated cities).The other is based on the Local Autonomy Law1947It has existed by law since (Showa 22)Special cityUnder the system, cities with a population of 50 or more were designated by law, but in reality no city was designated. ("#HistorySee also)

2016(28)10Currently, in all 20 designated citiesEstimated populationThere are about 2756 million people, and one in five people lives in a designated city.

Eight regionsThe number of ordinance-designated cities for eachHokkaido1, Tohoku 1, Kanto 5, Chubu 4, Kinki 4, China 2, Kyushu 3,ShikokuOnly ordinance-designated cities do not exist[† 4].


RegionPrefectureCity nameCity emblemCity flagEstimated population
DID population
Urban area
The population density
DID population density
Financial capability indexNumber of companies[9]Effective dateAdministrative district[† 5]
HokkaidoHokkaidoSapporoSymbol of Sapporo, Hokkaido.svgFlag of Sapporo, Hokkaido.svg1,961,6901,812,3621,121.26250.21,7507,966.40.7247,4121972/4/1
TohokuMiyagiSendai citySymbol of Sendai, Miyagi.svgFlag of Sendai, Miyagi.svg1,092,317905,139786.30179.61,3896,951.90.8927,1831989/4/1
KantoSaitamaSaitamaEmblem of Saitama, Saitama.svgFlag of Saitama, Saitama.svg1,320,1971,080,130217.43117.06,0729,344.50.9826,1642003/4/1
ChibaChibaEmblem of Chiba, Chiba.svgFlag of Chiba, Chiba.svg981,871830,383271.77128.83,6137,022.90.9517,4261992/4/1
Kanagawa横 浜 市Emblem of Yokohama, Kanagawa.svgFlag of Yokohama, Kanagawa.svg3,757,6303,487,816437.56331.08,58810,036.30.9777,1011956/4/1
Kawasaki CityKawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture Emblem.svgFlag of Kawasaki, Kanagawa.svg1,539,5221,316,910143.01127.310,7659,974.31.0028,2221972/4/1
Sagamihara CitySagamihara City, Kanagawa Prefecture City Emblem.svgFlag of Sagamihara, Kanagawa.svg722,973640,899328.9167.82,1988,998.90.9316,2932010/4/1
HokurikuNiigataNiigataEmblem of Niigata, Niigata.svgFlag of Niigata, Niigata.svg791,326579,033726.45128.91,0895,738.70.7523,3162007/4/1
TokaiShizuokaShizuoka CityEmblem of Shizuoka, Shizuoka.svgFlag of Shizuoka, Shizuoka.svg686,085621,3971,411.90104.44866,081.40.9125,1512005/4/1
Hamamatsu citySymbol of Hamamatsu Shizuoka chapter.svgFlag of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka.svg788,513471,9491,558.0697.95065,604.40.8926,1652007/4/1
AichiNagoya cityEmblem of Nagoya, Aichi.svgFlag of Nagoya, Aichi.svg2,327,7232,159,379326.45302.67,1307,889.90.9982,3691956/4/1
KinkiKyotoKyoto CityEmblem of Kyoto, Kyoto.svgFlag of Kyoto City.svg1,455,3771,387,532827.83149.91,7589,903.90.7952,9181956/4/1
OsakaOsakaEmblem of Osaka, Osaka.svgFlag of Osaka, Osaka.svg2,753,4762,628,312225.21211.512,22611,857.40.92133,4541956/4/1
Sakai CityEmblem of Sakai, Osaka.svgFlag of Sakai, Osaka.svg824,403794,924149.82109.35,5037,557.70.8421,2902006/4/1
HyogoKobe CityEmblem of Kobe, Hyogo.svgFlag of Kobe.svg1,514,4341,409,454557.02203.72,7199,536.20.7947,5171956/4/1
ChugokuOkayamaOkayama CityEmblem of Okayama, Okayama.svgFlag of Okayama, Okayama.svg720,456454,902789.95103.99125,797.90.7920,8872009/4/1
HiroshimaHiroshima cityEmblem of Hiroshima, Hiroshima.svgFlag of Hiroshima, Hiroshima.svg1,198,2241,004,506906.68159.81,3227,436.90.8334,5961980/4/1
KyusyuFukuokaKitakyushuSymbol of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka.svgFlag of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka.svg935,084888,161491.95204.41,9015,667.20.7229,4861963/4/1
Fukuoka CityEmblem of Fukuoka, Fukuoka.svgFlag of Fukuoka City.svg1,603,0431,343,902343.39162.74,6688,936.70.8843,8111972/4/1
KumamotoKumamoto-shiEmblem of Kumamoto, Kumamoto.svgFlag of Kumamoto, Kumamoto.svg738,469556,186390.32107.31,8926,675.30.7021,0022012/4/1


Local government law[2]Excerpt from Article 252-19, Paragraph 1.


(Authority of designated city)
Article 252-19 Cities with a population of 50 or more designated by Cabinet Order (hereinafter referred to as "designated cities") are all or all of the following affairs that are to be processed by prefectures pursuant to the law or a Cabinet Order based on this. Some of the items specified by Cabinet Order may be processed as specified by Cabinet Order.

  • 1 Office work related to child welfare
  • 2 Office work related to local welfare officers
  • 3 Office work related to the welfare of the physically handicapped
  • 4 Office work related to livelihood protection
  • 5 Office work related to the handling of traveling sick and traveling dead
  • 5-2 Office work related to social welfare business
  • 5-3 Office work related to the welfare of persons with intellectual disabilities
  • 6 Office work related to the welfare of single-mother families, single-parent families, and widows
  • 6-2 Office work related to welfare for the elderly
  • 7 Office work related to maternal and child health
  • 7-2 Office work related to long-term care insurance
  • 8 Office work related to independence support for persons with disabilities
  • 8-2 Office work related to independence support for people in need
  • 9 Food hygiene affairs
  • 9-2 Medical affairs
  • 10 Office work related to mental health and the welfare of persons with mental disorders
  • 11 Office work related to tuberculosis prevention
  • 11-2 Office work related to medical care for patients with intractable diseases
  • 12 Office work related to land readjustment project
  • 13 Office work related to regulation of outdoor advertisements

Exceptions and Cabinet Order

Local government law[2]Volume 2 "Ordinary Local Public Organizations" Chapter 12 "Special Exceptions to Large Cities, etc." stipulates special systems for government-designated cities, core cities, and special cities.Designated cities have the widest authority that can be possessed by special cases.For all three, the specific provisions of special cases such as the scope of authority are mostly left to the Cabinet Order, and the corresponding provisions are the Local Autonomy Law Enforcement Ordinance.[10]It is in Chapter 2 of Volume 8.

Office work

The affairs that the designated city can handle as a special case are Article 252-19, Paragraph 1 (Excerpt later), Of the 19 affairs listed in), those that are supposed to be processed by prefectures in accordance with laws and regulations are specified by Cabinet Order (same paragraph of the same Article).[† 6].

In addition, regarding the involvement of prefectures in paperwork, the prefectural governors and prefectural committees

  • a. disposalFrom the matters stipulated by law that require (permit, approval, approval, etc.), the disposition shall be unnecessary or instead the disposition of each minister shall be required by Cabinet Order.
  • b.commandFrom the matters stipulated by law to receive, the provisions of the law concerning the order shall not be applied by Cabinet Order, or the order of each minister shall be received instead.

ことになっている(同条第2項)。中核市や特例市に関しては、 disposalThere is no special provision corresponding to a.commandAlthough there are special provisions similar to b., The order of the committee is not applicable (Article 252-22, Paragraph 2, Article 252-26-3, Paragraph 2).

In addition, individual laws and regulations other than the Local Autonomy Law (for example)Road law,River law,Local Education Administration LawEtc.) and the ordinances of prefectures can also transfer authority.


The designated city is supposed to "in order to divide the affairs belonging to the authority of the mayor, the ordinance divides the area and establishes a ward, and a ward office or a branch office when it is deemed necessary". (Article 252-20, Paragraph 1).This ward is "Administrative districtIs commonly known as.The head of the ward office, commonly known as the "ward office," is from among the staff of the designated city.MayorIs usually appointed (depending on the administrative organization of each city, but generally in the position of director or department manager).When the designated city deems it necessary, it may set up a ward area council for each ward by ordinance, and in that case, the ward area council shall not be set up in the ward where the area autonomous district is established. Can be done (Article 252-20, Paragraph 6).

The amount of work that the ward office is responsible for varies depending on the designated city.There is also a "small ward office system" (Osaka City, Nagoya City, Kyoto City, etc.) that handles only daily and routine window operations such as family register, basic resident register, tax imposition, national health insurance, national pension, and welfare. For example, there is also a "large ward office system" (Kawasaki City, Hiroshima City, Sendai City, etc.) that carries out a wide range of operations such as health, civil engineering, and construction.

Educational administration

PreviouslyLaw on Organization and Management of Local Education AdministrationExceptions to the designated city were stipulated in, and the appointment and dismissal of prefectural-sponsored faculty and staff in the designated city, salary determination, affairs related to leave and disciplinary action, and training were to be carried out by the Board of Education of the designated city. After 29, the salary burden will also be transferred[11]At the same time, the right to decide the number of faculty and staff was also transferred.

Non-handling office work

Designated cities can handle most of the affairs performed by prefectures independently, and are said to be of the same rank as prefectures.However, since it is included in all prefectures and the influence of prefectures is not completely excluded, some affairs are carried out by prefectures.

The following is an example of the division of roles between prefectures and designated cities.

Office workPrefectural office workOffice work in designated city
Office work related to civilian administration
  • Nursing care health facilityPermission to open
  • Liaison and coordination regarding implementation of measures for long-term care for the elderly
Office work related to health and hygiene
Office work related to city planning
Office work related to educational administration
  • Municipal school,private schoolApproval for installation, abolition, etc.
  • Prefectural expense-bearing faculty and staff personnel, fixed number determined
  • Setting of class organization standards
Office work related to agriculture, forestry and fisheries administrationThere is no particular authorization for agriculture, forestry and fisheries administration.
Office work related to the establishment of police

OneselfPolicemenCannot be installed[† 7].

However, the designated city isPrefectural policeManagePublic Safety CommissionCan be recommended to the prefectural governor.
The designated city recommends two members, and the prefectural governor appoints the members based on this.

In addition, in the area of ​​the designated city, the prefectural police saidCity Police DepartmentPut.See the relevant item for details.

other than this,Medical system for elder senior citizensIn, prefectures are not directly involved in clerical work, but all municipalities including government-designated cities within the area of ​​each prefecture join.Wide area union(Association of Medical Care for the Elderly) And handle clerical work there (Act on ensuring medical care for the elderlyArticle 48).The ward office of the designated city only acts as a window agent.

Issues to keep in mind

When moving to a designated city, the following points have been pointed out as administrative and financial problems for the transfer.

Financial problems

The amount of new financial demand generated in designated cities due to the transfer of office work due to the transition is estimated to be approximately 5,600 billion yen.[12].. In contrast,Tax systemMore than half of the measures to increase sales in designated cities as the above measures道路Budget for management ofRoad specific financial resourcesPart of the amount will be increased)[13]So, it is said that the net total with other special affairs is about 3,000 billion yen, and the tax measures are insufficient.[14]..In the designated city system, there is a system in which grants are issued from the prefecture side to the designated city side, but there are also items that reduce revenue due to changes in the administrative burden ratio.For this reason, it is not always possible to secure measures to sufficiently secure an increase in sales commensurate with the increase in burdened work.

From this background, in the case of a city that is newly migrating to a designated city,Administrative reformMay be talked about as a set.EspeciallyGreat Heisei mergerExpected economies of scale during the periodmergerIn the designated city that was born after the transition,Local bondEarly redemption, so far general市町村The number of staff will be reduced in the administrative field in charge of[† 8].

Administrative issues

As mentioned above, designated cities do not receive the transfer of office work until they can take charge of completely independent administration in each field, and there is almost no authorization for agriculture, forestry administration and disaster prevention administration.On the other hand, since some prefectures and designated cities are in charge of common administration, double regulation between the twoDouble administrationIt may be pointed out that there is a possibility of falling into[15]..By law, designated cities are subject to the same system as general municipalities, except for some special measures, so prefectures examine the administration of municipalities.Administrative Appeal ActThere are some ambiguities about the relationship between the two, such as matters related to the system.[15]..By enacting new decree, it is advocated to give prefectures the right to recommend to designated cities and weaken their authority to participate in administration within the designated cities.


less thanBig cityThe history of the system is described.Apart from the followingMetropolitan Area Improvement Act(Law No. 31 of 83),Kinki Area Improvement Law(Law No. 38 of 129),Central Region Development and Maintenance Act(Law No. 41 of 102)Metropolitan areaIt has been established as a system ("Three major metropolitan areasSee).

After the Meiji era

  • 1878(Meiji11 years)7/22 : County, town and village organization law(Meiji 11ProclamationNo. 17) was established.According to Article XNUMX of the law, "People's Congestion Area"CorporationHave no caseAreaWas placed, and a ward council (parliament) was also set up.Also in Tokyo, Osaka and KyotoSandu TheRoyal Decree Designated CityWas specified in.Normally, it was one city and one ward, but in Tokyo15 wards below Kojimachi ward, In OsakaHigashi Ward-South ward-Nishi-ward-Kita4 wards, in KyotoKamigyo Ward-Shimogyo WardIn the two wards of No. 2 and the ordinance-designated city with a large population, multiple wards were placed in one city.
  • 1889(22th year of Meiji)4/1 : Municipal system(Meiji 21 Law No. 1) was enforced. "Municipal system, Tokyo City, Kyoto City, Osaka City, Special Exceptions" (Meiji 22 Law No. 12,Three city special case) Is also enacted and has a large populationTokyo city,Osaka,Kyoto City OfThree citiesThen the ward was retained.The city council represents the city, but in general cities there are three city councils.MayorRecommend candidates,Interior Minister EmperorIn contrast to the fact that one mayor was approved (a mayor recommended by the city council, with a term of six years), in the three cities, the prefectural governor performed the duties without a mayor.
  • 1898(31th year of Meiji)10/1: Under the municipal system Tokyo City Kyoto City Osaka City Nikkel Special Abolition Law (Meiji 31 ​​Law No. 19) is enforced.Due to the opposition movement in the three cities, the three city exceptions were abolished and the same city system as the general city was applied, and a mayor recommended by the city council was born.Due to the additional law during the city system, the ward system was left in the three cities.
  • 1908(Meiji 41) March 4:Nagoya cityEnforcement of ward system (4 wards). This is the first example of introducing a metropolis system other than "three cities" (three cities).
  • 1911(Meiji 44): Enforced the city system revision law.The wards of the three cities have legal personality.
  • 1922(Taisho11): Enacted the "Six Major Cities Administrative Supervision Niseki Suru Law". In "three cities"Kobe City,Nagoya city,横 浜 市In additionSix big citiesAnd said.In the six major cities, it has become possible to carry out the business of the city without the permission of the prefectural governor.
  • 1927(Showa2 years) October 10: Enforcement of ward system in Yokohama City (1 wards).
  • 1931(6)9/1: Enforcement of ward system in Kobe City (8 wards).
  • 1943(18)7/1 : Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentWith the enforcement of (Act No. 18 of 89)TokyoとTokyo cityIs abolishedTokyoWas placed (After that, about Tokyo, "special areaSee). Enforced "Special Exceptions to Administrative Supervision of Five Major Cities" in five cities excluding Tokyo from "Six Major Cities"Five big cities(Kyoto City, Osaka City, Yokohama City, Kobe City, Nagoya City).

After the war

  • 1947(Showa 22):Local government law(Act No. 22 of 67) was promulgated. In anticipation that "five major cities" will be designated, "Special cityIncorporated the provisions of[5]..Regarding the conventional administrative districts of the five major cities, Article 155, Paragraph 2 of the Local Autonomy Law and Cabinet Order based on this (Cabinet Order on the designation of the city under Article 22, Paragraph 17 of the Local Autonomy Law (Cabinet Order No. XNUMX of XNUMX) ).
  • 1956(Showa 31): Revised the Local Autonomy Law.Deleted the regulations regarding special cities. Keeping in mind that "five major cities" will be designatedDesignated cityEstablished a system[16].
  • 1956 (Showa 31) September 9: The revised Local Autonomy Law came into effect.Cabinet Order Concerning Designation of Designated Cities in Article 1-252, Paragraph 19 of the Local Autonomy Law[4](Cabinet Order No. 31 of 254) came into effect.The "five major cities" of Osaka, Nagoya, Kyoto, Yokohama, and Kobe designated by the ordinance will be designated cities. The "Special Exception for Administrative Supervision of Five Major Cities" was abolished on the same day.
  • 1963(Showa 38) April 4: Due to the merger of 1 citiesKitakyushuBecomes a designated city.[† 9]This was the first example of introducing a metropolis system other than the former "five major cities" ("# Same rank as the designated citySee).In addition, after the designation of the city, the transition date to the designated city is usually April 4.
  • During this time,1972(Showa 47) January 4Sapporo,Kawasaki City, Fukuoka City1980(Showa 55) January 4Hiroshima cityBut,1989(HeiseiFirst year) on September 4thSendai cityBut,1992(4) February 4ChibaBecomes a designated city.
  • 2001(13)8/30: Municipal merger support plan[17]Decided.Merger of municipalitiesIn accordance with the national policy of advancing2005(17)3The policy is to relax the operational standards for population requirements only for local governments that have merged on a large scale."#Limited time measuresSee) Was launched[18].
  • 2003(15) April 4:SaitamaBecomes a designated city ("# Same rank as the designated citySee).
  • Based on the mitigation measures by the municipal merger support plan2005(17) October 4thShizuoka CityBut,2006(18) October 4thSakai CityBut,2007(19) October 4thNiigataandHamamatsu cityMoved to a designated city[19].
  • 2005 year (Heisei 17 year)8/31: New municipal merger support plan[20]Decided.Also in this plan2010(22)3The flexible operation of population requirements will continue to be extended.
  • Based on the mitigation measures by the new municipal merger support plan2009(21) October 4thOkayama CityBut,2010(22) October 4thSagamihara CityBut,2012(24) October 4thKumamoto-shiHas moved to a designated city.


The designated requirements stipulated in Article 252-19 of the Local Autonomy Law are "A city with a population of 50 or more specified by a Cabinet Order".The only requirement for the statement is "population 50",Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsDesignates "a city that seems to have the same actual conditions as an existing designated city in terms of population and other city size, administrative and financial capacity, etc., due to the background of the legislation and the purpose of establishing special provisions."[21]Since the designation is left to the discretion of the country, there are many cities that are not designated even if the population exceeds 50, and there are opinions from local governments that only a population of 50 should be required.[22].

The following describes the requirements for designation as national operational standards.

Population requirements

Population to become a designated city[23]The requirement is more than 50 people.However, as an actual operational standard, the following are said to exist side by side.[24].

  1. Five big citiesCity based on
  2. A city with the same population as a pre-designated city
  3. (For a limited time)Merger of municipalitiesOperational standard relaxation measures for local governments

The population listed below is the statutory population most recent on the designated date.[23](Including merged municipalitiesCensuspopulation).For comparison, only if there was no census in the designated year before, on October 10, the designated year.Estimated population(Green) Is also added.

Five big cities

In 1956 (Showa 31), the qualified cities under the Local Autonomy Law (city with a legal population of 50 or more) were the five major cities that had a ward system since before the war, and did not have a ward system.Fukuoka CityThere were a total of 54.4 cities (6 people) ("Prefectural office location and population rank of ordinance-designated citiesSee)[25]..However, due to the history of the system's establishment, only the five major cities have moved to designated cities.[24][25].

Kobe city has an estimated population1939It reached 14 million in (Showa 100), but in the legal population1940(15) According to the census conducted, the number was 96.7, which did not reach 100 million.[26]. afterwards,Second World WarIntensifiedKobe air raidThe estimated population dropped to the 30 level, but on October 1956, 31 (Showa 10), the following month when it merged with neighboring local governments after the war and became a designated city, the estimated population reached 1 million. did[26][27]..However, the legal population has exceeded 100 million.1960(35) Census is the first[26][28]..For this reason, when expanding the application of the system to areas other than the five major cities, Kobe City should be used as a precedent.Population of more than 100 millionWas regarded as an operational standard[24].

Same rank as the pre-designated city

  • 1963(Showa 38) September 4,Kitakyushu(98.6 people.102.3 million people) Is a designated city transition.
  • 1972(Showa 47) September 4,Sapporo(101.0 people.105.2 million people),Kawasaki City(97.3 people.98.3 million people),Fukuoka City(86.2 people.88.5 million people) Is a designated city transition.

Since then, using Fukuoka City as a precedent,Population of 100 million or more, or 100 or more, which is expected to exceed 80 million in the near futureWas regarded as an operational standard[29][30]..However, Kitakyushu City2005(17)1/1Continues to fall below 100 million from estimated population[31](As of September 2, 9nd year of Reiwa935,084[32]).For more information"Population ranking of Japanese citiesSee.

  • 1980(Showa 55) January 4Hiroshima city(85.3 people.88.7 million people) Is a designated city transition.
  • 1989(4) April 1stSendai city(85.7 people.89.8 million people) Is a designated city transition.
  • 1992(4) February 4Chiba(82.9 people.83.5 million people) Is a designated city transition.
  • 2003(15) February 4Saitama(102.4 people.104.6 million people) Is a designated city transition.Although the transition is underway for a limited time, the transition is based on the conventional operational standards of ordinance-designated cities.

Of these four cities, except for Chiba, the number still exceeds 4 million.The population of Chiba City isReiwaAs of September 2, 9981,950Is[33].

Limited time measures

Great Heisei mergerOn the occasion2010For local governments that merged cities, towns and villages by March 22, operational standards were relaxed for a limited time ("HistorySee)[34]..However, it was not specified how much mitigation would be done.

Designated city by the 2001 municipal merger support plan
  • 2005(17) February 4Shizuoka City(70.7 people.70.2 million people) Is a designated city transition.
For the first time in the history of designated cities, Shizuoka City is "not expected to exceed 100 million people in the near future.[35]And "the population is less than 80".Since then, with Shizuoka City as a precedent, the population requirement for this measure is "Population of over 70Seemed to be only[36].
  • 2006(18) February 4Sakai City(83.1 people) moved to a designated city.
  • 2007(19) February 4Niigata(81.4 people.81.3 million people),Hamamatsu city(80.4 people.80.7 million people) Is a designated city transition.
Designated city by the 2005 new municipality merger support plan
For the first time in the history of a designated city, Okayama City has transitioned to a situation where the legal population is less than 70.Since then, using Okayama City as a precedent,Population of about 70Was seen as a designated city[37].
  • 2010(22) February 4Sagamihara City(70.2 people.71.2 million people) Is a designated city transition.
  • 2012(24) February 4Kumamoto-shi(73.4 people.73.6 million people) Is a designated city transition.
As mentioned above, all seven cities designated by this measure are not expected to exceed 7 million in the near future.[35].

In addition, Shizuoka City2017(29)4/1It continues to fall below 70 from the estimated population (as of September 2, 9nd year of Reiwa).687,819)[38]..Although it no longer meets the de facto population requirements, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications states that "the designation of an ordinance-designated city will not be revoked."[39].

Administrative capacity requirements

Urban functions and administrative and financial capabilities are not specifically stipulated by law, but cities that have been designated as designated cities have mainly met the following requirements, and it is necessary to meet the same conditions. Will be done.

  1. The ratio of primary industry workers is 1% or less
  2. Must have urban form and function
  3. Must have transfer paperwork processing capacity
  4. Establishment of administrative district and system to handle ward office work
  5. The prefecture and city agree on the transition to a designated city

Procedure requirements

The procedure for transitioning to a designated city is not specifically stipulated by law, but the cities that have been designated as designated cities have been designated after mainly undergoing the following procedures.

  1. The city council voted on a written opinion on the designated city
  2. Submit a request for the realization of a designated city to the governor and the prefectural assembly
  3. The prefectural assembly voted on a written opinion on the designated city
  4. Minister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsSubmit a request for the realization of a designated city
  5. Discussion with related ministries and agencies
  6. Of designated city transitionCabinet decision
  7. Promulgation of Cabinet Order

Statistical comparison

Area / population / gross domestic product

  • Hokkaido and Sapporo onlyRegistered population..Other than thatEstimated population.
  • "Agglomeration" is the ratio of the population of each city to the population of the prefecture to which it belongs.
  • Gross domestic product (production side) (nominal, real: chain method) and per capita citizen income are the values ​​of 1 (Heisei 2013)[40]..Only the 15 cities that have announced are listed. ("Prefectural economic calculationSee)
Area / population / gross domestic product
CityPrefecturearea(km2)populationGross domestic product (trillion yen)Per person
Citizen's income (XNUMX yen)
Total populationDegree of integrationStatistics daynominalSubstance
01 /SapporoHokkaido1,121.121,961,69037.5%2020/12/316.48966.7081262.3
04 /Sendai cityMiyagi788.091,092,31747.7%2021/2/14.89045.1725363.1
11 /SaitamaSaitama217.491,320,19718%2021/1/14.04644.2427314.3
12 /ChibaChiba272.08981,87115.6%2021/2/13.47223.5948306.5
14-01 /横 浜 市Kanagawa437.383,757,63040.8%2020/9/112.339913.1773303.2
14-02 /Kawasaki City144.351,539,52216.7%2020/9/15.13865.5059305.6
14-03 /Sagamihara City328.84722,9737.8%2020/9/1
15 /NiigataNiigata726.10791,32636.1%2021/2/13.13003.2423285.0
22-01 /Shizuoka CityShizuoka1,388.78686,08519%2021/2/1
22-02 /Hamamatsu city1,511.17788,51321.8%2021/2/1
23 /Nagoya cityAichi326.452,327,72330.9%2021/1/112.319312.9126338.6
26 /Kyoto CityKyoto827.901,455,37756.8%2021/2/16.07406.3991331.0
27-01 /OsakaOsaka222.302,753,47631.2%2021/1/118.736119.4263
27-02 /Sakai City149.99824,4039.4%2021/1/1
28 /Kobe CityHyogo552.801,514,43427.9%2021/2/16.10446.5167298.1
33 /Okayama CityOkayama789.91720,45638.3%2021/2/12.65452.7784273.9
34 /Hiroshima cityHiroshima905.131,198,22442.9%2021/1/14.97735.1735312.1
40-01 /KitakyushuFukuoka487.71935,08418.3%2020/9/13.36593.5061270.2
40-02 /Fukuoka City340.961,603,04331.4%2020/9/16.46196.6874312.0
43 /Kumamoto-shiKumamoto389.53738,46942.6%2021/2/1
Ordinance-designated city in the same prefecture
Total populationDegree of integrationStatistics day
14 /Yokohama City + Kawasaki City + Sagamihara CityKanagawa910.576,020,125 people65.3%2020/9/1
22 /Shizuoka City + Hamamatsu CityShizuoka2,899.951,474,598 people40.8%2021/2/1
27 /Osaka City + Sakai CityOsaka372.293,577,879 people40.6%2021/1/1
40 /Kitakyushu City + Fukuoka CityFukuoka828.672,538,127 people49.7%2020/9/1


Designated city of each city2013The financial scale of the degree (25) is as follows (the balance of municipal bonds is the value at the end of the fiscal year)[† 10]).The current amount of municipal bonds per citizen is calculated by dividing the current amount of municipal bonds in this item by the latest estimated population.[† 11].

City nameRevenue (A)
(Thousand yen)
Annual expenditure
(Thousand yen)
Local tax revenue (B)
(Thousand yen)
B / AMunicipal bond current amount
(Thousand yen)
Per citizen
Municipal bond current amount
(Ten thousand yen)
01 /Sapporo850,815,653840,973,691279,543,90332.9%1,854,609,01294.5
04 /Sendai city577,186,793539,894,283175,904,62330.5%1,358,347,749124.4
11 /Saitama448,840,998433,500,182219,191,29548.8%692,987,53552.5
12 /Chiba366,466,835363,314,502172,107,79347.0%1,045,303,312106.5
14-01 /Kawasaki City584,106,319579,458,416288,988,74349.5%1,507,463,48197.9
14-02 /横 浜 市1,598,029,3631,558,218,510707,362,29444.3%4,431,663,500117.9
14-03 /Sagamihara City254,860,641246,416,620109,000,47842.8%367,810,39850.9
15 /Niigata370,883,110365,485,326118,992,95232.1%934,398,227118.1
22-01 /Shizuoka City279,775,906269,506,052125,668,00144.9%649,463,14594.7
22-02 /Hamamatsu city288,578,705280,152,448126,978,62844.0%513,931,78865.2
23 /Nagoya city1,033,032,7961,025,506,831488,237,15247.3%3,079,221,555132.3
26 /Kyoto City720,508,083712,639,776244,429,11133.9%2,149,408,461147.7
27-01 /Osaka1,675,766,1921,650,402,155641,869,66638.3%4,825,790,057175.3
27-02 /Sakai City340,345,277337,368,905131,058,92438.5%696,948,51884.5
28 /Kobe City744,324,619732,585,507270,593,57536.4%2,187,075,200144.4
33 /Okayama City274,090,531265,069,699110,008,25240.1%555,312,21777.1
34 /Hiroshima city558,334,022551,537,075200,803,19236.0%1,728,313,493144.2
40-01 /Kitakyushu516,400,405511,684,055156,554,82730.3%1,379,539,962147.5
40-02 /Fukuoka City786,367,370773,632,590276,117,81735.1%2,418,962,608150.9
43 /Kumamoto-shi299,360,237294,385,55196,099,84132.1%531,246,79471.9

Related matters

Same rank as prefecture

Ordinance-designated cities are from prefecturesAuthorityBy transferring, etc., it is possible to exercise authority according to the prefecture, and it is possible to implement measures unique to the city without going through procedures with the prefecture.

  • Directly without going through the prefectureCountryYou will be able to contact with.
  • Unified local electionsThe mayoral elections and parliamentary elections of designated cities held in Japan are held on the same so-called previous schedule as the prefectural governor elections and parliamentary elections.
  • When writing the address of a designated city, the prefecture name is often omitted (example: Sakae, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi → Sakae, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi).Rather than customary, according to the notification of the former Ministry of Autonomy in 45, the designated city and the city where the prefectural office is located (Aomori City, Akita City, Yamanashi City, Fukushima City, Tochigi City, Fukui City, Nagano City, Except for Gifu City, Nara City, Wakayama City, Tochigi City, Yamaguchi City, Tokushima City, Kochi City, Oita City, Saga City, Nagasaki City, Miyazaki City, Kagoshima City), the prefecture name must not be omitted in official documents. (Example: Tochigi City, Tochigi Prefecture, Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture, Yamanashi City, Yamanashi Prefecture, Kofu City, Yamanashi Prefecture, etc.)Opposite interpretation.
  • Even in the case of sports competitions, some are treated specially,National disabled sports meetとNational Health and Welfare Festival (Nenrin Pick)In addition to each prefecture, it is possible to form a team independently in the designated city.
  • CityDomain nameYou can use "city.city name.jp" instead of "city.city name.prefecture name.jp".However, for Sakai City, Hamamatsu City, and Sagamihara City, "city.city name.jp" could not be used because the relevant domain name was already registered by another person.For public institutions, "city.city name.lg.jp" can be used as an alternative to the domain name of local public organizations, but the general area type domain name "ward name.city name.jp" cannot be used, so only public institutions can be relieved. ..
  • In recruiting staffUniversityAbout graduationRecruitment testIs on the same schedule as the prefecture6The firstSundayIt is performed (commonly referred to as "local senior").Junior collegeGraduation degree ・UniversityThe graduation employment exam has the same schedule as the prefecture9It is held on the 4th Sunday of the festival (commonly referred to as "local intermediate" and "local beginner").In addition, the questions of the alternative exam are the same as those of the prefecture except for some.
  • Local bondWill be able to issue market publicly offered bonds in the same way as prefectures.However, since the yield is determined by the market, there will be a difference in cash flow depending on the financial situation and creditworthiness.
  • 1970 eraToNew medical schoolWhen they were installed one after another, there was a limit of "1 prefecture, 1 medical college" to put a brake on them.1974It was called in (49), but as of the same year, it was the only designated city.Medical collegeWas notKitakyushuTo1978(Showa 53),Occupational Medical UniversityHas been established and is treated as the same as the prefecture ("Medical University #New Medical UniversitySee).
  • As with prefectures, lottery tickets (so-called)Lottery) Will be able to become a distributor (Local Finance LawArticle 32,Voucher method with winningsArticle 4, and the city designated by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications due to the war damage can also be the distributor, but it is omitted).Therefore, the proceeds of the lottery sold in the designated city where it is sold will be directly the income of the designated city (Detail is"Lottery #Handling of proceedsSee).

City Police Department

The designated city itself cannot set up and operate its own police.Just each prefecturePolice headquartersCorresponds to a designated city if it is within its jurisdictionCity Police DepartmentTo install (Police lawArticle 52, Paragraph 1).The role of the city police department differs depending on the police headquarters, but it is mainly located in the designated city and the police headquarters or in the designated city.Police stationPerforms business related to management.It is equipped with a working unitKitakyushu Police DepartmentOnly.


In designated citiesFireIs a specialized unit ofSpecial Advanced Rescue TeamIs obligatory to install.this isMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications Fire Agency"Special Advanced Rescue Team" pursuant to the provisions of Article 61 of the "Ministerial Ordinance Establishing Standards for Rescue Team Organization, Equipment and Arrangement (Ministerial Ordinance No. 22 of 6)"TokyoAnd in ordinance-designated cities, "advanced rescue teams" pursuant to the provisions of Article 5Core cityAmong the number of advanced rescue teams, one or more advanced rescue teams will be designated as special advanced rescue teams for fire departments and designated cities maintained by the special wards. ing.Therefore, in many designated cities, both advanced rescue teams and special advanced rescue teams are organized.

City planning and taxes

In designated cities, in city planningArea division(Drawing) is supposed to be defined (City Planning ActArticle 7, Paragraph 1, City Planning Act Enforcement Ordinance, Article 3).Therefore,SprawlHoweverDepopulationWhen an area where is a problem becomes a part of a designated city, that area is divided into areas.Urbanization control areaAs a result, development activities in the area may be restricted by law, and as a result, depopulation may become more serious.On the contrary, new in the area divisionUrbanization areaAbout land and buildings in the areaProperty taxに 加 え てCity planning taxWill be imposed.

Also legalCapital Area(Metropolitan Area Improvement ActPrescribed), Kinki area (prescribed)Kinki Area Improvement LawPredetermined), Chubu area (prescribed)Central Region Development and Maintenance ActWhen a designated city is born within the designated city, it will be within the area of ​​the designated city.Urbanization areaThe farmland inLocal tax lawSince it is not subject to the special provisions of Article 29-7 of the Supplementary Provisions, the property tax and city planning tax on the farmland will be "taxed on par with residential land" and will be increased.

Area you are aiming for

Conceptual area

Due to the merger of cities, towns and villages, the following areas are currently aiming to move to designated cities.But,Merger of municipalitiesMany cities have no prospect of realization due to difficulties in discussions.In addition, some cities are switching to a highly feasible core city transition and are considering their intention to become a designated city as a future goal.Most of the areas where the merger concept has been raised with an eye on the transition to designated cities are based on urban areas (urban employment areas, etc.), but they do not necessarily match the existing wide-area administrative areas.

Framework of Municipal Merger Promotion Concept by Saitama Prefectural Government[43]In, there is a framework that assumes the transition to a designated city.According to the concept of the prefectural officeSoka-Koshigaya-Yashio city-Misato-Yoshikawa-Matsubushi Town-KasukabeThe framework of the population is about 114 million (in fact, it exceeds 90 even excluding Kasukabe City, which has little connection with other than Koshigaya City).Kawaguchi city-蕨 市-Toda-shiThe framework of the population is about 78,Tokorozawa-Hanno-Sayama-Iruma-shi-Hidaka CityThe framework of the population is about 78,Niiza city-Asaka-Shiki-Wako city-Miyoshi-Fujimi-Fujimino-shiIn addition to having a population of about 71TokyoKiyoseWe are also considering a cross-border merger with.
Hachioji City(Tokyo)
20121/22Was elected in the mayoral election held inTakayuki IshimoriHowever, after shifting to a core city that can improve citizen services and develop independent towns, it promised to become an ordinance-designated city.[44].. On April 2015, 4, Hachioji City became the first core city in Tokyo.
Around the time of the Great Heisei Consolidation, there was a movement centered on the business community to advocate the transition to a designated city through the merger.[† 12]..However, Nonoichi, which was listed as the top candidate for the merger with Kanazawa, enforced a single city system.Nonoichi CityIn addition, the consent of the surrounding cities and towns has not been obtained.Same as Kanazawa CityArea codeArea 076 (Kanazawa City, etc.Kahoku City,Baishan City, Nonoichi City,Uchinada Town,Tsubata Town,Kawakita Town) Has a total population of about 72.Also,Kanazawa metropolitan areaWith onenessKomatsu metropolitan area("Kanazawa metropolitan areaSee) Is a total population of about 87 (in this framework, three-quarters of Ishikawa Prefecture's population of about 117 million).

Areas where the concept is blank or failed

2006(18)3/27ToIejima Town,Yumezencho,Koji Town,Azumi TownAfter the merger, the population after the merger was 53.The city requested the government to move to a designated city by applying the statutory population requirement of 50 people in the designated city, and announced a policy to continue discussions with neighboring local governments.Himeji metropolitan areaHas a population of about 74 million.2011(23) In February,Toshikatsu Iwami・ Mayor Himeji made three elections with a promise to "aim for an ordinance-designated city", and immediately after the electionKakogawaExpressed its intention to work on the merger[47]..If it merges with the city, it will have a population of about 80.on the other hand,Tatsuno CityとAioi CityAlso revealed that he had consulted for a merger six months ago.[48]..If it merges with both cities, the population will be only about 64, so it has shown its stance of seeking a merger with Kakogawa City and Tatsuno / Aioi City.[47]..Also, in the futurePrince TownIn addition to consulting for a mergerTakasagoAlso revealed that it is supposed to be a merger partner[48]However, the city of Kakogawa and others showed disapproval, and Mayor Iwami retired from politics, effectively failing.
Higashi Katsushika / Katsushika area(Chiba)
Kashiwa,Noda-shi,Nagareyama,Abiko,Matsudo-shi,Kamagaya cityIn the "Tokatsu Wide Area Administrative Liaison Council" consisting of 6 citiesHeisei 185/8"Ordinance-designated city problem study group" was established in[49]..The total population of these six cities is about 6 million.On the other hand, of these 148 cities, Matsudo City and Kamagaya CityHeisei 194/27,Funabashi,Ichikawa CityAt the same time, the "Higashi Katsushika / Katsushika Area 4 Municipal Ordinance-designated City Study Group" was established to study the future transition to designated cities.[50]..The total population of these four cities is about 4 million.In addition, it should be noted1997In (9), Funabashi City, Kamagaya City,Narashino-shi,YachiyoThere was a move among those who had experience as chairman to consider the transition to a designated city by the merger of four cities.Chiba DailyPublished on the top page of the oldMinistry of Home AffairsIt was posted on the homepage for a long time, but in the end it did not reach a concrete move and failed.The total population of these four cities is about 4 million.
Hiratsuka,Fujisawa,Chigasaki,Samukawa Town,Oiso Town,Ninomiya townThere used to be a "Shonan City Concept" that aims to become a designated city by merging the six cities and towns of2003(15)5/26The blank page was withdrawn.If realized, it was planned to exceed the population of 100 million.
Sunto / Izu area(Shizuoka)
An area centered on Numazu City, which is part of the three capitals of Shizuoka Prefecture.There was a long-awaited theory because Shizuoka City and Hamamatsu City moved to government-designated cities.The Shizuoka Prefectural Office itself was active in reorganizing the prefecture.
The cities and towns participating in the designated urbanization study group are:Numazu City,Mishima City,Gotemba,Susono City,Izunokuni,Kannan Town,Oyama Town,Nagaizumi Town,Shimizu TownHowever, there was a temperature difference in each city and town regarding the willingness to merge.In addition, since the number of municipalities participating in the study group is less than 70 at present, the area under the jurisdiction of the adjacent Fuji General Government Building, orIzu PeninsulaThere was an opinion to take in all the cities and towns of2008(20)2/8Withdrew the blank sheet and announced the dissolution of the study group.



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Other things that are commonly called government-designated cities in JapanPublic health center,Waste Management Law Ordinance-designated cityThere is.
  2. ^ Nowadays, before the transition conditions are metCore cityOften specified as.
  3. ^ The name of this law at the time of enactment was "Six Major Cities Administrative Supervision Niseki Suru Law".Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentWith the enforcement of (Act No. 18 of 89), the name was changed when the city of Tokyo was excluded.This law was abolished with the partial amendment of the Local Autonomy Law in 1956 (Showa 31) (Law No. 31 of 147).
  4. ^ In the eight regional divisions,OkinawaIs considered to be in the same category as Kyushu.
  5. ^ TaiziThe administrative district of is the district where the city hall is located.
  6. ^ The system is such that the special processing work of the core city is limited from the special processing work of this designated city, and the special processing work of the special city is further limited (Article 252-22, Paragraph 1, Article 252-26-3). Item 1).
  7. ^ Municipal policeIn 1954, a transitional period from the transition to the prefectural police, the city police were retained as a provisional measure in the five major cities.
  8. ^ For exampleSakai City,Shizuoka CityExample.Shizuoka City "Summary of 17 General Account Settlement", Sakai City "Summary of 18 Initial Budget", etc.
  9. ^ Kitakyushu is the first city to move to a designated city other than the location of the prefectural office.AlsoFukuokaIs the prefectural capital ofFukuoka CityWas earlier than the transition (the transition to the designation of Fukuoka City was in 1972).
  10. ^ "Comparative Statistics Chronology of Large Cities (25)" (Yokohama City)[41]From "XX Finance", "Revenue" is "6. Revenue and Expenditure Settlement Amount (1) Revenue" "Total", and "Expenditure" is "6. Ordinary Accounting Revenue and Expenditure Settlement Amount (2) Expenditure by Purpose" "Total amount" and "local tax revenue" are "6. Ordinary account revenue and expenditure settlement amount (1) Revenue" "local tax", "Municipal bond balance" is "5. Local bond current amount (1) By accounting" From "total amount".
  11. ^ The current amount of municipal bonds used here is calculated by rounding off the digits of XNUMX million yen.
  12. ^ "Ishikawa Prefectural Government-designated City Promotion Business Council"[45](Later, moved to "Concept Shikawa Business People Conference"[46])Such


  1. ^ "A total of 20 ordinance-designated cities: Yokohama has a maximum of 372 million people, and Shizuoka has a minimum of 70.”(Japanese). Nippon.com (September 2020, 11). 2021/1/16Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Local Autonomy Law (Act No. 22 of 67)". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2008/1/20Browse.
  3. ^ "What is an ordinance-designated city?”. Liberal Democratic Party Ordinance-designated City Parliamentary League. 2018/2/14Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Cabinet Order Concerning Designation of Designated Cities in Article 252-19, Paragraph 1 of the Local Autonomy Law (Cabinet Order No. 31 of 254)". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2008/10/15Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d "About the system for big cities (PDF)". Materials distributed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications at the 28th Special Subcommittee of the 14th Local System Investigation Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications (January 2005, 1). As of May 17, 2005オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/11/28Browse.
  6. ^ “Exploring the current state of government-designated city metropolis administration that is becoming more distorted with prefectures”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun: Tokyo Metropolitan Area Economics. (November 2011, 11) 
  7. ^ "List of designated cities”. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. As of March 2010, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008/10/15Browse.
  8. ^ "Five major city administrative supervision Niseki Suru Law (Taisho 11 Law No. 1)". Japanese Law Index.National Diet Library. 2008/10/15Browse.
  9. ^ "Number of companies by prefecture / metropolitan area, number of regular employees, number of employees”. Small and Medium Business Administration. 2020/11/9Browse.
  10. ^ "Local Autonomy Law Enforcement Ordinance (Cabinet Order No. 22 of 16)". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2008/10/15Browse.
  11. ^ https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/kyuyo/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2017/09/14/1394392_02.pdf#search=%27%E7%9C%8C%E8%B2%BB%E8%B2%A0%E6%8B%85%E6%95%99%E8%81%B7%E5%93%A1+%E7%A7%BB%E8%AD%B2%27 About transfer of salary burden of prefectural expense burden faculty and staff
  12. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Based on the amount calculated by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in the "19 White Paper on Local Finance" "Financial Balance by Municipalities".
  13. ^ According to the indication of the designated city mayors' association "Proposal for special tax system for large cities corresponding to the special allocation of office work in designated cities" (December 17, 12).
  14. ^ It is based on the fact that the designated city side insists in the section of "tax measures" of the designated city mayor's association "request for securing financial resources that can respond immediately to the actual situation of metropolis administration in 20".
  15. ^ a b The 28th Local System Investigation Committee (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications). Pointed out in "Report on the ideal state of the metropolis system".
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