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📢 | SCO Secretariat and TCSA co-sponsor the "National Data Brain" Summit


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SCO Secretariat and TCSA co-sponsor the "National Data Brain" Summit

 
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Member states, observers, SCO dialogue partners, ambassadors, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Arab League (LAS) member states' diplomatic representatives in Beijing, and prominent Chinese entrepreneurs all attended the event.
 

Vladimir Norov, Executive Director of SCO AsiaNet 87608 (0121) [Beijing January 2021 ... → Continue reading

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Association of Southeast Asian Nations(To what Asia Shokokurengo,English: Association of South-East Asian Nations,ASEAN <English reading:[ˈɑːsi.ɑːn], Japanese reading: ASEAN>)Southeast AsiaA regional intergovernmental organization of 10 countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and promotes economic, political, and economic, political, and other countries between member states and other Asian countries.Security, Promotes military, educational and socio-cultural integration.

ASEAN also works regularly with other countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Shanghai Cooperation OrganizationASEAN, a key partner of ASEAN, maintains a global network of alliance and dialogue partners and is a strong global organization from many.[1][2],Asia PacificIt is considered a central coalition for regional cooperation and a prominent and influential organization.He is also involved in many international affairs and has dispatched diplomatic missions around the world.[3][4][5][6].

History

1961ToFederation of MalayaTunk Abdul RahmanInaugurated by the Prime Minister's proposalThailand,フィリピン, Federation of Malaya (nowMalaysia) Is the predecessor of the Association of Southeast Asia (abbreviation: ASA).Also,IndonesiaAlso addedMaphilindo conceptHowever, it is said that it was progressively resolved by the establishment of EAN (East Asian Association), which was the basis for the establishment of ASEAN.

Vietnam WarIn19678,Domino theoryBy Southeast Asian countriesRednessWith the support of the United States for fear ofBangkokCurrently in the form of progressively eliminating the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASA)Association of Southeast Asian NationsWas established.Declaration of establishment of ASEAN(OrBangkok Declaration) Was co-signed in addition to the three countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.IndonesiaAnd the emerging city-state after independenceSingaporeThere are a total of 5 countries, all of whichAnti-communismIt was a country that took the position of.

1984ToEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs a member,Cold WarAfter the end1995から1999ToEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Laos,Myanmar,CambodiaJoined and became the current 10-country system.

Asian currency crisisWith this as an opportunity, the leaders of Japan, China, and South Korea will be invited to ASEAN to hold a conference.ASEAN + 3In general, conferences held by one foreign country in the ASEAN member countries are held.ASEAN + 1Is written.1977Since Japan participated as ASEAN + 1 at the ASEAN Summit held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, a friendly and cooperative relationship between ASEAN and Japan was established.

2007, Toward the construction of the ASEAN CommunityDemocracy,human rights, Adopted "", which includes ASEAN principles such as the rule of law and peaceful resolution of conflicts.

2009Or later,The United States of America,People's Republic of ChinaAbout 50 countries have appointed ASEAN ambassadors and are resident in Jakarta, where the ASEAN headquarters are located.[7].JapanAlso20115/26, Established the Permanent Mission of Japan to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Jakarta and has the ASEAN Ambassador stationed there.[8].

The 4th Official Summit (1992For the purpose of market integration in the region based on the "Singapore Declaration" adopted at the eventASEAN Free Trade Area(AFTA) was founded.2003To expand the targetLiberalizationAiming forASEAN Economic CommunityAgreed to develop into (AEC)201512/31Was launched in.[9]

The total population of the region exceeds 6 million (6000) and has a population of 2020 million (4).European Union It has more population growth than the (EU). Total of member countries in 2020GDP(Purchasing power parity basis) is $ 9 trillion, which is about twice the size of Japan's GDP ($ 7,270 trillion). Looking at ASEAN as a nation, it has the third largest population in the world and the fourth largest GDP in the world.

Member countries

Since its inauguration in five countries in 1967, in 5The United KingdomShortly after becoming independent fromEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe new member states did not appear for a long time until the addition of.For thisCold WarThe Philippines and Thailand are anti-communist military alliances related to anti-communism during the period.Southeast Asian Treaty OrganizationSupporting the United States in the Vietnam War as a member of (SEATO, dissolved at the end of June 1977)South Vietnam(Vietnam Republic) Was dispatched.After that, in Singapore, Thailand, etc. after the 1980sHigh economic growthWhen this was realized, it gradually became more important in the economic field such as comprehensive regional development.

1990 eraIn the latter half of the year, four countries in the north of the region joined in sequence, and the system of ten countries to date was completed.The expanded ASEAN consisting of these 4 countries is sometimes called "ASEAN-10".Especially in 10Vietnam Communist PartyOne-party dictatorship continuesSocialist stateThe welcome of Vietnam (Vietnam Socialist Republic) was a symbolic event that showed that ASEAN had transformed from an anti-communist political alliance to a regional community in Southeast Asia.On the other hand, even for Vietnam, when ASEAN was established, North Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam), Fighting the Vietnam War with the United States and SEATO countries, and after thatCambodia Civil WarIt was necessary to join ASEAN in order to dispel the past, which had been in fierce conflict with Thailand and other countries, and to complete the transformation of foreign policy and the stabilization of the system.It is the last member country.CambodiaWas delayed in joining due to domestic affairs, and initiallyMyanmar,LaosIt was planned to join with.With the successive accession of Vietnam's influential Laos and Cambodia, it has become even stronger in its role as a Southeast Asian regional integration that transcends ideological conflicts. In 2013, the ASEAN Secretary-General was elected for the first time from Vietnam, a communist bloc, and was responsible for steering the establishment of the ASEAN Community.[10].

Meanwhile, America andWestern EuropeRecognizing the accession of Myanmar, which has been criticized by the military government for its strong rule, ASEAN has clarified that it will take a "constructive involvement" approach to the issue of democratization in Myanmar.Since then, ASEAN has continued to make proposals for democratization in the form of a statement by the chairman at the summit meeting, avoiding hard criticism of the military government, but the Myanmar military government refused this or developed policies based on its own plans. It has been shown that ASEAN's influence on the domestic affairs of member countries is limited.[11].

National flagCountrycapitalarea

(Km 2

populationdensity

(/ km 2

GDP per capita

(PPP)[12]

Human development index[13]currencyOfficial terminologyLeaderJoin
Head of stateHead of government
Flag of Brunei.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBandar Seri Begawan5,765j411,900[14]6576,7430.853Brunei dollar

(BND; B $)

MalaySultan Hassanal Bolkiah1984/1/7
Flag of Cambodia.svgCambodiaPhnom Penh181,035g15,626,444[15]784,0100.582Riel

(KHR; ៛)

Khmer languageKing Norodom SihamoniPrime Minister Hun Sen1999/4/30
Flag of Indonesia.svgIndonesiaJakarta1,904,569a255,975,000[16]11312,3780.707Indonesian rupiah

(IDR; Rp)

IndonesianPresident Joko Widodo1967/8/8
Flag of Laos.svgLaosVientiane236,800h6,492,400[17]247,3670.601Laokip

(LAK; ₭)

LaoPresident Bounnhang VorachitPrime Minister Tonrun Seesolis1997/7/23
Flag of Malaysia.svgMalaysiaKuala Lumpur329,847f31,427,096[18]7228,8710.802Malaysian ringgit

(MYR; RM)

MalaySultan AbdullahPrime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin1967/8/8
Flag of Myanmar.svgMyanmarNaypyidaw676,578e51,419,420[19]816,2850.578Myanmar kyat

(MMK; K)

BurmesePresident Win MyintAung San Suu Kyi State Counselor1997/7/23
Flag of the Philippines.svgフィリピンManila343,448b103,371,800[20]2958,2290.712Philippine peso

(PHP; £)

Filipino (Tagalog) and EnglishPresident Rodrigo Duterte1967/8/8
Flag of Singapore.svgSingaporeSingapore707.1i5,535,000[21]6,61990,5310.932Singapore dollar

(SGD; S $)

Malay, Mandarin, English, TamilPresident Halimah YacobPrime Minister Lee Hsien Loong1967/8/8
Flag of Thailand.svgThailandBangkok513,115d65,339,612[22]12617,7860.755Thai baht

(THB; ฿)

タイ 語Rama 10Prime Minister Prayut Chan-Ocha1967/8/8
Flag of Vietnam.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHanoi331,690c92,700,000[23]2486,8760.694Vietnamese dong

(VND; ₫)

VietnamesePresident Nguyễn Phú TrọngPrime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc1995/7/28
ASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations4,479,210625,000,000[24]1355,8690.669 (UNDP cal)Secretary General: Lim Jok Hoi

Related countries

ASEAN + 3

In 1990, Malaysia was an East Asian Economic Caucus with members from ASEAN, China, Japan and South Korea.[25]Proposed the creation of.this is,Asia-Pacific Economic CooperationIt aims to counter the growing influence of the United States on (APEC) and throughout Asia.[26] [27]..However, due to strong opposition from Japan and the United States, this proposal was unsuccessful.[26] [28]..Since then, efforts for further integration have continued, and in 1997, ASEAN + 3, consisting of ASEAN, China, Japan, and South Korea, was born.

ASEAN + 3 is a forum that acts as a coordinator between ASEAN and the three East Asian countries of China, South Korea and Japan. Government leaders, ministers, and senior officials from 3 ASEAN countries and 10 East Asian countries have held discussions, and the challenges are wide-ranging.[29].. ASEAN + 1970 is the latest development of regional cooperation in Southeast Asia and East Asia.In the past, proposals have been made to bring about closer regional cooperation, such as the 1988 South Korean "Asia Common Market" call and the XNUMX Japan "Asia Network" proposal.[30].

The first summit was held in 1996 and 1997 andAsia-Europe MeetingIt was held to address the issue, but China and Japan have since hoped for regular summits with ASEAN member states.The significance and importance of this groupAsian currency crisisEnhanced by.In response to this crisis, ASEAN worked closely with China, South Korea and Japan. Since the implementation of the Joint Statement on East Asian Cooperation at the Manila Summit in 1999, regular consultations have been held by the Minister of Finance of ASEAN + 3.[31]..As this lack of stability contributed to the Asian financial crisis, ASEAN + 3Chiang Mai InitiativeIs evaluated to have formed the foundation of financial stability in Asia, which caused the Asian financial crisis.[32].

In addition, since its inception in 1997, ASEAN + 3 has expanded into areas other than finance, including food and energy security, financial cooperation, trade facilitation, disaster management, person-to-person exchange, reduction of development disparities, and rural development. It has focused on a variety of areas, including poverty reduction, human trafficking, labor migration, infectious diseases, the environment and sustainable development, and cross-border crime, including anti-terrorism.On October 2010, 10, with the aim of further strengthening cooperation among countries.HanoiAt the 13th ASEAN + 3 Summit held in Tokyo, the East Asia Vision Group (EAVG) II was established to take an inventory of cooperation, review it, and clarify its future direction.

National flagCountrycapitalarea

(Km 2

populationdensity

(/ km 2

GDP per capita

(PPP)

Human development index[13]currencyOfficial terminologyleader
Head of stateHead of government
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svgChugokuBeijing9,640,011a1,371,790,000[33]139.612,8800.719CNY

(CNY; ¥)

MandarinXi Jinping JintaoPrime Minister Li Keqiang
Flag of Japan.svgJapanTokyo377,873b126,865,000[34]337.637,3900.890Japanese yen

(JPY; ¥)

Japanese(in factEmperor ImakamiPrime Minister Yoshihide Suga
Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaSeoul100,140c51,448,183[35]49335,2770.891South Korean won

(KRW; ₩)

KoreanMs. ToraitoPrime Minister Hitoshi Ding

ASEAN + 6

ASEAN + 3 is for China, Japan and South KoreaEast AsiaIt was the first of an attempt at further integration to improve existing relations between countries and Southeast Asia.Following this, ASEAN + 3,India,Australia,New ZealandLarger includingEast Asia Summit(EAS) was held.This group is probablyEuropean Community(CurrentEuropean Union) Was plannedEast Asian CommunityServed as a prerequisite for.The "ASEAN Eminent Persons Group" was established to study the potential successes and failures of this policy.

This group became ASEAN + 6 with Australia, New Zealand and India.Asia PacificIs the cornerstone of the economy, politics, security, socio-cultural structure, and world economy[36] [37] [38] [39]..The codification of the relations between these countries is a free trade agreement in which 6 ASEAN + 16 countries participate.East Asia Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership(RCEP: Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) ”has been developed. The RCEP, in part, allows Member States to protect local industries and give them time to comply with the goals of developed Member States.[40].

TaiwanDue to China's economic and diplomatic influenceAsia PacificParticipation in RCEP is not permitted due to its strong influence on the community[41].

Candidate countries / observer countries

パ ュ ュ ニ ニ

Papua New Guinea flag パ ュ ュ ニ ニHas been interested in ASEAN since its independence in 1975[42]The following year, he participated in the ASEAN Ministerial Conference (who can attend the conference but does not have the right to participate in the proceedings or the right to vote) from 1976, and in 1981 he gained the status of a special observer.

1986Formally applied for membership at the ASEAN Ministerial Conference in Japan, and has hoped to join until now.

The obstacle to Papua New Guinea's accession to ASEAN is its geographical location. Although it is not far from Jakarta, the headquarters of ASEAN, than northern Myanmar, it is not considered to be eligible for membership because it is located outside Southeast Asia. When Papua New Guinea was granted observer status in 1976, Papua New Guinea was an ASEAN member country and politics, as half of New Guinea was occupied by Indonesia's Papua and West Papua and the other half was occupied by New Guinea. It was recognized that they shared the same area both economically and economically, and it was said that they were geographically connected.Subsequent 1983 decisions limited member countries to Southeast Asian countries.

In 2015, a special envoy related to ASEAN was appointed, and preparations are being made for the full accession of ASEAN.[43].

東 テ モ ー ル

East Timor flag 東 テ モ ー ルAims to acquire observer status and even join ASEAN2007ToTreaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast AsiaI have already participated in (TAC).When East Timor joins, ASEAN will be completed as a regional community with all 11 countries with capitals in Southeast Asia, but the independence of the country will be a conflict with Indonesia.[44]Member countries that value friendly relations with Indonesia do not necessarily welcome this move.Myanmar in particular is a democratic activist in its own countryAung San Suu KyiHas expressed opposition, partly because it supports East Timor, and Singapore is also reluctant to join East Timor.[45]..In addition, the domestic situation in East Timor after independence is unstable,2006からUnited NationsbyUnited Nations Integrated Mission in East TimorThe fact that (UNMIT) continues is also a problem.

On the other hand, Foreign Minister Dakosta of East Timor said20107/21Went toNewsletterIn interviews such as, he said that the country is aiming to join ASEAN by 2012, said that East Timor is a stable democracy and has achieved rapid economic development, and expressed recognition that it is fully qualified to join. It was.He also emphasized that it is possible to meet the standards of the ASEAN Charter, which is the highest norm of ASEAN (democracy as a basic principle that member countries must comply with, the rule of law, etc.).[46]. On August 12, the same yearJose Ramos-HoltaThe president2011Reiterated motivation for China's decision to join ASEAN[47].

20113/4, Foreign Minister Dakosta formally applied for ASEAN accession to Indonesia's Foreign Minister Marti in Jakarta, Indonesia, the chair of ASEAN.At a joint press conference, Foreign Minister Marti said, "We will support the accession of East Timor and discuss it promptly within ASEAN." "We would like to welcome you to ASEAN by 2015." Indicated.Indonesia's meeting with Foreign Minister Dakosta on March 3President YudhoyonoHas stated that it fully supports the accession of East Timor.There is no big objection to other member countries, but it seems difficult to achieve membership by the end of the year due to procedural issues.Foreign Minister Dakosta said he "wants early accession" to President Yudhoyono and East Timor.Prime Minister GusmanWill meet on the 22nd to discuss issues such as membership.[48]

Timor-Leste is willing to join, and Prime Minister Araujo has stated that he is aiming for early accession, saying "we are ready" and "hosted many international conferences as the presidency of the Community of Portuguese Countries".[49]However, as of April 2020, membership has not been realized.

In 2015, East Timor's Ambassador to Malaysia met two major requirements: East Timor's location in the region and the establishment of embassies in ASEAN member countries, ready to join ASEAN. Said that. In 2, Indonesia announced that the invitation to join East Timor could be realized in 2016, as the feasibility studies conducted by both countries on the stability, security, economy and culture of East Timor will be completed by the end of 2016. It was.

National flagCountrycapitalarea

(Km2

populationdensity

(/ km2

GDP per capita

(PPP)

Human development index[13]currencyOfficial terminologyleaderStatus
Head of stateHead of government
Flag of East Timor.svg東 テ モ ー ルDili14,874b1,231,116[50]76.24,9280.620U.S. dollar

(USD; $)

Tetum and PortuguesePresident Francisco GuterresPrime Minister Taur Matan Ruakオ ブ ザ ー バ ー
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svgパ ュ ュ ニ ニPort Moresby462,840a7,400,000[51]14.52,3990.491Papua New Guinea Kina

(PGK; K)

English, Tok Pisin, Hiri MotuQueen Elizabeth II

(Governor: Bob Dadae)

Prime Minister James Marapeオ ブ ザ ー バ ー

Countries wishing to join

Despite being outside the geographical limits of Southeast Asia, many countries have expressed interest in becoming part of ASEAN.

バングラデシュ

LaosIt is,バングラデシュSupporting the acquisition of observer qualifications in ASEAN[52].

Fiji

FijiIs interested in being granted an ASEAN observer qualification. In 2011, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono reportedly urged Admiral Voleke Bainimalam of Fiji to consider this request during Indonesia's ASEAN presidency.[53].

Sri Lanka

Sri LankaWas initially invited as a founding member of ASEAN on August 1967, 8, but ASEANPro-WesternSri LankaNon-allianceDue to the policy, it did not join[54][55]..There was also opposition from Singapore, concerned about domestic instability due to tensions between the two major ethnic groups in Sri Lanka.After that, interest from within Sri Lanka became clear, and in 2, he tried to join ASEAN.[56][57][58].. In 2007, Sri Lanka became one of the 27 ARF member countries.

Other countries

Australia

In February 2018, the Australian Institute for Strategic Policy, an independent think tank, recommended that Australia seek access to ASEAN by 2.[59].. In an interview with Fairfax Media in 2018, Indonesian President Joko Widodo said Australia should join the organization.[60].. In 2016, former Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating proposed that Australia join ASEAN.[61].

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

In May 2017, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte said Mongolia had announced its intention to join ASEAN.He also said that he would encourage other member countries to join Mongolia.[62].

New Zealand

In February 2018, the Australian Institute for Strategic Policy, an independent think tank, recommended that Australia and New Zealand should join ASEAN by 2.[63].

パラオ

2019 year 6 month,Johns Hopkins UniversityResearchers suggested that Palau may have a meaningful participation in ASEAN.On top of that, the United States argued that Thailand in ASEAN should persuade Thailand to promote Palau's observer status among the Presidency.[64].

トルコ

In May 2017, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte said Turkey wanted to join ASEAN.He said he would support the participation of other member countries.[65].

Economy

ASEAN by the end of 2015Single marketTo establishASEAN Economic CommunityWe sought economic integration by establishing (AEC). The average economic growth rate of member countries from 1989 to 2009 was 3.8% to 7%.This exceeded APEC's compound annual growth rate of 2.8%. Established on January 1992, 1, the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) includes a Common Effect Preferential Tariff (CEPT) to promote the free flow of goods between member states. At the time of signing, there were only six member states of ASEAN, but new member states (Vietnam, Laos, Vietnam) have been added.New member states (Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia) have not fully fulfilled AFTA's obligations, but were required to sign when joining ASEAN and were given a longer time frame to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations. Formally considered part of the agreement[66]..The next step is to achieve a single market and production base, a competitive economic region, a region of fair economic development, and a region that is fully integrated into the world economy. ASEAN countries have gradually reduced import tariffs on member countries since 2007, aiming for zero import tariffs in 2016.[67].

ASEAN countries have many economic zones (industrial parks, eco-industrial parks, special economic zones, technology parks, innovation districts) (see comprehensive list from 2015).[68].. In 2018, eight of the ASEAN member countries became one of the best economies in the world, and the long-term outlook for the region is positive.[69].. The ASEAN Secretariat predicts that by 2030, the regional organization will grow into the world's fourth-largest economy.[70].

Main activities

The main activity of ASEAN was the Foreign Ministers' Meeting when it was first established.The Bangkok Declaration stipulates that a Foreign Ministers' Meeting should be held every year (Regular Ministerial Meeting).The first Foreign Ministers' Meeting is a meeting in Bangkok that declared the establishment of ASEAN.The initial purpose of the establishment was regional cooperation in the economic and social fields, and the highest decision-making body was the annual Foreign Ministers' Meeting.

1972,1973からEuropean Community(CurrentEuropean Union) AndAustraliaStarted an extraterritorial dialogue with.Currently to thisPeople's Republic of China,Japan,New Zealand,カナダ,The United States of America,South Korea,ロシア,IndiaThe 10 people including the above are called extraterritorial dialogue countries / organizations.Held an expanded Foreign Ministers'Meeting immediately after the Annual Foreign Ministers' Meeting.

1975Since then, apart from the Foreign Ministers' Meeting, the Ministerial Meeting for Economic Affairs will be held once or twice a year.

1976In 2 monthBaliThe leaders of ASEAN gathered together for the first time to announce "", and political cooperation became a formal field of regional cooperation in ASEAN. This meeting, also known as the ASEAN Summit, was initially held irregularly and1992At the time of the meeting in Singapore, it was only the fourth time.However, at this 4th Summit, it was decided that an official summit every three years and an informal summit in other years would be held (),1995It has been held every year since then.Furthermore, the distinction between formal and informal2002It was decided to enter and be abolished.

At the first summit meeting held in February 1976Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast AsiaWas signed.The member states of this treaty2008Climbing to 7 countries in JulyEurasiaExpanded to the whole.

2005

2006

2006The slogan of the summit is "one vision, one identity, one community."

  • 5/9
    • MalaysiaThe capital ofKuala LumpurSo, for ASEANFirst Defense Ministers' MeetingOpened.The joint statement is the purpose of the conference
      Promoting regional peace and stability through dialogue and cooperation in the field of defense and security
      Promote mutual trust and understanding of defense policy, threat awareness, and security challenges
      Contribution to the creation of the ASEAN Security Community (ASC) by 2020
      And so on.
  • 7/24 - 28 Day
    • In Kuala Lumpur, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) held the Foreign Ministers'Meeting, the Extended Foreign Ministers' Meeting, and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).
  • 7/24
    • Malaysia's Foreign Minister Sidehamid reported at the ASEAN Standing Committee that the work to prepare the ASEAN Charter is proceeding smoothly, and said, "We would like to prepare by the 40 summit to celebrate the 2007th anniversary of the establishment of ASEAN."
  • 8/24
    • In Kuala Lumpur, 16 countries including Japan, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea and China in addition to ASEAN member countriesFirst Economic Ministerial MeetingWas opened.From 16 participating countries from JapanFree trade agreement (FTA) The concept was proposed and a general agreement was reached.

2007

  • 1/11
    • フィリピンCentralCebuThe Foreign Ministers and Economic Ministers' Meeting was held in Japan.At the Foreign Ministers' Meeting
      MyanmarConcerned about the issue of democratization in JapanAung San Suu KyiIt was agreed to demand the early release of.
      north korea OfNuclear problemThen,Korean PeninsulaConfirmed the policy for denuclearization of.
    • Then13 DayAt the summit meeting held in
      5 years ahead of the original purpose,2015ASEAN Security Community (ASC), which deepens cooperation in "politics / security" and "society / culture"ASEAN Economic Community (ASEAN Economic Community: AEC) and ASEAN Social and Cultural Community (ASCC)ASEAN CommunityWe agreed to adopt the aim of establishing.
      As the legal framework of ASEAN, it becomes the highest norm of the community.ASEAN Charter』Proclaimed the need for enactment.However, "non-intervention in domestic affairs" and "majority vote or unanimous resolution on political issues" were not agreed due to the opposition from Myanmar and were postponed.
      Adopted a counter-terrorism cooperation agreement stipulating mutual cooperation for the delivery of suspected terrorists and a declaration on the protection of the rights of migrant workers.
  • 11/21
    • Established "Chart".In effect in all member countriesApproveIt is a condition that it is done.

2008

  • 2/18
    • Malaysia signs ratification of "ASEAN Charter". This is the second country after Singapore, which ratified it in January.
    • By the 20th, we have accepted the submission of ratification procedures from Laos. On the 15th, there were four ratifying countries, including Brunei, which notified the secretariat of ratification.
    • Informal Foreign Ministers' Meeting held in Singaporenorth koreaToTreaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Agreed to seek accession to (TAC).
  • 3/6
    • Vietnam has ratified the ASEAN Charter, bringing the number of ratifying countries to five.
  • 11/14
    • Thailand OfKing BhumibolApproved ratification of the ASEAN Charter following the ratification procedure of the Diet.As a result, ratification of all 10 countries, which was a requirement for the entry into force of the Charter, was completed, and the "ASEAN Charter"2008The effect of the inside is sure.

2009

  • 4/9
    • The Finance Ministers' Meeting confirmed the establishment of the "ASEAN Infrastructure Fund" for infrastructure development in the region.Exchange foreign currency in an emergency"Chiang Mai InitiativeAgreed on the amount of contributions of ASEAN countries to the multilateral fund.Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand will bear $ 47 billion, the Philippines will bear $ 6000 billion, and the five latecomers such as Vietnam and Laos will contribute 36% of their foreign exchange reserves.The fund will be expanded to 8000 billion dollars (about 5 trillion yen) in February, 5% of which will be borne by Japan, China and South Korea.
  • 4/10
    • Central ThailandPattayaA series of summit meetings were held in.CambodiaHun SenThe Prime Minister and Thai Prime Minister Abhisit agreed to talk about repeated clashes between the two armed forces in the surrounding border areas and work to prevent a recurrence.
    • At the Foreign Ministers' Meeting, we discussed the "political and security community" and confirmed that we would prepare guidelines for joining the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC).Exchanged views on dispute resolution mechanisms and human rights mechanisms to promote human rights in the region. Discuss the progress of the "Nuclear Free Zone Committee".Approved the statement adopted at the summit.
    • Calling for the resignation of Thai Prime Minister Ashibit around noon on the 10thThaksinMore than 1000 former Prime Ministers' civic groups gathered in front of the hotel at the venue to demonstrate for more than five hours.After that, he handed over the request to the ASEAN leaders and withdrew.
    • Summit of 10 ASEAN countries, Japan, South Korea and China.
  • 4/11
    • Former Prime Minister Thaksin's rebel demonstrators broke into the venue hotel.As a result, Thai Prime Minister Ashipit, the chair of ASEAN, decided to cancel the summit and temporarily issued a state of emergency to the Bataya area.
    • The Japan-China, Japan-Korea, and Japan-China-Korea summits were held as scheduled because the venue was a different hotel.At the Japan-China talks, Prime Minister Aso emphasized that "the international community needs to unite and send a strong message" on the issue of North Korea's rocket launch, while Prime Minister Wen "looks at peace and stability in Northeast Asia." We should promote the six-party talks and the denuclearization process of the Korean Peninsula. "Also, at the end of this monthTaro AsoWe welcomed the Prime Minister's visit to China.
    • The leaders of each country returned home on the afternoon of the 11th.
    • (3 countries of ASEAN + 16, Australia, New Zealand and India)2th 20 countries/regions summitBased on the agreement at the (G20 Financial Summit)World recession / financial crisisIt was planned to discuss measures, but it was canceled.
  • 4/12
    • The ASEAN + 3 summit meeting has also been cancelled.A series of summit meetings will be held on June 6th and 13th.プ ー ケ ッ トIt was announced on May 5 that adjustments have begun to be held in[71].
  • 5/3
    • The ASEAN + 3 Finance Ministers' Meeting was held in Bali, Indonesia. It was agreed that Japan and China would contribute the same amount of $ 1200 billion and South Korea would contribute $ 12 billion out of the total amount of 384 billion (about 192 trillion yen) of funds accompanying the expansion of the "Chiang Mai Initiative."They also agreed to establish an early regional economic surveillance unit, the Surveillance Unit, confirm the importance of the Asian Bond Market Initiative (ABMI), and monitor the impact of the spread of the pandemic influenza.
  • 7/19

2010

  • 1/14
    • Held a series of ministerial-level meetings such as an informal foreign ministers' meeting and a political and security community meeting in Da Nang, central Vietnam, and approved the rules for "connection" and mechanism development in the region for the 2015 community concept.[73].
  • 7/19
    • Vietnam capitalHanoiThe Foreign Minister's Joint Political and Security Conference and the informal dinner were held in Tokyo, and a series of ministerial-level meetings progressing to the 23rd were held.This time, 16 countries will participateEast Asia Summit It is expected that the US and Russia will discuss the participation in (EAS) and agree to the official participation of both countries.The circle of dialogue in the Asia-Pacific region has expanded further.

2011

  • 11/15[74]
    • Held a foreign ministers' meeting.
  • 11/17~ 19th [75][76][77].
    • The 19th Association of Southeast Asian Nations Summit was held in Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia.
    • 11/17At the ASEAN Summit, the "Bali Declaration" will be adopted with the theme of "ASEAN Community within Global Community", aiming to solidify the foundation for the creation of a common foreign policy in 2022. The 2014 Presidency of Myanmar approval will be decided at this meeting.
    • 11/18, The Chair's statement was released.In principle, Myanmar was approved as the 2014 ASEAN Presidency.Indonesian Foreign Minister Marti said at a news conference that leaders called for "irreversible" democratization.In addition, the statement reiterates the need for ASEAN and China to conclude a legally binding "Code of Conduct" on the South China Sea issue.He also expressed interest in holding an expanded meeting of the "ASEAN Ocean Forum".The summit signed the "Bali Declaration".
    • 11/18・ On both days of the 19thASEAN + 3(Japan, China and South Korea) will be held.
    • 11/19The 18th East Asia Summit (EAS) of 6 countries, in which the United States and Russia participate for the first time, adopts the "Declaration of Reciprocal Rules and Principles" with a focus on cooperation in the fields of politics and security.The South China Sea conflict is expected to be one focus.

2013

2014

2015

  • 11/19~11/21, Held the 27th ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • 11/22, Kuala Lumpur leaders of the Union of Member StatesASEAN Economic Community(AEC) Signed the Leaders' Declaration on Inauguration, and AEC was inaugurated on December 12, the same year.

2016

2017

  • 8/8, Held a commemorative ceremony for the 50th anniversary of its formation in Manila, Philippines.

2018

  • 1/5, Groundbreaking ceremony for a new headquarters building in Jakarta, adjacent to the current secretariat headquarters. Scheduled to be completed in 2019[78].

2019

Foreign relations

Japan

From the beginning of ASEANJapanMaintain a close relationship,1970 eraWe have held summit and foreign minister-level talks more frequently.1974ToKakuei TanakaWhen the Prime Minister visited Southeast Asia, there were protests from local residents who opposed Japan's economic expansion (Malari Incident) However, the relationship between the two regions has remained generally favorable since then.For Japan at that time, Southeast Asia was Indonesiaoil, MalaysiaNatural rubberThailand and Malaysia, which are important as raw material supply areas for such products and can obtain high-quality labor at low wages, have become influential partners for Japanese manufacturing companies to expand overseas.[80]..In addition, Southeast Asia is one of the few places where Japan's diplomacy, which is highly dependent on the United States, can demonstrate its uniqueness.[81],1978 OfFukuda DoctrineEtc. were announced. For the ASEAN side as well, Japan's advance into the pursuit of economic benefits without seeking hegemony within the region is favorable for economic development, and the relationship between the two has deepened further.

1981The Japan ASEAN Center was established in Japan by concluding an "Association of Southeast Asian Nations Trade, Investment and Tourism Promotion Center Establishment Agreement" between Japan and ASEAN countries.This aims to promote trade, invest from Japan in ASEAN countries, and increase tourists.In addition, there are various funds such as the ASEAN Cultural Fund, the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Exchange Fund, and the Japan-ASEAN Academic Exchange Fund.2010The "ASEAN Test" was started in Japan to deepen the understanding of ASEAN countries, and with the support of the Japan ASEAN Center, etc.recruitThe secretariat set up in the company is conducting tests in three countries: Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

1997From now on, the leaders of Japan, China, and South Korea will gather as an expanded version of the ASEAN Summit.ASEAN + 3Has been held and has become an important part of the long-term stability and development of East Asia.

2003Was designated as the year of Japan-ASEAN exchange.Events and projects commemorating the year of exchange, such as the issuance of commemorative stamps, personal exchanges, and cultural introductions, were seen in Japan and ASEAN countries.12/11,12 DayJapan invited the leaders of each country to hold the Japan-ASEAN Special Summit.Also,2008At that timeFukuda YasuoPrime Minister supports the ASEAN Community from the standpoint of inheriting the Fukuda Doctrine[82]And ASEAN Ambassador and Permanent Mission[83],Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementTo conclude2002EffectiveJapan-Singapore New Era Economic Partnership AgreementbyEconomic partnership agreementIt was a step to expand (EPA) throughout ASEAN.But ASEAN as a whole and JapanFree trade agreement(FTA) negotiations were concluded in 2010, with delayed conclusions on investment and services sectors(English edition(ACFTA) will come first.With this, Japan envisionsEast Asia EPAHas stagnated, and is now integrated with the East Asian free trade zone advocated by China.East Asia Regional Comprehensive Economic PartnershipIs being negotiated within the framework of ASEAN + 6 (Japan, South Korea, China, Australia, New Zealand, India).

Inaugurated on December 2012, 12First Abe CabinetIt is,DiplomacyUnder the basic policy of, we emphasize ASEAN, which has a growing presence in the economy and security.Within one month after taking office,Shinzo AbeBecame the prime minister's first overseas destinationEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFollowed byThailand,IndonesiaVisit and transfer to civilian ruleMyanmarMinisters visited major ASEAN countries one after another, including the visit of Deputy Prime Minister Taro Aso to.自由,Democracy,Basic human rights,Rule of lawAiming for the realization of universal values ​​and prosperity through economic partnership networks, Japan sent a message to the leaders of each country that they would work together as equal partners in ASEAN, and on January 2013, 1, they visited the destination. In Indonesia,5 principles of diplomacy with ASEANannounced[84].

  • We will work together with ASEAN countries to establish and expand universal values ​​such as freedom, democracy, and basic human rights.
  • "Power" instead of "LawThe free and open ocean under the control of "is a" public good ", and we will do our utmost to protect it together with the ASEAN countries.We welcome the United States' emphasis on Asia.
  • Through various networks of economic partnerships, we will further promote the flow of trade and investment such as goods, money, people, and services, which will lead to the revitalization of the Japanese economy and prosper together with ASEAN countries.
  • We will protect and nurture the diverse cultures and traditions of Asia together.
  • We will promote mutual understanding by actively interacting with the younger generation who will bear the future.

Japan with ASEANDiplomacyIn advancing, hard such as ports and roadsinfrastructureIt leads not only to maintenance but also to improvement of investment environmentLegal supportIt has been pointed out that it is important to position cooperation in software infrastructure development such as human resource development as the role of Japan.[7].

Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementNegotiations began in October 2010 on the investment and service areas that were continuously discussed in[85]Confirmed the end of service negotiations at the Japan-ASEAN Summit in November 2015[85]Confirmed the end of investment negotiations at the Japan-ASEAN Summit in September 2016[85]And a substantive agreement was reached[86]..After that, the revised protocol incorporating the investment chapter and service chapter was adjusted.[85]Was held, Japan will be in Tokyo on February 2019, 2, 273/2(Cambodia·Siem Reap) And 20194/24(Vietnam·Hanoi), The ASEAN Member States amend the agreement between Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Members on Comprehensive Economic Partnership (English: he First Protocol to Amend the Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Partnership) Signed among Japan and Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations)[87]did.For countries that have issued the notification on the first day of the second month after notification that Japan and at least one of the ASEAN member countries have completed the necessary domestic procedures, and have completed the procedures thereafter. , Effective on the first day of the second month after the notification of completion.

European Union

All ASEAN countries except Thailand, which maintained independence, are nowEuropean UnionBecame a colony of (EU) member states[88]It was also greatly influenced by the economy and culture.Second World WarThe occupation of the Japanese army by the Japanese army activated independence movements in various places and led to postwar independence, especially in Indonesia.Revolutionary WarEven after the NetherlandsAreaNew Guinea(Irian Jaya) And東 テ モ ー ル[89]There was an invasion of the country, causing damage and infringement of the right to self-determination and confrontation with Western European countries accusing it.

However, when ASEAN countries aim to maintain and develop capitalist economies and their relations with Western European countries stabilize,European Economic Community (EEC, the predecessor of the EU) and ASEAN held their first dialogue in 1972, becoming the first dialogue country for ASEAN.Since then, it has held talks at the level of foreign ministers and ministers, and in 1980 signed a cooperation agreement.This trend continued into the 1990s, with the first in 1996.Asia-Europe Meeting(ASEM) was realized, and it has been held every two years since then.

The 1997 Joint Cooperation Committee joined ASEAN in July of the same year.MyanmarDue to disagreement regarding the handling of the product, it was postponed until May 1999.At this meeting, a "work plan" was adopted to create partnerships in the areas of politics and security, economy, development, environment and energy.

200711/21The first summit was held in Singapore to commemorate the 30th anniversary of official relations.

America

Originally, ASEAN was a military allianceSoutheast Asian Treaty OrganizationThe member states and the United States maintained a strong relationship, as they played a role in reinforcing (SEATO). Even if SEATO was dissolved in 1975 due to the end of the Vietnam War in 1977, the cooperative relationship between the two remained unchanged, and ASEAN was functioning as a de facto part of the international political system that unites capitalist countries.With the end of the Cold War, the color of the anti-communist political alliance faded from ASEAN, and Vietnam joined.[90]Even so, the United States maintains friendly relations with ASEAN countries[91]Even today, the ASEAN countries (Southeast Asia) are important markets and raw material suppliers for the United States.Also by ChinaNansha Islands(Spratly Islands) Domination, etc.South China SeaThe United States supports the position of ASEAN countries, which oppose and warn against the advancement.

But in MalaysiaMahathirThe administration isLook East PolicyWith Japan as a model for economic development instead of the United States[92],National car conceptIn terms of economy, there may be ripples between ASEAN and the United States, such as promoting the independence of the automobile industry.The aim of ASEAN to lead the economy and international public opinion of Asia as a whole is1996Although it came to fruition as ASEM was held in Japan, the United States remained cautious about the composition of deepening multilateral cooperation without its own country.East Asian CommunityIt has led to the US opposition to the proposal.

People's Republic of China

When ASEAN was launchedPeople's Republic of China(China)Cultural RevolutionIn the middle ofMaoist principleHe was enthusiastic about exporting the socialist revolution.Also, in many ASEAN countries, a minority of Chinese residents (Chinese) Has the real power of the economy and has a delicate relationship with the indigenous people who produce national leaders, and in the past it was mainly Chinese.Malayan Communist PartyArmed struggle by IndonesiaAugust 9 IncidentBecause of this, the governments of ASEAN countries were very cautious about China.[93].President Nixon's visit to ChinaChina, which had been strengthening relations with the West since the end of the 1970sReform and opening upIt turned to a route and began to emphasize diplomatic and economic relations with Southeast Asian countries.In the Cambodian Civil War, it was supported by China and ASEAN countries (especially Thailand).Khmer Rouge(Pol Pot faction)Sihanouk(Royalists) and others cooperatedDemocratic CampchiaA three-party coalition government was established.

When China establishes diplomatic relations with Singapore in 1990 and restores diplomatic relations with Indonesia[94], China and ASEAN are closer. In 1997ASEAN + 3Become a member.When the conflict ended with the Cambodian peace agreement and China's reform and opening policy became steadfast, Chinese capital in Southeast Asia expanded its investment in China, and a large amount of Chinese clothing and electrical appliances were exported to ASEAN. Came to be[95].. In 2002, China and ASEAN agreed to establish a free trade zone[96], The Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) between the two parties came into effect in 2010.Mekong RiverIn the comprehensive development plan for the basin, both sides established a cooperation meeting in 1996.[97]In this field as well, the approach of ASEAN from China is remarkable, especially in Laos.With such system development, economic relations are steadily expanding.

On the other hand, on the political front, the ASEAN countries' alertness to China has not been resolved.Especially the Spratly Islands in the central South China Sea (Spratly Islands) And the northern part of the seaXisha IslandsChina, Vietnam, Philippines, etc. vie for sovereignty over (Paracel Islands),Chinese PLA NavyHas bases in both islands ("Construction of an artificial island in the People's Republic of China in the Nansha Islands”) Has been a problem from ASEAN countries and has become an unstable factor.

Republic of China (Taiwan)

Republic of ChinaHad diplomatic relations with member countries other than Malaysia when ASEAN was established, but it has disappeared since 1990.However, informal diplomatic relations and widespread economic cooperation continue.Above all, what is Singapore?1975It is said that the "Starlight Project" signed in the above is still valid, and the Singaporean army will continue military exercises in Taiwan, and there is an agreement that Singapore will support in the case of an armed invasion by China (however,Lee Kuan YewDemands Taiwan to be notified in advance two weeks in case of an armed invasion[98]).The Republic of China also claimed sovereignty over the Spratly Islands and the Spratly Islands.太平 島Has a military base in.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  45. ^ According to IMF data in 2009, Singapore's GDP per capita was US $ 1 (same below) and East Timor was US $ 5, a difference of more than 1142 times.Currently, the highest among ASEAN member countries is Singapore, and the lowest is Myanmar at $ 2364. When East Timor joins, it will become a low-ranking group in the $ 20 range along with Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, etc.[Source required]
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  80. ^ This is ChinaReform and opening upIt was noticeable in the 1970s, when it hadn't progressed yet.
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  82. ^ Yasuo Fukuda "Toward the Day when the Pacific Ocean Becomes the" Inland Sea "-Five Promises for Future Asia to Walk Together-" At the International Conference "Future of Asia" Supper "" Yasuo Fukuda, Prime Minister of Japan・ International Conference “The Future of Asia” 5 ”Cabinet Public Relations Office, May 2008, 2008.
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  88. ^ Philippines1898 OfUS-West WarUntil it became American territoryスペインDominated.
  89. ^ In East TimorPortugalThe colonial rule was abandoned and occupied by Indonesian troops shortly after the declaration of independence.
  90. ^ Negotiations to establish diplomatic relations with the United States by the Vietnamese government proceeded in parallel with negotiations to join ASEAN, and diplomatic relations with the United States were established in August following the accession in July 1995.Since then, the two countries have come close to each other rapidly.
  91. ^ However, the United States does not form diplomatic relations and imposes economic sanctions on Myanmar, which continues to be suppressed by the military government's human rights violations and democratization movements.
  92. ^ Often misunderstoodBubble economyIs 10 years later and has nothing to do with
  93. ^ Singapore, separated from Malaysia, is the only ASEAN member country of Chinese descent, which makes Indonesia'sSuhartoHe is of Chinese descent because he admitted the threat of military invasion by the administration.Lee Kuan Yew(Lee Kuan Yew) Under the guidance of the Prime MinisterPeople's Action PartyThe (PPP) administration has thoroughly dispelled its Chinese colours, and has not had diplomatic relations with China for many years.
  94. ^ Indonesia had diplomatic relations with China in 1967, when the Suharto administration was established.
  95. ^ Total imports and exports increased more than five times from $ 1991 billion in 79 to $ 2001 billion in 5.Chinanet dated April 416, 2009"15th Anniversary of Dialogue, China-ASEAN Economic and Trade Relations Making Great Advances"
  96. ^ Chinanet dated April 2009, 4"China-ASEAN Free Trade Zone"
  97. ^ Hiroshi Katayama (Professor, Kobe University) "Mekong River Basin Development" in Kotobank [3], The original isAsahi Shimbun"Chiezo2011 ”.
  98. ^ March 2003, 8 『China time signal"

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