"I can't get a pension ..." What happens if I continue to be unpaid?
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For those who have difficulty paying their pension insurance premiums due to unemployment or a decrease in income, the national pension has a system called exemption or deferment.
If the pension premium is not paid, future benefits may be reduced or you may not be able to receive the benefits. In principle, the national pension is 65 years old or older. → Continue reading
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National pensionWhat is (Kokumin Nenkin)?Japan OfNational Pension ActSpecified by JapanPublic pensionThat is.The current system corresponds to the basic pension part (1st floor part, Basic Pension) of the universal pension system.The financial resources consist of social insurance premiums and half the national treasury burden (tax) (Article 85)..
"PeopleIt's called a pension, but it's actually a pensionReceiptIf you doCause of benefitsByOld age basic pension,Basic disability pension,Bereaved family basic pension,Widow pension,Death allowance(The word "national" is no longer attached to benefits and benefits).Initially, it was established as a non-contributory welfare pension, and even now there is a non-contributory benefit (so-called "basic pension for disability due to injury or illness before the age of 20"), so it also has a welfare character, so the system is "insurance". There is no name.
Under the current lawJapanese nationality TheRequirementsThose who do not have Japanese nationality (settled in Japan)Foreigners living in Japan) Also, if the prescribed requirements are met, the insurance premium must be paid.また外国Also foreignCitizenshipBenefits only forLump-sum withdrawal) Is also available.
|National pension(1st floor)|
|No. 1 insured||1,575 million people|
|No. 2 insured||4,266 million people|
|No. 3 insured||889 million people|
|Employee pension (2nd floor)|
|Welfare pension insurance||4,267 million people|
|Civil servants, etc.||(426 million)|
|Other optional pensions|
|National Pension Fund / Defined contribution pension(401) |
/ Defined benefit pension / Employees' pension fund
Article 25 of the Constitution of JapanSection 2 "The country is about all aspects of lifesocial welfare,社会 保障as well as the public healthMust strive to improve and improve. For all citizens, based on the philosophy stipulated inOld age,ObstacleOrDeathbyincomeThe loss and decrease of the people will prevent the stability of the people's lives from being impaired by the joint solidarity of the people, and the people will be healthy.LifeTo contribute to the maintenance and improvement ofthe purpose(Article 1).この目的を達成するために、国民の老齢・障害・死亡（障害・死亡については、その原因が業務上であるか業務外であるかを問わない）に関して必要なIn order to achieve this purpose, it is necessary for the people's old age, disability, and death (for disability and death, regardless of whether the cause is business or non-business).Payment(Article 2).
- Number of beneficiaries
- 2017(29) At the end of the fiscal year, the actual number of public pension recipients (the number of beneficiaries excluding those who have been suspended from payment in full) is 4,077 million., About 3% of the people receive a public pension.
- Insurance premium payment rate
- 2017The national average of the national pension insurance premium payment rate (29) is 66.3% (+1.3 points from the previous year)...However, the payment rate is calculated from the ratio of the number of months actually paid during the relevant year (until the end of April of the following year) to the number of months to be paid as insurance premiums for the relevant year.As a general rule, insurance premiums can be paid for the past two years, and the final payment rate, including those paid in previous years, is 4% for 2 (Heisei 2015).By age group, the payment rate increased in all age groups in 27.
- In addition, the actual payment rate calculated without exempting payment and excluding those who have been deferred is2006Every time (18), it was 49%, which was less than 5% for the first time (Social Insurance AgencyInvestigate).なお第1号被保険者だけではなく、第2号被保険者、第3号被保険者も考慮にいれると2006年（平成18年）度末において未納者（約322万人）、未加入者（約18万人）の公的年金加入者（約7041万人）に占める割合は5%となるConsidering not only the first insured person but also the second insured person and the third insured person, as of the end of XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX), unpaid persons (about XNUMX million people), unsubscribed. XNUMX% of the public pensioners (about XNUMX million).
- Looking at the payment status of insurance premiums for 29 by prefecture, the top three prefectures with the highest payment rates are Shimane, Toyama, and Niigata.On the contrary, the bottom three prefectures, which were low, are Okinawa, Osaka, and Tokyo.下位3都府県は3年連続で同じであるThe bottom three prefectures are the same for the fifth consecutive year.
- Percentage in Japan's social security
- 2011Japan's social security benefits in (23) were about 107 trillion yen, of which the national pension benefits were about 19 trillion yen, accounting for almost half of the social security benefits.. Also2012The average amount of income per household of elderly households in (24) was 1 yen for "public pensions and onkyus", accounting for 209% of the total income of 8000 yen..
"The national pension business政府Is in charge. (Article 3),Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIs responsible for that, but most of the actual administrative workJapan Pension Service(Hereafter, abbreviated as "mechanism")DelegationAlso,National Pension FundWhen the Japan Pension Service disposes of delinquent paymentsAuthorizationWith the mandate of the Minister of Health, Labor and WelfareRegional Health BureauThe chief is exercising.Furthermore, part of the affairs of the national pension business is subject to the provisions of Cabinet Order.Mutual aid associationCan be done.
The following affairs will be carried out by the mayor of the municipality (Article 1-2 of the Enforcement Ordinance).
- Acceptance of application for approval of voluntary withdrawal
- Acceptance / examination of qualification acquisition / disqualification requests for voluntary insured persons
- Acceptance of application for reissuance of National Pension Handbook
- Acceptance and examination of arbitrage requests for persons who have only the first insured period
- Acceptance of request for revision of disability basic pension amount
- Acceptance / examination of applications such as application exemption
- Acceptance / examination of application for payment of additional insurance premiums
"The finances of the national pension business must be balanced over the long term, and if it is expected to be significantly out of balance, the necessary measures must be taken promptly." ( Article 4-2), and further, "The government should at leastEvery 5 years, Insurance premiums and national treasury burden, amount of expenses required for benefits under the National Pension Act, and other financial balances of the national pension businessFiscal equilibrium periodForecast of income and expenditure inFinancial status and outlook』) Must be created. "(Financial verification, Article 4-3), set the future population and economic assumptions, and prepare a long-term pension finance outlook.Balance of benefits and burdensCheck if is planned.And when the "Financial Status and Outlook" is prepared, it must be published without delay. The "fiscal equilibrium period" refers to approximately 100 years after the year in which the "fiscal status and outlook" was created.
The government prepares the current state and outlook of the finances, and the reserve fund (national pension of the special pension account) necessary to prevent the finances of the national pension business from interfering with the payment of benefits at the end of the fiscal balance period. If it is expected that the balance cannot be maintained over the relevant fiscal balance period while holding the reserve fund of the account, the amount of pension benefits (excluding supplementary pension) (excluding supplementary pension)Benefits) Shall be adjusted, and the period for adjusting the benefit amount by Cabinet Order (Adjustment period), And when the government prepares the "Financial Status and Outlook" in the adjustment period, it must also prepare the outlook for the end year of the adjustment period and publish it at the same time. Must be (Article 16-2). 「財政の現況及び見通し」が作成されるときは、厚生労働大臣は厚生年金の実施者たる政府が負担し、または実施機関たるWhen the "Financial Status and Outlook" is prepared, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare shall be borne by the government, which is the implementer of the welfare pension, or shall be the executing agency.Mutual aid associationFor the basic pension contributions to be paid by, etc., the estimated amount for the future shall be calculated.
When the national pension was first established, it adopted a fully funded system.厚生年金については、昔の政府資料ではRegarding the welfare pension, old government documents1948After that, the system shifts to a pay-as-you-go systemHowever, since the national pension was not established in 1948, this does not correspond to the national pension.Regarding the national pension, the amount of benefits will be significantly increased by the revision of the law in 1966 (Showa 41), 1969 (Showa 44), and 1973 (Showa 48), and the insurance premium will be gradually increased. Therefore, it is said that the company has shifted to financial management using the modified reserve method.その後、年々の年金給付に必要な費用を、その時々の被保険者納付する保険料で賄われる部分が徐々に拡大し、1985年（昭和60年）の基礎年金制度導入を含め年金制度全体がAfter that, the portion of the expenses required for annual pension benefits covered by the premiums paid by the insured at that time gradually expanded, and the entire pension system including the introduction of the basic pension system in XNUMX (Showa XNUMX)Intergenerational supportHas strengthened his personality. With the introduction of the fixed premium level system due to the revision of the law in 2004, the premium will be fixed at a fixed amount in the future.Pay-as-you-go systemThe transition to is underway.
- Completely funded method
- A financial system in which premiums are set to be equal for all insured persons in the future.In this method, if the benefit rate, withdrawal rate, mortality rate, disability rate, etc., which are the basis of insurance premium calculation, are as planned, the insurance premium will be constant from the beginning and the amount of reserve fund will be mathematically sound. It becomes.ただし、初めから高率の保険料を徴収し、膨大な資金の蓄積が行われるため、その後の給付費の引き上げやHowever, since a high rate of insurance premiums will be collected from the beginning and a huge amount of funds will be accumulated, the benefit costs will be raised thereafter.inflationThere is an aspect that it is difficult to deal with.
- Modified reserve method
- It is a method to raise the benefit cost, which is difficult to deal with by the financial method by the fully funded method, and to supplement the response to inflation. Based on the funded method, the burden rate is changed every year according to the economic situation and changes in the population composition. A method of changing the amount of insurance premiums).
- Pay-as-you-go system
- A method in which the expenses required for pension benefits for a certain period are covered by the premiums paid by the active insured and the government for that period.
The national pension is paid by the insured and receives benefits according to the premium paid.Social insurance methodIs adopted.The costs required for benefits (benefit costs) are covered by insurance premiums and the national treasury burden (tax) (Article 85).There are also basic pension contributions contributed by the welfare pension implementing agency and income from fund management.
The ratio of national treasury burden is
- Old-age basic pension benefit for the quarter exemption period: 4/1
- Old-age basic pension benefit for half-price exemption period: two-thirds
- Old-age basic pension benefit for the quarter exemption period: 4/3
- Old-age basic pension benefit costs for the full premium exemption period (excluding the student payment exception and the youth payment grace period): The full amount (student payment exception and the youth payment grace period are not reflected in the pension amount, so there is a problem of national treasury burden Does not occur)
- Disability basic pension benefits due to injury or illness before the age of 20: 10/6
- Additional amount of lump-sum death allowance to be added to supplementary pension and supplementary pension payer: 4/1 (measures for the time being)
The basic pension contribution is the second insured person and the third insured every year by the government, which is the implementer of the welfare pension insurance, and the mutual aid association, etc., which is the implementing agency, in order to cover the expenses required for the basic pension benefits. It is a contribution to be paid for the portion related to the person (Article 2-3).The amount is calculated by the following formula for each government and executing agency.Half of the amount of contributions borne by the government is borne by the national treasury, and the portion borne by mutual aid associations, etc. is stipulated by each mutual aid law.
- (Number of No. 2 insured persons + Number of No. 3 insured persons) ÷ Number of insured persons of national pension x Basic pension benefit cost
In addition, the national treasury is a national pension business within the budget every year.Expenses required to execute office workAs a general rule, the administrative expenses are borne by the national treasury (some are insurance premiums).
The reserve fund is managed by the reserve fundPart of the premium collected from the insured of the national pensionAndValuable financial resources for future benefitsSpecially paying special attention toFor the benefit of the insured of the national pensionIn addition, from a long-term perspective, it shall be carried out with the aim of contributing to the stability of the operation of the national pension business in the future by carrying out it safely and efficiently.The operation of the reserve fund isMinister of Health, Labour and WelfareHowever, for the purpose of paying payments based on operations in line with this purpose,Pension reserve management operation Independent administrative agencyReserve fund for (GPIF)DepositIt is said that it shall be done by doing (Articles 75 and 76). GPIF is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,Pension fundas世界Although it is the largest, in reality most of the investment is outsourced to asset management companies and trust banks.Until the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare deposits the reserve fund with GPIF,Fiscal loan fundThe reserve fund can be deposited in.積立金の運用職員は、その職務に関して知り得た秘密を漏らし、又は盗用してはならず、運用職員がこれに違反したと認めるときは、厚生労働大臣は、その職員に対しThe investment staff of the reserve fund must not divulge or plagiarize the secrets that they have learned about their duties, and if the investment staff finds that they have violated this, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare shall tell the staff.National Civil Service LawDisciplinary action must be taken based on (Articles 78 and 79).
The national pension reserve fund at the end of 2013 was 25 trillion yen on a market value basis, and 8.4 trillion yen including the welfare pension reserve fund of 123.6 trillion yen is managed as a unit... 2014年（平成26年）財政検証では複数の経済前提が設定され、各ケースに対応できる長期の実質的な運用利回りとしてIn XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX) financial verification, multiple economic assumptions were set, and as a long-term substantial investment yield that can handle each case.1.7%It has been shown.In addition, this verification confirmed that if the Japanese economy is revived and participation in the labor market is promoted, a benefit level of 50% of the income substitution rate can be secured in the future under the current system.
2017 pensionSpecial accountAccording to the balance sheet, the market value-based balance of the national pension is a surplus of 2729 billion yen.国民年金の積立金残高は9兆2210億円（厚生年金との合計額は164兆1245億円）と過去最高を記録しているThe balance of the national pension reserve is XNUMX billion yen (the total amount with the welfare pension is XNUMX billion yen), which is a record high..
National pension ledger
The Minister of Health, Labor and WelfareNational pension ledgerThe name of the insured person, acquisition and loss of qualifications, change of type, payment status of insurance premiums, basic pension number and other prescribed matters are recorded in this (Article 14).被保険者又は被保険者であった者は、国民年金原簿に記録されたThe insured or the insured was recorded in the national pension register.Self-record is not trueOrNot recordedとWhen to thinkCan request the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (delegation of office work to the Organization) to correct the national pension register (Article 14-2).When the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (delegation of authority to the director of the regional welfare bureau, etc.) finds that there is a reason for the request for correction, he / she must decide to correct the national pension register pertaining to the request for correction.この決定をしようとするときはあらかじめBefore making this decisionSocial Security Council(Actually, by delegating authority to the director of the regional welfare bureau, etc.) must be consulted.Those who have only the insured period of the mutual aid association cannot make this claim.
The beneficiary must notify the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare of the prescribed matters and submit the prescribed documents and other properties, and the notification must be submitted to the beneficiary and the household to which the beneficiary belongs.Head of householdOther thatHouseholdThere is also an obligation to make the notification to those who belong to (Article 105).In addition, the Minister of Health, Labor and WelfareRegarding the qualification of the insuredIf you find it necessary, go to the public office,Mutual aid associationEtc. orHealth insurance associationInsured orNational Civil Service Mutual Aid LawOrLocal Public Employee Mutual Aid Association LawMembers who are subject to the provisions regarding short-term benefits ofPrivate school faculty and staff mutual aid law Subscribers or who are subject to the provisions regarding short-term benefitsHealth insuranceOrNational Health InsuranceYou can request the inspection of necessary documents or the provision of materials regarding the name and address of the insured person and other matters (Article 108).From the viewpoint of correcting past inconsistent records, the range of persons subject to the provision of materials has been expanded by the revision in 2013 (Heisei 25).If the beneficiary does not make a notification without a justifiable reason or does not submit documents or other properties, the payment of pension benefits may be temporarily suspended (Article 73).
As a general rule, check the current status of pension benefit recipients.monthly,Basic Resident Register Network SystemThis is done by receiving the identity verification information provided by.本人確認情報の提供を受けることができる受給権者の「住所の変更」または「死亡」（7日以内に"Change of address" or "death" (within XNUMX days) of the beneficiary who can receive the identification informationFamily register lawFor (limited to those submitted above), the notification under the National Pension Act can be omitted, and it is not necessary to submit a status report.当該現況確認ができない等のために厚生労働大臣からFrom the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare because the current situation cannot be confirmedStatus reportBeneficiaries, etc. who are requested to submit, etc.When the full amount of pension benefits is suspendedUnless it is within one year from the date when the disability basic pension / survivor basic pension is decided, the status report, etc. must be submitted to the Japan Pension Service by the last day of the month to which the birthday belongs. It doesn't become.If you are a recipient of the basic disability pension due to injury or illness before the age of 1 or the basic survivor's pension that has been arbitrated from the old law's maternal and child welfare / quasi-maternal and child welfare pension, every year regardless of your birthday or confirmation on the Basic Resident Register network system. You must submit a status report by July 20st.The medical certificate, etc. of the doctor attached to the status report must be prepared within one month before the submission deadline.If you do not submit the status report without a justifiable reason, the payment of pension benefits will be temporarily suspended.
In order to improve public understanding of the national pension system and improve its trust, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare shall, pursuant to the provisions of the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, pay the insured the insurance premiums and the future Regarding benefitsNecessary informationIs to be notified in an easy-to-understand format (Article 14-5).これに基づき被保険者にBased on this, to the insuredScheduled flightsHas been sent.
被 保 険 者
The insured persons of the national pension are divided into the following two according to age, occupation, working style, etc.
- Compulsory insured person(No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 insured persons)
- Voluntary insured person
Welfare pension insuranceThose who are enrolled in (No. 2 insured person) are also enrolled in the national pension at the same time.Only the first insured person among compulsory insured persons pays the premium directly to the national pension.第1号被保険者は厚生年金財政から基礎年金拠出金が国民年金に拠出され（厚生年金保険料の納付はFor the second insured person, the basic pension contribution is contributed to the national pension from the welfare pension finance (payment of the welfare pension premium isBusiness ownerThe third insured person does not bear the premium of the person himself / herself, and the implementing agency of the welfare pension to which the spouse is a member bears as a basic pension contribution together with the spouse who is the second insured person. are doing. 3年（平成2年）度末の公的年金の加入者数は2015万人であり、前年度末より約27万人（6,733%）の増加となったThe number of public pension members at the end of 3 was 0.0 million, an increase of about XNUMX (XNUMX%) from the end of the previous fiscal year..
|No. 1 insured||No. 2 insured||No. 3 insured|
|Subscriber||In JapanAddressHavePersons between the ages of 20 and 60 who are not No. 2 insured or No. 3 insured|
(Article 7, Paragraph 1, Item 1)
(Specifically, do not become self-employed, farmer, student, unemployed, welfare pension insured personWorkerWait)
|No. 1 welfare pension insured person|
(Of the welfare pension insured persons, those who are not the second to fourth welfare pension insured persons. Specifically, those who work for private companiesPermanent, Part-time workers who meet the prescribed requirements)
(Article 7, Paragraph 1, Item 2)
|No. 2-4 welfare pension insured person|
(Union member of civil servant mutual aid ・Private school mutual aidMember)
|Have an address in Japan20 to 60 years old|
No. 2 insuredSupportspouse
(Article 7, Paragraph 1, Item 3)
|Number of subscribers||1,505 million people|
(779 million men and 726 million women)
|3,911 million people|
(2,442 million men and 1,470 million women)
|447 million people|
(274 million men and 173 million women)
|870 million people|
(11 million men and 859 million women)
|Insurance fee||16,540 yen per month (fixed amount)|
(2020 (2nd year of Reiwa))
|After September 2017 (Heisei 29)|
Standard monthly feeFixed at 18.3% (half labor and management)
|Set your own premium rate as a transitional measure||No personal burden|
(The pension system of the second insured person bears)
|3st floor||N/A||VariousCorporate pension|
(Introduced by each company)
|"Job area addition" (average standard remuneration amount x 1.154 / 1000 x subscription period)|
Changed to "pension payment retirement benefit" due to unification
|2st floor||National Pension Fund(Voluntary subscription)||Employee pension|
|1st floor||Basic pension|
Compulsory insured person
The second insured qualification is acquired on the day when the welfare annuity insurance insured qualification is acquired (regardless of age).Persons under the age of 2 who are not No. 2 insured will obtain insured status (Nos. 20 and 20) the day before their 1th birthday (Article 3).In addition, the first insured person and the third insured person are qualified as insured on the day before their 8th birthday, and the second insured person who has the right to receive old-age benefits is qualified on the day before their 1th birthday. (Article 3).よってThereforePersons under the age of 20 or over the age of 60 will not be the first insured person or the third insured person..
When the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare receives a report that he / she has acquired the qualification of an insured person, or receives a notification regarding the acquisition of the qualification of the third insured person, the insured personNational pension notebookAnd deliver it to that person (Article 13).
- No. 1 insured person and No. 3 insured person have address requirements..No. 2 insured person has no address requirement.
- With the enforcement of the revised law on April 2020, 2 (Reiwa 4), domestic residence requirements will also be imposed on the third insured person...その要件はThe requirement isHealth insurancePerform in accordance with the domestic residence requirements in the dependent certification requirements.The same applies to special cases when temporarily living overseas (Article 7, Article 2-1 of the Enforcement Regulations).Health insurance # DependentsSee.Regarding this certification,Administrative procedure lawThe provisions of Chapter 3 (excluding Articles 12 and 14) do not apply (Article 7).
- Although it has the name "national", it is under the current law.Japanese nationalityIs not a requirement..Those who are recorded in the Basic Resident Register even if they are foreigners (Mid- and long-term residents,Special permanent resident, Temporary asylum permit, resident who has passed the birth) ・ Persons who are not recorded in the Basic Resident Register but who are found to have an address in Japan will be applied as the first insured person until the day after departure. Received (June 1, 24, National Issue 6 No. 14, Annual Administration 0614 No. 1).
- Due to the enforcement of the revised law on April 2020, 2 (Reiwa 4), the first insured person for "a person specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare as a person who has a special reason to exclude the application of the National Pension Law" , No. 1 will be excluded from the insured. "Persons specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare" are those who do not have Japanese nationality.Status of residenceIs a person who is "specific activity (medical stay or attendant of medical stayer)" or "specific activity (long-term stay or spouse of long-term stayer for sightseeing, recreation, etc.)" (Enforcement Regulations) Article 1-2).
- The second insured personNo age limit.. HoweverPersons aged 65 and over are limited to those who do not have the right to receive a pension due to old age or retirement...In general, a welfare pension insured person is no longer the second insured person even if he / she continues to be employed after reaching the age of 65 (continuing to be a welfare pension insured person).On the other hand, the elderly voluntary insured person of the welfare pension is the second insured person because he / she is 2 years old or older but does not have the right to receive old-age benefits.
- Even if you have an address in Japan and are between the ages of 20 and 60, the beneficiary of old-age benefits, etc. under the Employees' Pension Insurance Law is not the first insured person (Article 1 of the Enforcement Ordinance)...On the other hand, even if you are a beneficiary of old-age benefits, if you are a dependent spouse of the second insured person, you will be the third insured person.
- Notification of matters related to the acquisition of insured status, change of type, change of address and name within 14 days, the first insured person (after the change type) to the mayor of the municipality, the third insured person Must be the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (delegation to the Organization) via the spouse's place of employment.The same applies to the confirmation of the spouse type of the third insured person (change to a different welfare pension insured person type).No. 1 insured persons do not need to be notified under the National Pension Act because each executing agency submits notifications and procedures.
- If the insured is disqualified due to reaching the age of 60, no notification is required.また、20歳に達したことにより被保険者資格を取得した場合、令和元年10月以降は機構が住民基本台帳情報の提供を受けることにより当該者が20歳に達した事実を確認できるときは、当該第1号被保険者の資格取得の届出を不要とすることになったIn addition, if you acquire the insured status by reaching the age of XNUMX, you can confirm the fact that the person has reached the age of XNUMX by receiving the basic resident register information from October of the first year of Reiwa. In that case, it was decided that the notification of acquisition of the qualification of the first insured person would not be required..
- If there is a change in the type of insured person (No. 1, No. 2, No. 3) during the month, it is considered that the month was the insured person of the changed type.If the type is changed more than once in the same month, the month is considered to be the last type of insured person.
- Certification of No. 3 insured personHealth insurance lawThe Organization will take into consideration the certified handling of dependents in such cases.Specifically, "Certification standard annual income,130 less than one million yen(Persons with disabilities are less than 180 million yen) "and" less than half of the annual income of the spouse who is the second insured person ".このthis"Annual income" includesUnemployment benefits,Injury and sickness allowance, Including income from pensions, etc...The second insured person who is a spouse must submit a “Dependent Spouse Applicability Report” to JQA.
- Criteria for certification of No. 3 insured person If the annual income is above the above, it is out of the criteria for dependent spouse. ), Therefore, it is necessary to notify the change of type from the No. 1 insured person to the No. 2 insured person (No. 3 insured person).In addition, the spouse who is the second insured person must submit a "Notification of Non-Applicability to Dependent Spouse" to JQA.
- If the establishment is a member of the union health insurance, the relevantHealth insurance associationPart of the affairs related to the notification of the No. 2 insured person who is the dependent spouse of the No. 3 insured person to be used can be entrusted.Association KenpoIn the case of enrollment in, when a notification of becoming or no longer a dependent spouse of health insurance is submitted to the Organization via the employer, it is considered that the notification of dependent spouse (non-) is submitted. It is regarded.As a result, the second insured person's "Dependent spouse applicable notification" and "Dependent spouse non-applicable notification" are actually submitted via the employer.
- The second insured spouseSarahdid·retirementIf this happens, the spouse will no longer be the second insured person, and the dependent spouse who is the third insured person must notify the first insured person of the change.If a dependent spouse loses his or her livelihood due to her husband's income due to violence from her spouse, a similar notification is required.In this case, it is not necessary to submit a notification of non-applicability to dependent spouse.
- With welfare pensionMutual pensionWas integrated in October 2012 (unified into welfare pension) by the unification law enacted in August 24 (Heisei 8).The integration of insurance premium rates is scheduled for 2015 for civil servants and 27 for private school staff.
Voluntary insured person
Voluntary insured personIn order to become, you must apply to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (excluding No. 2 and No. 3 insured persons and those who are entitled to the advanced old-age basic pension) after satisfying any of the following (Supplementary Provisions) Article 5).
- Persons aged between 20 and 60 who have an address in Japan and who can receive old-age benefits, etc. based on the Employees' Pension Insurance Law (when the first insured person has paid the insurance premium in advance) It is considered as a voluntary subscription)
- Persons aged 60 to under 65 who have an address in Japan
- Persons with Japanese nationality who do not have an address in Japan and are between the ages of 20 and 65
- The first insured person has an address requirement, but even a Japanese person cannot become the first insured person (not compulsory) unless he / she has an address in Japan. Become.
- Japan andSocial security agreementIf you live in a country with which you have a stake, you can voluntarily join the Japanese national pension while joining the pension system of the partner country.
Persons aged 65 and over who meet all of the following requirements (excluding No. 2 insured persons)Special voluntary insured personBy applying to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare, you can obtain the right to receive the old-age basic pension or join until you reach the age of 70.If the voluntary insured person reaches the age of 65 and does not have the right to receive the old-age basic pension, it is considered that the special voluntary insured person has applied.
- 1965(40)4/1Persons aged 65 to under 70 who were born before and are not entitled to the old-age basic pension
- Those who have an address in Japan or those who have Japanese nationality and do not have an address in Japan
Have an address in JapanAs a general rule, when joining a voluntary insured person or a special voluntary insured person,Account transferMust be offered at the same time.If a voluntary insured person with an address in Japan fails to pay the premium by the deadline, he / she will lose his / her insured status on the day after the deadline.If a voluntary insured person who does not have an address in Japan delinquently pays the insurance premium and then two years have passed without paying the insurance premium, he / she will lose the insured status the next day.If you obtain the qualifications of No. 2 to 1 insured persons, or if the application for disqualification is accepted, you will lose the insured qualifications on that day.
When the voluntary insured person meets the full eligibility period (480 months only for the premium payment period), on that day, and the special voluntary insured person is old-age / retirement under the old-age basic pension or employee pension law. If you acquire the right to receive pension benefits for the reason of payment, you will lose the qualification the next day.
The voluntary withdrawal provision that existed from the old law era was abolished by the enforcement of the revised law in August 2017.
If a person who has never been insured in the past becomes the first insured person, the period from the month of acquisition of qualification to the month before the month of reaching the age of 1 belongs to less than 60 years (old age) Approval by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare at any time (if it is unlikely to meet the basic pension eligibility period)It was stated that the insured status could be lost in response to this (Article 10 before the revision).In addition, an application for approval of voluntary withdrawal is submitted within 3 months from the date of acquisition of qualification, and when approved, the person is considered to have not been insured retroactively.任意脱退は永住意思のない外国人を対象とするものでありVoluntary withdrawal is intended for foreigners who do not intend to live permanently., You cannot voluntarily withdraw just because you cannot meet the period due to delinquency.
Due to the revision of the law in 2004 (Heisei 16)2005The amount of insurance premiums after (17) is stipulated by law, and the insurance premiums are raised by 2005 yen each year from 2017 to 280, as the final insurance premium level.2017After (29), the monthly fee was fixed at 16,900 yen (Fixed premium level methodIntroduction of).しかし、2005年（平成17年）度より調整期間が開始され、実際の保険料額は各年度ごとの法定額にHowever, the adjustment period started in XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX), and the actual insurance premium amount will be the legal amount for each year.Insurance premium revision rateIt is the amount obtained by multiplying by (rounded to the nearest 10 yen).In addition, with the enforcement of the insurance premium exemption system for the first insured person during the prenatal and postnatal period from 31, the premium amount after 1 will be raised to 31 yen per month.
The insurance premium revision rate is added to the "previous year's insurance premium revision rate for each year" and "the price fluctuation rate two years before the year to which the first day of the relevant year belongs and the year four years before the year to which the first day of the relevant year belongs. The rate obtained by multiplying the real wage fluctuation rate (three-year average of three to five years ago) "(Nominal wage volatility) Is multiplied by). 2007年（平成19年）4月の保険料改定率が「0.997」とされThe premium revision rate for April XNUMX was set at "XNUMX".After that, the insurance premium revision rate will be revised every year and will be applied to the insurance premiums after April of that year (Articles 4-87).
Monthly insurance premiums must be paid by the first insured person and voluntarily enrolled insured person by the end of the following month.また、世帯主は、その世帯に属する被保険者の保険料をIn addition, the head of household pays the insurance premiums of the insured belonging to the household.solidarityObliged to payspouseOne is obliged to jointly pay the insurance premiums of the other insured.There is no obligation to pay the insured person for the second insured person and the third insured person.
There are the following payment methods.No fees are required for direct debit applications and withdrawals.
- Payment is made using the payment slip (National Pension Insurance Premium Payment Guide) sent by the Organization.
- convenience store,インターネットPayment usingcredit cardPayment using (advance payment by designated proxy payer)
- nationwidebank, Agricultural cooperatives, fishery cooperatives,Credit union,Credit unionas well as the post officeFrom an account such asAccount transferPayment at
According to a survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the payment rate at convenience stores tends to be higher in larger cities and younger age groups, and conversely, the ratio of fund transfers is higher in smaller cities / towns and older groups...The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare promotes fund transfers, but looking at the reasons why they have never used fund transfers, the percentage of younger age groups who think that the procedure is troublesome tends to be higher than that of older age groups. There is.
Regarding additional insurance premiums, payment after the due date was not possible until 2013 (Heisei 25), but the collection right has not been extinguished due to prescription since 2014 (Heisei 26). Payment for the year is possible.
Insurance premium prepayment discount system
The insured may prepay the premium for a certain period in the future, and in this case, the amount to be prepayed shall be the amount of the premium for each month of the period minus the amount specified by Cabinet Order ( Article 93, paragraphs 1 and 2).つまり、保険料を通常の納付期限よりも早くIn other words, the insurance premium is paid earlier than the normal payment deadline.paymentBy (prepayment), the amount to be paid will be reduced. The insurance premium for 2017 (Heisei 29) is 16,490 yen per month (197,880 yen per year), but the amount to be paid in advance is as shown in the table below.To use these prepayment systems, you must apply to the pension office and complete the procedure by the specified date.
|Message||Payment method||Delivery deadline||Discount amount||Discount rate|
|Direct debit early discount||Payment for the current month will be made by direct debit.||End of the month||50 Yen||50 × 12 ÷ 197,880 × 100 ≒0.303%|
|Cash payment prepayment for 6 months||One-time payment for 6 months in cash.||April 4th in the first half|
October 10st in the second half
|800 Yen||800 × 2 ÷ 197,880 × 100 ≒0.809%|
|Direct debit prepayment for 6 months||6 months' worth will be paid in a lump sum by direct debit.||April 4th in the first half|
October 10st in the second half
|1,120 Yen||1,120 × 2 ÷ 197,880 × 100 ≒1.132%|
|Cash payment prepayment for 1 year||One year's worth (1 months' worth) will be paid in cash.||4/30||3,510 Yen||3,510 ÷ 197,880 × 100 ≒1.774%|
|Direct debit prepayment for 1 year||One year's worth (1 months' worth) will be paid in a lump sum by direct debit.||4/30||4,150 Yen||4,150 ÷ 197,880 × 100 ≒2.097%|
|Cash payment prepayment for 2 year||One year's worth (2 months' worth) will be paid in cash.|
2017(Heisei29 years)4/1More possible.
|4/30||14,400 Yen||14,400 ÷ (197,880 + 196,080) × 100 ≒3.655%|
|Direct debit prepayment for 2 year||One year's worth (2 months' worth) will be paid in a lump sum by direct debit.|
2014(Heisei26 years)4/1More possible.
|4/30||15,640 Yen||15,640 ÷ (197,880 + 196,080) × 100 ≒3.970%|
In addition to the above method, by having the pension office issue a separate payment slip, you can pay in a lump sum from any month to the end of the fiscal year (March).In addition, some municipalities have adopted a 3-month advance payment method.例としてAs an exampleOsakaKishiwadaな ど.
When calculating the premium paid period or the premium three-quarters exemption period, the premium half-price exemption period or the premium one-quarter exemption period for the prepaid premiumWhen each month of the prepayment period has passed, Each shall be deemed to have paid the insurance premium for that month (Article 93, Paragraph 3).If the qualification of the first insured person is lost in the middle of the prepayment period, the prepayment premium for the unexpired period will be refunded based on the request (Enforcement Ordinance Article 1).
Compulsory collection of insurance premiums
If there is a person who is behind in paying insurance premiums or other fees collected under the National Pension Law, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare will specify a deadline for this.urgecan do.The deadline specified by the dunning letter must be 10 days or more after the date of issuing the dunning letter (Article 96, paragraphs 1 to 3).Since the reminder is given in the form stipulated in the rules (Form No. 15), the reminder is not given verbally, by telephone or in ordinary writing (Rule 83)..
The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (administrative delegation to the Organization) will not pay insurance premiums or other collections under this Act by the designated deadline.National tax delinquencyIt is possible to dispose of this according to the example of, or request the disposition from the place of residence of the delinquent or the municipality of the property location of the delinquent (Article 96, Paragraph 4).When a municipality disposes of it according to the example of municipal tax, the amount equivalent to 4% of the collected money will be delivered to the municipality by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (Article 96, Paragraph 5).When JHF disposes of national tax delinquency, it must be approved by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare in advance, and must be made to be collected by a collection staff appointed by the president of JQA in accordance with the implementation rules for delinquent tax delinquency.また厚生労働大臣は機構からの求めがあった場合には自ら滞納処分を行うことができるほか、滞納者が悪質な場合には当該権限をIn addition, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare can dispose of delinquent payments by himself / herself when requested by the Organization, and if the delinquents are malicious, the authority concernedMinister of FinanceThroughCommissioner of the National Tax AgencyCan be delegated to (Articles 109-4 to 109-8). A "malicious case" is a case where any of the following requirements are satisfied.
- Payment obligor is 13 months or moreThe insurance premium is delinquent.
- The payer may be concealing the property for the purpose of avoiding execution.
- The previous year's income of the payer is 1,000 million yen or more.
- It is not recognized that the payer has a sincere intention to pay.
When urging, the insurer, etc. shall add the collected amount (fractions less than 500 yen are rounded down), unless there are unavoidable circumstances for delinquency.From the day after the delivery deadline14.6% per year (XNUMX% per year, depending on the number of days until the day before the date of full payment or property seizureWhen the reminder is related to insurance premiumsIs the amount calculated by multiplying the ratio of 3% per year for the period from the day after the delivery deadline to the day when March passes.Overdue money(Fraction less than 50 yen is rounded down) is collected (Article 97).In addition, in order to reduce the burden on business owners, etc., from the awareness of the problem that the annual delinquency charge of 14.6% is too high under the current low interest rate situation.Special exceptions will be set up for the time being, Each yearSpecial standard ratio(Tax Special Measures ActBased on the provisions of Article 93, Paragraph 2, as "the ratio obtained by dividing the total average interest rate of new short-term lending contracts of banks in each month from October of the previous year to September of the previous year by 10".Minister of FinanceIf the annual rate (1% per year is added to the rate notified by) is less than 7.3% per year,
- For the period of "7.3% per year",Add 1% per year to the special standard ratio(If the added ratio exceeds 7.3% per year, 7.3% per year)
- For the period of "14.6% per year",Add 7.3% per year to the special standard ratioPercentage
Is said to be. 2018年（平成30年）~2020年（令和2年）の場合、特例基準割合は年1.6%（告示割合年0.6%に年1%を加算）とされたのでFrom XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX) to XNUMX (Reiwa XNUMX years), the special standard ratio was XNUMX% per year (announcement ratio XNUMX% per year plus XNUMX% per year)., Actually it is as follows.
- For the period of "7.3% per year", 2.6% per year
- For the period of "14.6% per year", 8.9% per year
Insurance premiums are entitled to be collected when two years have passed since the payment deadline (until the end of the following month).PrescriptionDisappears by.For this reason, even if you try to pay the insurance premium even if you have enough funds, you will not be able to qualify for the insurance in the future, or the amount of pension you can receive is expected to decrease.
In order to solve this problem, 2012 (Heisei 24)10/1Was enforced.According to the law, a person who was insured or was insured for only three years from October 2012, 24 (Heisei 10) to September 1, 2015 (Heisei 27).Excludes those who are already entitled to the old-age basic pension) Is approved by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare, and is for the past 10 years of the delinquent period (Limited to those whose right to collect has been extinguished by prescription) Insurance premium ()Deferred payment)can do..In addition, for the three years from October 2015, 27 (Heisei 10) to September 1, 2017 (Heisei 30), the "past 9 years" has been shortened to "the past 30 years" and the deferred payment system has been established. continue.If the specific period (prescription extinction inconsistent period) and the 3-year deferred payment system overlap, the payment for the specific period (for the past 10 years) will be used.In addition, the 5-year deferred payment system has a higher additional amount than the 5-year deferred payment system (September 10, 5, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Notification No. 10).
When paying using the deferred payment system, payment must be made from the earliest period of the non-payment period.When approving the payment of deferred insurance premiums, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare has extinguished the right to collect insurance premiums that the person who intends to receive the approval did not pay by the due date. If all or part of the non-payment is not paid, payment of the delinquent insurance premium shall be requested.
As a general rule, the old-age basic pension cannot be entitled to the benefits unless the premium is paid for 25 years or more. However, since it was stipulated that the payment deadline for the premium is the end of the following month, the payment period is less than 25 years. Despite having paid a large amount of money over many years, many people were born who could not receive the pension, despiteJapanese GovernmentHas not created a relief system社会 問題It had become.Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareEstimated that "up to 1700 million people will be eligible for relief depending on the deferred payment period (due to the enforcement of the law)" (as of September 2012).
Specified additional insurance premium
2013年（平成25年）度までは付加保険料を納期限までに納付しなかったときは、その納期限の日に、納付辞退の申出をしたものとみなされることとなっていた。この規定により納付辞退の申出をしたとみなされた者は、2016年（平成28年）4月1日から2019年（平成31年）3月31日までの間、厚生労働大臣の承認を受けて、過去10年以内の第1号被保険者期間について事後的に付加保険料に相当する額の納付をすることができる（Specified additional insurance premium).
Payment of specified additional insurance premiums must be made in order from the earliest period of the applicable period.When the recipient of the supplementary pension pays the specified supplementary premium, the pension amount will be revised from the following month, and when the recipient of the old-age basic pension who does not have the right to receive the supplementary pension pays the specified supplementary premium. , The additional pension will be paid from the following month.
Special insurance premiums
The insured, etc. has not performed the administrative processing that should be performed based on the provisions of laws and regulations, or the processing is extremely unreasonable (Specific reason), If the procedure cannot be completed or is delayed, a request to that effect may be made to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare.When the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare finds that there is a reason for the offer and approves the offer, it considers it as the insured period, etc. that should be included if the procedures, etc. were originally performed after the date of the offer. It is supposed to be.Specifically, if there is no specific reason, the insured period, full exemption / partial exemption period, additional premium payment period, and additional payment period are applicable, and if approved, each month of the applicable period. The amount equivalent to the insurance premium can be paid.When the beneficiary of the old-age basic pension / supplementary pension is approved and pays the special premium / special supplementary premium, the pension amount will be revised from the month following the month to which the application date belongs.
The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare shall set the standards for proposals pertaining to specific reasons, and shall consult with the Social Security Council in advance when attempting to set or change the standards.
Insurance premium exemption system
The first insured person of the national pension is for a long period from 1 to 20 years old regardless of the ability to bear the premium.Fixed amountYou will have to pay the insurance premium.However, it may be difficult to pay for 40 years due to various reasons, so if the prescribed requirements are met, the insurance premium will be exempted by the person's notification or application.There are two types of exemption system: legal exemption and application exemption.In addition, it should be notedVoluntary insured persons and special voluntary insured persons are not exempted from insurance premiums..
From April 2014, if an exemption is applied after advance payment, refunds will be possible for the portion after the exemption month.
In principle, the insured person should apply for the exemption, but from July 2015, the full exemption will be applied, and the deferment of payment for young people will be designated by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare. Person) can now apply for an exemption on behalf of the insured.In this case, it is considered that the exemption application was made on the day of the consignment.
If there is an exemption, when receiving the old-age basic pension, the amount calculated at the prescribed rate will be reduced compared to the case where the premium is paid in full (for details, seeOld-age pension #Payment amountSee).When receiving the survivor's basic pension and the disability basic pension, it is treated as the same period as the period when the full premium is paid.
When the first insured person falls under any of the following stipulated by law, except for those already paidFrom the month before the month to which the corresponding day belongsThe insurance premium is naturally exempted in full until the month to which the day when it no longer applies.If the statutory exemption requirements are met ・ If the statutory exemption does not meet the requirements, notify the mayor of the municipality within 14 days with a notification form containing the prescribed items and a pension handbook. (Rules Articles 75 and 76)..In addition, if the statutory exemption applies when acquiring the first insured qualification, the insurance premium will be exempted retroactively even if the qualification acquisition notification is not submitted (No. 1 from Hokoku on September 35, 9). ).
- Basic disability pensionBeneficiary (Disability welfare pensionRecipients of basic disability pension, etc. (limited to those who do not actually fall under the state of disability) who have passed 3 years since they no longer fall under Level 3 of
- Work injury insuranceExemption even if you receive disability (compensation) benefits.
- Welfare Act OfLife assistanceThose who are receiving
- Relief other than life assistance (Medical assistanceEtc.) only are not applicable.
- National Hansen's Disease Sanatorium, National recreation center and other facility residents
In the past, legally exempted persons could not pay or prepay even if they wanted to pay the insurance premium.Additional paymentHowever, due to the revision in 2014 (Heisei 26), in order to secure future pensions, even those who wish to pay in particular can pay insurance premiums and pay in advance even if they are legally exempt. It became.In addition, if the statutory exemption is applied retroactively, all the premiums paid until March 2014 were refunded, but after April 26, the amount paid It can be the insurance premium payment period.
- Insurance premium exemption during prenatal and postnatal period
From April 2019, 31 (Heisei 4)birth(In the case of multiple pregnancies, March in the case of multiple pregnancies) It has been decided that insurance premiums for the period from (previous) to the month following the expected delivery month will not be required to be paid (Article 73-6 after revision).For the second insured person (welfare pension insured person), there is a mechanism for exemption of the welfare pension insurance premium during the prenatal and postnatal period, whereas the first insured person is exempted from the insurance premium during the prenatal and postnatal period. It has been pointed out that the lack of a mechanism is unreasonable at the present time when the birthrate is declining and the population is aging rapidly.Notify the mayor of the municipality from 3 months before the expected date of delivery.The insurance premium exemption period will not change even if the expected date of delivery differs from the actual date of delivery.
The period of exemption from insurance premiums before and after childbirth is applied in preference to other insurance premium exemption provisions."Insurance premium payment period"..No income screening is done.In addition, during this period, additional insurance premiums can be paid, and the qualification of a member of the National Pension Fund is not lost (the contribution of the fund is not exempted).
When it is difficult for the first insured person and the head of household / spouse (person subject to income examination) who is obliged to pay the insurance premiums together to pay the insurance premiums due to financial reasons or a disaster. Except for those that have already been paid, if the person applies to the institution and receives approval, all or part of the insurance premium will be exempted for the specified period. Due to the revision in 1, you can apply for exemption retroactively for the period from the time of application to 2014 years and 26 month before.
"Income" is judged by the amount of income two years ago from January to June and the amount of income of the previous year from July to December.これは個人This is an individualResident taxIs linked to the cycle of.The exemption cycle is from April to March of the following year for special student payments, and from July to June of the following year.
- Application exemption requirements
- The first insured person or another household member of the household to which the first insured person belongsWelfare ActWhen receiving assistance other than life assistance by
- Local tax lawWhen you are a disabled person or widows specified in the above and your income in the previous year was 125 million yen or less
- When there is a reason specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare as a case where it is extremely difficult to pay the insurance premium
- When the amount of damage to household goods, etc. caused by an earthquake, storm, flood, fire, etc. is approximately half or more of the price.
- When it is difficult to pay insurance premiums due to unemployment
- Violence from spouse (DV) Makes it difficult to pay insurance premiums (for exemption applications from the first insured person who has been violent by his spouse, his spouse's income is not subject to examination)
- When receiving a loan under the turnover support fund loan system implemented by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare due to suspension or abolition of business
- When the previous year's income is below a certain amount for each of the exemption categories described below
- Full exemption (1961(From April 36)
- Income requirements are (number of dependents, etc.)+1) × 35 yen + 22 yen (Example: 57 yen for a single-person household)
- If the person, spouse, or head of household does not meet any of the exemption requirements, the exemption cannot be obtained.
- Three-quarters exemption (from July 4)
- Income requirements are (number of dependents, etc.) x 38 yen + 78 yen (example: 78 yen for single-person households)
- If the person, spouse, or head of household does not meet any of the exemption requirements, the exemption cannot be obtained.
- Half price exemption (from April 2002)
- Income requirements are (number of dependents, etc.) x 38 yen + 118 yen (example: 118 yen for single-person households)
- If the person, spouse, or head of household does not meet any of the exemption requirements, the exemption cannot be obtained.
- Three-quarters exemption (from July 4)
- Income requirements are (number of dependents, etc.) x 38 yen + 158 yen (example: 158 yen for single-person households)
- Special student payment (2000(From April 12)
- Income requirements are (number of dependents, etc.) x 38 yen + 118 yen (example: 118 yen for single-person households)
- StudentIf the person does not meet any of the exemption requirements, he / she cannot be exempted (regardless of the amount of income of the spouse / head of household)..
- This exception takes precedence over other application exemptions(Persons who fall under the special student payment exception are not eligible for other application exemptions).
- Students who are recognized as dependent spouses of the second insured person are not subject to the special student payment exception (the third insured person).
- If a student withdraws prematurely, a non-applicability report must be submitted.On the other hand, if you graduate, you do not need to submit a notification.
- When a student entrusts an application to a special office payment corporation for student payment, it was applied after the date when the corporation applied to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare until 2014 (26), but in 2015 (Heisei 27) From the year), it will be considered that the application for the special student payment was made on the day when the student entrusted the application to the corporation.
- Younger age payment deferment (2005(From April 17)
- Income requirements are (number of dependents, etc.)+1) × 35 yen + 22 yen (Example: 57 yen for a single-person household)
- Younger age (between April 2005 (Heisei 17) and June 4 (Reiwa 2025))Those who have an insured period under 30 years oldOr, between July 2016 and June 28Those who have an insured period under 50 years old) If the person or spouse does not meet any of the exemption requirements, the exemption cannot be obtained (the amount of income of the head of household does not matter).
- Young people who are unemployed or part-time workers are not exempt from insurance premiums because they live with their parents, so this was provided as a time-limited measure (for that reason, the income of the head of household is questioned. There is no).
Additional payment of insurance premiums
No. 1 insured person (Excluding beneficiaries of old-age basic pension) Has been approved by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare for the past 10 years.Exempted from paymentPaying insurance premiums (Additional payment) Can be done.However, if additional payment is made after the year following the year to which the exempted month belongs, an additional amount of 1.2 to 12.3% will be added depending on the elapsed period (to the insurance premium amount at the time of exemption).In the case of partial exemption, additional payment cannot be made unless the remaining amount has been paid.Additional premiums cannot be paid(People who are exempt from insurance premiums cannot pay additional insurance premiums, and even if they pay the exempted insurance premiums, they cannot pay additional insurance premiums).
The additional payment will be made first for the premiums exempted from payment due to the special student payment or the deferral of payment for young people, and then for the premiums exempted from payment due to other exemptions, starting from the month that has passed earlier.However, if there is an insurance premium exemption period before the special student payment period, select which one to pay additionally (Article 94).When the additional payment is made, it is considered that the insurance premium for the month related to the additional payment was paid on the day when the additional payment was made.
Status of insurance premium exemption
As of the end of March 2018, the percentage of those who are exempted from all premiums (total exemptions) is 30% of all first insured persons.The breakdown is 3% for legal exemption, 1% for full exemption due to application exemption, 38.7% for special student payment system, and 9.0% for younger age payment deferment system.地域別にみると、全額免除者の割合が最も高いのはBy region, the percentage of full exemptions is highestOkinawaIt is 54.4% of.In Okinawa prefecture, the full exemption by application accounts for 31.1%, which is significantly higher than other prefectures.全額免除者の割合が最も低いのはThe lowest percentage of full exemptionsTokyoIt is 30.9% of.総じてGenerallyCapital Area-Chukyo areaThe percentage of full exemptions by application is low and the percentage of full exemptions is also low, while the opposite is true in northern and western Japan.なお、法定免除者の割合が最も高いのはThe highest percentage of legally exempted persons isHokkaidoWas 14.4%, and the lowest was 6.8% in Tokyo..
Type of benefit
Basic pension (old age, disability, bereaved family) common to all insured persons and uniqueness only for the first insured personPaymentがある。老齢基礎年金の年金額は、1984年（昭和59年）度における65歳以上の者の雑費を除いた基礎的支出が、単身の場合が、47,600円/月、夫婦世帯の場合が、83,700円/月であったこと、1984年（昭和59年）度で25年間保険料を納付した場合の年金額が、48,000円/月であったことなどを勘案して、1985年（昭和60年）の年金制度改正で50,000円/月（年額60万円 1984年（昭和59年）度価格）となった。その後の財政再計算やPrice slideThe pension amount has been revised due to such reasons, and it is at the current pension amount level.
Current adjustment periodAs for the revision rate in, if it is the revision rate of new arbitrators (beneficiaries before the year of reaching the age of 68), in principle, "Adjustment rate" in "Nominal take-home wage fluctuation rate"If it is the revision rate of the arbitrated person (the beneficiary after the year of reaching the age of 68), in principle, "the price fluctuation rate" is multiplied by the "adjustment rate", except for the one related to the additional amount of the child. It will be revised based on "what was done".However, if the price fluctuation rate exceeds the nominal take-home wage fluctuation rate and the nominal take-home wage fluctuation rate is 1 or more, it will be revised based on the nominal take-home wage fluctuation rate (Article 27-4).
- For an example of the revision of the pension amount during the adjustment period,Macroeconomic slide # application exampleSee.
The right to receive a pension occurs when the requirements stipulated by law are met, but in order to receive the actual payment,Pension billSubmit the attached documents (a copy of the family register, resident's card of all households, income certificate (taxation certificate or tax exemption certificate), and other necessary documents), ask the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare to confirm the facts, and confirm the existence of the eligibility requirements. Must receive.The pension claim is made by integrating the national pension and the welfare pension.If you do not make this ruling request, your pension will not be paid even if you have the right to receive it (Article 16).審査の結果、受給要件を満たしているときには、受給権者にAs a result of the examination, if the eligibility requirements are met, the beneficiaryPension certificate, A pension decision notice will be sent.Since the statute of limitations of the pension is 5 years (described later), the entitlement will be extinguished if this procedure is not performed within 5 years from the time the entitlement was issued.
Annual amountIf a fraction of less than 1 yen occurs, the fraction of less than 50 yen will be rounded down, and the fraction of 50 yen or more and less than 1 yen will be rounded up to 1 yen (Article 17).Payment amount for each payment due month(Since the pension is paid in even-numbered months for the two months up to the previous month,6/1 of the pension) Has a fraction of less than 1 yen, the fraction is rounded down.Then, the total amount rounded down in each payment period is added to the amount paid in the February period (the added amount is also rounded down to less than 2 yen) (Article 1-18). From October 2, the calculation has been changed from 2015 yen units to 27 yen units.However, the full amount of the basic pension, the additional pension amount of the welfare pension, the additional amount of the child, the additional amount of the middle-aged widows, and the minimum guaranteed amount of the disability welfare pension will be calculated in units of 10 yen as before.For benefits that were decided or revised before October 100, the calculation will be in units of 1 yen as before.
For pension benefits, at the request of the beneficiary, it is possible to apply for suspension of payment of all the benefits (only a part of the benefits cannot be offered).The suspension of payment can be withdrawn at any time in the future, but the benefits before the withdrawal will not be paid retroactively (Article 20-2).If the whereabouts of the pensioner are unknown for more than one month, the head of household and other relatives living together must notify that the whereabouts are unknown, and the pension payment will be temporarily suspended. Become.
Old age basic pension
Typically"Basic pensionWhat is called "" is "Old age basic pensionIs often pointed to.年金額は満額の場合When the pension amount is full780,900 yen x revision rate(Original pension amount during the adjustment period. Actually, due to the deferment of the pension amount, until 2014 (Heisei 26)Special levelThe pension amount has been paid), but it will be reduced according to the insurance premium payment period.
Basic disability pension
If you have a disability due to illness or injury during the insured period, you will be paid if you meet the prescribed requirements.The pension amount for Level 2 is the same as the full amount of the old-age basic pension, and for Level 1 it is 2 times that of Level 1.25.If the beneficiary has a child under the age of 18 who maintains a living or a child under the age of 1 who is in a state of disability of the first or second grade, the prescribed amount will be added.
Bereaved family basic pension
If the insured (who was) dies, it will be paid to the bereaved family (spouse with children or children who are absent from both parents) who had maintained their livelihood if the deceased people met the prescribed requirements. ..The pension amount is the full amount of the old-age basic pension, plus the prescribed amount according to the number of children.
No. 1 It is paid when a person who has a premium payment period as an insured person meets the requirements.Voluntary insured persons are considered to be the first insured persons when applying the provisions of their own benefits.In addition, the special voluntary insured person is considered to be the first insured person only for the application of the lump-sum death allowance and lump-sum withdrawal allowance.
The "months for payment of insurance premiums" for the lump-sum death allowance and the lump-sum withdrawal allowance are calculated based on the number of months that are not exempt.In addition, in the case of half-price exemption, one-quarter exemption, and three-quarters exemption, it is also applicable when the percentage paid corresponds to the number of months without exemption (in the case of half-price exemption, the number of months is doubled). Will be).Full exemption does not count towards months.Also, "Same livelihood relationship"" Means sharing housing and household finances with the insured.Livelihood maintenance"" Refers to the case where the annual income per family member living together is less than 850 million yen in addition to the same livelihood relationship (the conditions are more lenient than the annual income per family member living together under the Health Insurance Act of less than 130 million yen).
- Additional pension
- Insurance premium as the first insured personFull paymentFurther in the moonAdditional insuranceIf you pay (400 yen per month)When we obtain right to receive old-age basic pensionFrom 200 yen (payment in January) to 1 yen (96,000 months = 480 years payment)In addition to the old-age basic pensionThe pension amount will increase.MoreOld-age pension #additional pensionchecking.
- Widow pension
- If a husband who has a premium payment period as the first insured period and a premium exemption period of 1 years or more dies without receiving the old-age basic pension or disability basic pension, he will be married for 10 years or more. It is paid to the wife who has a relationship and whose livelihood is maintained by her husband from the month following the month when she reaches the age of 10 to the month when she reaches the age of 60.MoreSurvivor's pension #Widows' pensionchecking.
- Death allowance
- The first insured person who paid the premium for 1 months or more died without receiving the old-age basic pension or the disability basic pension.When there is no survivor who can receive the survivor's basic pensionIn addition, 12 (36 months or more and less than 180 months) to 32 yen (420 months or more) will be paid to the bereaved family who had the same livelihood depending on the number of months of insurance premium payment (living maintenance related to lump-sum death allowance). Not asked).MoreSurvivor's pension #Lump payment for deathchecking.
- Lump-sum withdrawal
- As the first insured person, paid the insurance premium for more than 1 monthsThose who do not have Japanese nationalityIf (limited to those who are not insured) leave Japan without satisfying the eligibility period for the old-age basic pension, from the date of disqualificationWithin 2 yearsWill be paid by billing..This is a transitional measure for the time being (1994(6)11/9It will not be paid to those who do not have an address in Japan).The purpose is to prevent foreigners staying for a short period of time from having their insurance premiums thrown away.Therefore, if you have an address in Japan, you cannot claim it.
- Insurance premium payment months andThe year to which the last month in which the premium was paid belongsThe amount of payment varies depending on the amount of payment (The amount of lump-sum withdrawal payment after 2006 (Heisei 18) is the amount of payment for 2005 (17), and the premium for the relevant year and 2005 (17). It is determined by a Cabinet Order according to the ratio of the amount ofIf the last month when the insurance premium is paid is 2019 (Heisei 31), the amount of payment according to the number of months for which the insurance premium is paid is as follows.
- From June to less than December 6 yen
- From June to less than December 12 yen
- From June to less than December 18 yen
- From June to less than December 24 yen
- From June to less than December 30 yen
- 36 months or more 295,380 yen
- If you receive a lump-sum withdrawal payment, you will be deemed not to be the first insured for the period on which the calculation was based.
- It is not paid if you have been entitled to the disability basic pension and disability welfare pension.In addition, even if the additional insurance premium is paid, it will not be added.
- The lump-sum withdrawal payment was supposed to be made by mail after leaving Japan, but with the enforcement of this, it has become possible to make a request in Japan from March 29, 3.
Combined payment adjustment
- The principle of one-on-one pension
- Only the basic pension (1st floor part) and the employee pension (2nd floor part) based on the same reason for payment are allowed to be paid together.No other combined payment is allowed..As an example, the old-age basic pension (1st floor) and the old-age welfare pension (2nd floor) are paid together, but the old-age basic pension and the disability basic pension are not paid together.ただしHoweverOld-age basic pension and supplementary pensionIs paid together (Article 20).
- For pensions that are not paid together, both will be suspended once, and the pension benefits to be received will be selected again for the pension that you desire (apply for cancellation of the suspension).However, if there is a pension that has already been paid, unless there is a special application, it is considered that there has been an application for cancellation of the pension benefit, and the pension will continue to be paid.また解除申請はAlso, the cancellation applicationanytimeIt can be withdrawn in the future (you can switch to another pension benefit).
- When paid together
- The beneficiaryOver 65 years oldOnly in the case of, the following combinations will be provided together.
- Old-age basic pension (+ additional pension) + survivor welfare pension
- Old-age basic pension (+ supplementary pension) + old-age welfare pension + survivor welfare pension (for spouses aged 65 and over)
- Disability basic pension + old-age welfare pension
- Disability basic pension + survivor welfare pension
- Basic disability pension + old-age welfare pension + survivor welfare pension (for spouses aged 65 and over)
- If the old-age welfare pension and the survivor's welfare pension are paid together in the above, the old-age welfare pension will be paid in full, and the amount equivalent to the old-age welfare pension will be suspended (priority is given to the old-age welfare pension). To do).
- If the survivor's welfare pension and the disability basic pension, which are subject to the transitional widows addition, are paid together, the transitional widows addition will be suspended.
- If the old-age welfare pension with the child's pension pension and the disability basic pension with the child's pension are paid together, the child's pension with the old-age welfare pension will be suspended during that period.
- The old-age pension and old-age total pension of the old law are treated as the old-age basic pension here, and the disability pension of the old law is treated as the disability basic pension here.
- Internal payment adjustment
- If the right to receive the B pension is extinguished due to the acquisition of the right to receive the A pension, or if the payment of the B pension is stopped and the A pension should be paid, if the B pension is paid, it is a partial payment of the A pension Is considered.
- Suspension / Reduction of Pension Payment If a pension that is not suspended / reduced is paid despite the reason for revision, it is considered to be a partial payment of the pension to be paid thereafter.
- If there is a reason for adjusting the internal payment between the benefits under the National Pension Law and the benefits under the Employees' Pension Insurance Law, the payment provided by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare can be regarded as internal payment, but other than the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare. No internal payment adjustments will be made for items provided by the executing agency.
Protection of entitlement
No exceptions are legally permitted for "assignment". 「担保」については、独立行政法人Regarding "collateral", an incorporated administrative agencyWelfare Medical OrganizationThe exception is when it is used as collateral for small loans made by. With regard to "foreclosure", the exception is when the right to receive the old-age basic pension, supplementary pension, and lump-sum withdrawal payment is seized by national tax delinquency disposition (including disposition according to the example).
If the beneficiary of the pension benefit dies and there is a pension benefit that should be paid to the deceased person that has not yet been paid to that person, that person's spouse, child, parents, grandchildren, grandparents , Brothers and sisters, or relatives within the third degree of kinship other than these, who had the same livelihood as the person at the time of his death.Self nameAnd thatUnpaid pensionCan be requested for payment (Article 19, Paragraph 1).In this case, if the deceased beneficiary did not claim the pension before his death, the claimant of the unpaid pension may claim the pension in his own name (Article 19-3). Item).Even if the lump-sum withdrawal payment is not paid, the relatives cannot claim it after death.
If the deceased person is a beneficiary of the survivor's basic pension, the insured person or insured who was required to pay the survivor's basic pension at the time of his death or was subject to the addition of the amount. The child of a person who was a person shall be deemed to be the child prescribed in paragraph 1 (Article 19, paragraph 2).As a result, spouses who are not adopted have the right to claim if their livelihood is the same.
The order of priority is as described above.If there are two or more peers who should receive an unpaid pension, the claim made by that one person shall be deemed to have been paid in full for all, and the payment made to that one person shall be made to all. (Article 2 (1)).
Prohibition of public dues and tax return
Taxes and other public charges cannot be levied on the basis of money paid as a benefit.However, this does not apply to old-age basic pension and supplementary pension (Article 25).
Of the national pension, if the amount of old-age basic pension and supplementary pension is above a certain level,Other incomeAsincome taxIs imposed.As a general rule, income tax is withheld from the pension.The disability pension and survivor's pension are tax exempt.
Withholding tax is applicable to persons aged 65 and over who have an annual amount of 158 million yen and those under the age of 65 who have an annual amount of 108 million yen or more in the current situation on the day before the first payment date of the year.By submitting the "Dependents' Declaration Form" sent by the Organization around the end of October every year, you can receive various income deductions such as spouse deduction and dependent deduction.The withholding amount is 10% (of which 5.105% is for the reconstruction tax increase), which is the pension amount minus various insurance premiums and deductions.If you do not submit a tax return for dependents, the withholding amount will be 0.105% (25% of which is the reconstruction tax increase), which is the pension amount minus various insurance premiums and 10.21% of that amount. ).
If there is an excess or deficiency in the tax amountFinal returnSettlement by (because it is miscellaneous incomeYear-end adjustmentIs not done).From 2011 (Heisei 23), if the amount of income from public pensions is 400 million yen or less and the amount of income other than miscellaneous income related to public pensions is 20 yen or less. There is no need to file a final tax return.本人負担の年金の保険料・掛金については、全額がThe full amount of the insurance premiums and premiums paid by the individual isSocial insurance premium deduction(Certificate must be attached).On the other hand, pensioner's social insurance deduction, life insurance deduction, non-life insurance deduction, small business mutual aid deduction, etc. are not subject to deduction at the time of withholding tax, so they are overpaid due to final tax return. You will receive a tax refund.
Right to claim damages
The government said that the injury or death or the accident that directly caused themthird partyIn the case caused by the act of, when the benefit is given, the beneficiary has it to a third party within the limit of the value of the benefit.Restitution for DamagesGet a claim ().In this case, if the beneficiary receives compensation for damages from a third party for the same reason, the government is exempt from the obligation to provide benefits within the limit of the value (Deduction) (Article 22).The lump-sum death allowance is not eligible for deduction.控除はThe deduction is36Is the limit.
Those who are dissatisfied with the disposition related to the qualification of the insured and the disposition related to benefits (excluding the disposition related to the examination of the degree of disability performed by the mutual aid association, etc.) are counted from the day after the day when they learned that the disposition was made. Within 3 monthsSocial insurance examinerAgainstRequest for examinationCan be done (Article 101).A request for examination cannot be made when two years have passed from the day following the day of the original disposition (Social Insurance Examiner and Social Insurance Examination LawArticle 4).Those who are dissatisfied with the disposition regarding the lump-sum withdrawal payment can directly file a request for examination with the Social Insurance Examination Board (one-trial system).An action to cancel the above disposition can only be filed after the decision of the social insurance inspector / social insurance examination committee for the request for examination of the disposition (Examination request prefix..Article 101-2,Administrative case lawArticle 8 proviso).
Those who are dissatisfied with the decision of the social insurance examinerSocial insurance review boardAgainstRequest for re-examinationCan be (Two-trial system).If there is no decision within two months from the date of the request for examination, the requester for examination may consider that the social insurance examiner has rejected the request for examination and file a request for reexamination with the Social Insurance Examination Board. it can.Due to the revision of the law in 2, it is up to the petitioner to file a request for reexamination or an action to cancel the disposition.
Those who are dissatisfied with the disposition of insurance premiums and other collections under the National Pension Law will request an examination from the Social Insurance Examiner, and those who are dissatisfied with the decision will request a reexamination from the Social Insurance Examination Board. However, due to the revision of the law in 2016 (28), the pre-examination request principle does not apply, so an action to cancel the disposition is filed without requesting examination or at the same time as requesting examination. can do.
Requests for examination and reexamination shall be deemed to be judicial requests with respect to suspension of prescription.When the disposition regarding the insured's qualification is finalized, the dissatisfaction with the disposition cannot be the reason for dissatisfaction with the disposition regarding the benefits based on the disposition.
The decision of the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare by taking measures against the request for correction of the national pension register is not subject to Article 101.Administrative Appeal LawA request for examination and an action for cancellation of disposition will be filed based on the above.
The right to receive pension benefits starts from the day when the reason for payment occurs5The right to receive the payment of the pension benefit, which is to be paid every month based on the right, is related to the payment of the pension benefit that arrives after the month following the month to which the day belongs. From the first day of the month following the payment due month specified in the main text of the section5When is passed,PrescriptionDisappears by (Article 102, Paragraph 1).However, the statute of limitations does not proceed while the pension benefit is suspended for the entire amount (Article 102, Paragraph 2).また、年金時効特例法により、厚生労働大臣は、国民年金法による給付の受給権者または受給権者であった者（未支給年金の請求権者を含む）について記録の訂正がなされた上で裁定が行われた場合においては、その裁定による当該記録の訂正に係る受給権に基づき支払期日ごとに又は一時金として支払われる給付の支給を受ける権利についてIn addition, under the Special Pension Prescription Law, the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare will correct the records of those who were or were entitled to receive benefits under the National Pension Law (including those who claim unpaid pensions). If a ruling is made, the right to receive benefits paid on a payment date or as a lump sum based on the entitlement for correction of the record by the ruling.Annihilation prescriptionEven if is completed, the benefits will be paid (Article 2).In other words, if a correction is made, even the pension for the past five years or earlier will be paid (prescription special benefit).
The right to collect insurance premiums and other collections pursuant to the provisions of the National Pension Act, or to receive a refund thereofDeath allowanceThe right to receive is from the time you can exercise these2(Article 102, Paragraph 4) will be extinguished by aging.
- DisappearanceThe starting date of the extinction prescription for the person who received the death is the day after the day considered to be dead (7 years after the disappearance in principle), but the lump-sum death allowance is the day after the day considered to be dead. Even if the request is made two years after the death, if the request is made within two years from the day after the final date of the trial for the declaration of disappearance, the statute of limitations will not be applied to the right to receive benefits. A lump-sum death allowance will be paid (March 2, 2, No. 26 No. 3 issued by the jurisdiction).
Reminders for insurance premiums and other collections under the National Pension Law have the effect of renewing the statute of limitations (Article 102, Paragraph 5).
Changes in national pension insurance premiums
|Revision date||Monthly insurance premium||Revision date||Monthly insurance premium||Revision date||Insurance premium level x insurance premium revision rate = insurance premium||Revision date||Insurance premium level x insurance premium revision rate = insurance premium|
|February 1961-||100 yen / 150 yen||February 1984-||6,220 Yen||February 2005-||13,580 yen x 1 = 13,580 yen||February 2020-||17,000 yen x 0.973 ≒ 16,540 yen|
|February 1967-||200 yen / 250 yen||February 1985-||6,740 Yen||February 2006-||13,860 yen x 1 = 13,860 yen||February 2021-||17,000 yen x 0.977 ≒ 16,610 yen|
|February 1969-||250 yen / 300 yen||February 1986-||7,100 Yen||February 2007-||14,140 yen x 0.997 ≒ 14,100 yen|
|February 1970-||450 Yen||February 1987-||7,400 Yen||February 2008-||14,420 yen x 0.999 ≒ 14,410 yen|
|February 1972-||550 Yen||February 1988-||7,700 Yen||February 2009-||14,700 yen x 0.997 ≒ 14,660 yen|
|February 1974-||900 Yen||February 1989-||8,000 Yen||February 2010-||14,980 yen x 1.008 ≒ 15,100 yen|
|February 1975-||1,100 Yen||February 1990-||8,400 Yen||February 2011-||15,260 yen x 0.984 ≒ 15,020 yen|
|February 1976-||1,400 Yen||February 1991-||9,000 Yen||February 2012-||15,540 yen x 0.964 ≒ 14,980 yen|
|February 1977-||2,200 Yen||February 1992-||9,700 Yen||February 2013-||15,820 yen x 0.951 ≒ 15,040 yen|
|February 1978-||2,730 Yen||February 1993-||10,500 Yen||February 2014-||16,100 yen x 0.947 ≒ 15,250 yen|
|February 1979-||3,300 Yen||February 1994-||11,100 Yen||February 2015-||16,380 yen x 0.952 ≒ 15,590 yen|
|February 1980-||3,770 Yen||February 1995-||11,700 Yen||February 2016-||16,660 yen x 0.976 ≒ 16,260 yen|
|February 1981-||4,500 Yen||February 1996-||12,300 Yen||February 2017-||16,900 yen x 0.976 ≒ 16,490 yen|
|February 1982-||5,220 Yen||February 1997-||12,800 Yen||February 2018-||16,900 yen x 0.967 ≒ 16,340 yen|
|February 1983-||5,830 Yen||February 1998-||13,300 Yen||February 2019-||17,000 yen x 0.965 ≒ 16,410 yen|
- Until June 1970 (Showa 45), the monthly premium differs for "under 6 years old / over 35 years old".
- Insurance premium revision rate = revision rate of the previous year x nominal wage fluctuation rate of the previous year (price fluctuation rate of the year before last x real wage fluctuation rate of the year four years ago)
Changes in the amount of old-age basic pension payment
|Revision date||Full pension||Revision date||Full pension||Revision date||Full pension||Revision date||Full pension|
|1961||24,000 Yen||February 1988-||627,200 Yen||February 2003-||797,000 Yen||February 2019-||780,100 Yen|
|1966||60,000 Yen||February 1989-||666,000 Yen||February 2004-||794,500 Yen||February 2020-||781,700 Yen|
|1969||96,000 Yen||February 1990-||681,300 Yen||February 2006-||792,100 Yen|
|1973||240,000 Yen||February 1991-||702,000 Yen||February 2011-||788,900 Yen|
|:||:||February 1992-||725,300 Yen||February 2012-||786,500 Yen|
|1976||390,000 Yen||February 1993-||737,300 Yen||February 2013-||778,500 Yen|
|:||:||February 1994-||747,300 Yen||February 2014-||772,800 Yen|
|1980||504,000 Yen||February 1994-||780,000 Yen||February 2015-||780,100 Yen|
|:||:||February 1995-||785,500 Yen||February 2016-||780,100 Yen|
|February 1986-||622,800 Yen||February 1998-||799,500 Yen||February 2017-||779,300 Yen|
|February 1987-||626,500 Yen||February 1999-||804,200 Yen||February 2018-||779,300 Yen|
* The full amount is 1941 (Showa 16).4/2This is the amount paid when a person born after that has paid the insurance premium for 40 years (from 20 to 60 years old).However, for those born before April 1941, 16, the full amount will be paid if payment is made for 4 to 1 years depending on the date of birth.
Creation of national pension
Pension system for workers (Seafarers insurance, Welfare pension, mutual aid pension) has existed since before 20, but there was no pension system for self-employed people.To correct this injustice1959(Showa34 years), 31st国会Submitted the National Pension Bill toNational Pension ActHas been enacted and the applicable affairs1960From October (35), the collection of insurance premiums associated with the start of contribution-based pensions began in April 10 (Showa 1961).
Also, in 1961 (Showa 36), when the national pension was established, in order to rescue people who could not receive the national pension because they were already old.Old-age welfare pensionWas established as (), which is fully borne by the national treasury.
The National Pension Law, together with the "General Pension Law" enacted thereafterNational pensionIt became the basis of.In addition, in November 1959 (Showa 34), the full tax burden will be borne by those over 11 years old.Old-age welfare pensionWas established.196641 yen for a couple in (Showa 1),196944 yen for a couple in (Showa 2),1973In (48), the couple realized a pension of 5 yen.AndRefugee ConventionDue to the revision of the law that was signed1982(57)1/1LaterNationality clauseWas abolished.
Introduction of basic pension system
Industrial structureDue to changes infinanceDue to the unstable foundation and the unfairness in both benefits and burdens caused by the participating systems, the unification of public pensions has come to be advocated.As part of that1985(60), common to all peopleBasic pensionA drastic reform of the pension system to create the system was carried out.1986From April (61), the national pension excludes students (compulsory enrollment of students is not allowed)1991(From April 3)Compulsory enrollment of all people aged 20 to under 60 living in Japanage,Provide a common basic pension (1st floor)It became a system.Also,Employee pensionThe employee pension such as, etc. was reorganized into a system that provides a compensation-proportional pension as the second floor of the basic pension.
- basic way of thinking
- Building a long-term stable system that is not affected by changes in the employment structure or industrial structure
- Establishing women's pension rights
- Major revisions
- Establishment of basic pension system
- No. 3 new insured person
- Disability basic pension is paid to people with disabilities before the age of 20
1997In (9), as a one-to-one number system common to all systemsBasic pension numberWas introduced, and by accurately grasping information about insured persons moving between each system, notification was simplified and the occurrence of non-subscribers was prevented.
Optimizing insurance premium burden and benefit level
2000(12),To maintain a stable and reliable pension system over the long termWas revised.
- basic way of thinking
- Contributing to the reality of a vibrant longevity society
- Proper balance between social solidarity and self-help efforts
- Ensuring fairness between and within generations
- Major revisions
- Change of pension revision method (Price slideRevised only)
- Introduction of special student payment system
- Introduction of half-price exemption system for insurance premiums (2002(From April 14)
- Insurance premium collection work from the municipalitySocial Insurance AgencyTransferred to2002(From April 14)
Review of new benefits and burdens
2004(16), the rapid declining birthrate and aging population are expected, and in order to make the pension system safe in the future, the benefits and burdens were reviewed and the storage measures were thoroughly revised.
- basic way of thinking
- Build a sustainable system in harmony with socio-economics and secure public trust in the system
- Construction of a public pension system that supports diverse ways of living and working
- Major revisions
- Introduced "Financial Verification" once every five years (completion of "Financial Recalculation")-After that, the system itself will not be significantly verified, and the pension finance at that time will be verified.
- Introduction of fixed premium level method (fixed premium level)
- Macro economy slideIntroduction of(Adjustment to balance burden and benefits. However, the government is obliged to guarantee the income substitution rate of 50% for the working generation so that the amount of pension payment will not decrease endlessly.)
- National treasuryRaising the burden ratio (one-third → one-half. However, in reality, it was only included in the main rules at the time of the 3 revision, and special provisions were set up in the supplementary provisions, and gradually. The national treasury burden ratio was only raised.consumption tax2009 (Heisei 21) tentatively on the premise that a drastic reform of the tax system including4/1Since the national treasury burden has been halved, the consumption tax rate has been reduced to 2%, and it will be implemented from 1 (Heisei 8).
- Legal arrangements for obtaining income information
- Account transferIntroduction of insurance premium discount system
- Introducing a youth grace system (2005(From 17)
- Introduction of multi-stage insurance premium exemption system (2006(Four stages from July 18)
Possibility of reserve gold depletion
2004 year (Heisei 16 year)4/7,LDPMember of the House of Representatives OfShinzo AbeThe House of RepresentativesHealth and Labor CommitteeAs for the national pension that self-employed people join, he said that the reserve fund will be exhausted in 2017 (Heisei 29) if it remains as it is.またAlsoMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareThe director of the pension bureau said that even if the amount is raised by 280 yen every year, the reserve fund will be exhausted in 2023 (Heisei 35)..
The macroeconomic slide introduced in 2004 (Heisei 16) has been prolonged.DeflationDue to the influence of, it was never implemented until 2014 (Heisei 26). 2004年（平成16年）度実績で233.8兆円だった積立金は2011年（平成23年）度実績では196.5兆円となり、厚生労働省の想定を上回るスピードで取り崩しが進んでいるThe reserve fund, which was XNUMX trillion yen in XNUMX (XNUMX), is XNUMX trillion yen in XNUMX (XNUMX), and is being withdrawn at a speed faster than the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare expected...Abe, who became the prime minister, has begun reforming the pension system, and has been at a special level three times since October 2013 (the amount of pension that was supposed to be reduced due to the decline in prices and wages). (25% reduction in October 10, 3% in April 2013, 25% reduction in April 10, 1% reduction in total) , The macro economic slide was finally activated for the first time as the special level was resolved in 2014 (Heisei 26). In October 4, the employee pension was unified to integrate the welfare pension and the mutual aid pension.
- Major revisions (enforced in April 2014)
- Expanded the coverage of the survivor's basic pension to father and son families
- Include the non-payment period of insurance premiums of voluntarily enrolled insured persons in the total period
- Partial relaxation of the waiting period for requesting revision of disability pension
- Expanding unpaid pension claims to relatives within the third degree
- Improvement of handling of insurance premiums related to insurance premium exemption period, review of retroactive period
- Extension of payment period for additional insurance premiums
- Establishment of notification system for pensioners whose whereabouts are unknown
- ^ "Pension information> About the realization of the basic pension national treasury burden ratio of half”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/5/1Browse.
- ^ "White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare 30" Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2018, Documents .
- ^ With the unification of the employee pension system, public employees and private school faculty members also joined the welfare pension from October 2015, 10.In addition, the occupational addition portion of the mutual aid pension has been abolished, and a new retirement pension benefit has been created.However, for the period of participation in the mutual aid pension until September 1, 2015, the occupational area addition portion will be paid according to the participation period even after October 9.
- ^ a b c Overview of 29 welfare annuity insurance and national pension business --Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (viewed June 2019, 6 (first year of Reiwa))
- ^ a b "(PDF)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. P. 3 (June 2018). 2019/6/10Browse.
- ^ About non-payment / non-subscription status, etc., 8th Social Security Council Pension Subcommittee, 20085/20
- ^ National Institute of Population and Social Security Research "Social Security Benefit Expenses for FY23" 2013(25) December, p12
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "24 National Life Basic Survey" July 2013
- ^ https://nenkin-manabiba.jp/pay-as-you-go-or-funded-pension/#i-8
- ^ "26 financial statements (special pension account national pension account)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2015/9/1Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Pension Bureau "Summary of income and expenditure settlement of welfare pension and national pension in 25" August 2014 (Heisei 26)
- ^ The welfare pension reserve fund is divided into a "special account reserve fund" (conventional reserve fund) and an "implementing institution reserve fund" (transition from mutual aid pension) due to the unification of employee pensions. The institution does.
- ^ "Surplus for both welfare and national pensions = record high for FYXNUMX”. Jiji Press (August 2018, 8). 2018/11/20Browse.
- ^ The third insured person is a system with full-time housewives in mind with the aim of amending the law in 3 with the aim of establishing women's pension rights, and in practice there are overwhelmingly many women, but in terms of the system Even if the wife is the second insured person and the husband is the dependent spouse, the husband is the third person, and there is no difference between men and women.
- ^ Including voluntary insured persons.
- ^ Includes insured persons aged 65 and over who are entitled to pension benefits due to old age or retirement.
- ^ At the start of the third insured system in 1985, the welfare pension premium rate was raised by about 3%.
- ^ Procedures when the employee's family lives abroadJapan Pension Service
- ^ The old law welfare pension is provided because there was an old-age benefit that can be received under the age of 60.Now, more than 30 years after the enforcement of the new law, it is unlikely that anyone under the age of 60 will meet this requirement.
- ^ What kind of procedure is required when I turn 20?Japan Pension Service
- ^ If you cannot confirm it, you will need to submit a qualification notification as before.However, even if you do not make a notification when you reach the age of 20, you will be forced to join the insurance ex officio, and if you do not make a notification, you will not be exempt from obtaining insured status.
- ^ Approved by the prefectural governor during the old law era.
- ^ Among voluntary insured persons, "persons aged 20 to under 60 who have an address in Japan and who can receive an old-age pension based on each employee pension law" and "persons who have Japanese nationality" For those who do not have an address in Japan and are between the ages of 20 and 65, the period (total period) is considered to be the first insured period for the application of the voluntary withdrawal provisions (Supplementary Provision No. 1). Article 7).Therefore, there are virtually no cases in which Japanese are subject to voluntary withdrawal.
- ^ In 2005 (17) and 2006 (18), the insurance premium revision rate was set to "1", so the statutory amount was the actual insurance premium amount.
- ^ (PDF) --Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (viewed on November 2013, 25)
- ^ If the transfer date is a holiday, the transfer will be made on the next business day.
- ^ The discount amount is 4% per annumCompound interestCostThe amount calculated by law (rounded to the nearest 10 yen) (Article 8 of the Enforcement Ordinance).
- ^ "From April 26," two-year advance payment "of national pension insurance premiums is scheduled to begin." (Press release), Pension organization, (March 2013, 4) 2013/11/16Browse.
- ^ It is advantageous to pay the national pension insurance premiums in a lump sum! Advance payment / fund transfer Kishiwada
- ^ In fact, prior to the reminder, a "notice" or telephone inquiry that has no legal effect is made by a contractor entrusted by the Organization.
- ^ When the delegation system to the Minister of Finance was established in January 2010, it was said to be "22 months or more", but since the number of delegations was zero in the national pension, further collection will be planned. Therefore, the period was shortened.
- ^ 平成29年12月12日財務省告示第332号、平成30年12月12日財務省告示第336号、令和元年12月12日財務省告示第180号
- ^ "Deferred payment system for national pension insurance premiums". Japan Pension Service (September 2013, 11). 2013/11/20Browse.
- ^ From April 31, the submission destination of the notification has been changed from the Organization to the mayor of the municipality.This does not apply if the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare confirms that the requirements are met or no longer met.
- ^ "Students" are students / students enrolled in the following schools (Enforcement Ordinance Article 6-6).
- ^ Under the "student exemption" system that was established at the beginning of the mandatory payment of students in April 1991, it was required that the income of "parents" be below a certain level.
- ^ (PDF) --Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (viewed on November 2013, 25)
- ^ However, from 2004 (Heisei 16) to 2014 (Heisei 26), the amount calculated as the amount equivalent to the pension amount in 2004 (16) (price slide special measures)Macro economy slideSince the pension amount is lower, the amount due to the special price slide measures was paid as the minimum guarantee.In this case, the adjustment rate is not multiplied by the calculation of the revision rate.
- ^ It is set based on the decrease in the number of active insured persons and the increase in life expectancy. In the case of 2017 (Heisei 29), the rate of change in the number of insured persons (0.998) x the growth rate of life expectancy (0.997) = the adjustment rate of 2017 (29) (0.995).
- ^ Lump-sum withdrawal payment for short-term resident foreigners Japan Pension Service
- ^ Changes in national pension premiums
- ^ The 159th Diet Welfare and Labor Committee No. 9 (Wednesday, April 16, 4)
- ^ Weekly Diamond September 2013, 25 issue p.9 Special feature "Reduce so much! Your pension"
- National Pension Act - e-Gov Law Search
- National Pension Law Enforcement Ordinance - e-Gov Law Search
- National Pension Law Enforcement Regulations - e-Gov Law Search
- Japanese welfare / Japanese pension
- Japan Pension Service
- Pension information service / personal number
- Nenkin special flights
- Social security agreement --A system that adds up the pension enrollment period in Japan and the pension enrollment period in foreign countries
- Public pensionIs the national pensionEmployees' pension fund OfPension record problemFor collation or matching work for solving such problemsBasic Resident Register Network SystemIs also used.
- Head tax
Pension problemWhat is (Nenkin Mondai)?pensionProblems related to.See each item.
- Social Insurance Agency
- Pension unpaid problem
- Pension record problem
- National pension fraud exemption problem
- Pension falsification problem
- Public pension diversion problem
- Pension embezzlement problem
Other,Pension # Pension System ChallengesSee also.
- Japan Pension Service
- Overview of public pension system
- Cash payment (payment by payment slip)
- List of convenience stores where national pension insurance premiums can be paid
- National pension prepayment discount system (cash payment prepayment)
- National pension prepayment discount system (early debit discount)
- National pension prepayment discount system (account transfer prepayment)
- Nenkin Net You can check your payment status and estimate the amount of pension you can receive in the future.
- Voluntary participation system
- Pension Pension / Japan Pension Service(Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare）