China's 2020 FDI, up 3% year-on-year to $ 3 million-Chinese media
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(1) “The Belt and Road” Investment and cooperation in countries along the line were steadily promoted.
China's Ministry of Commerce spokesman Gao Fung said at a regular press conference on the 21st that China's foreign investment cooperation in 2020 ... → Continue reading
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One belt one road
One belt one road(Well,pinyin: ,English: The Belt and Road Initiative, BRIOne Belt, One Road Initiative, OBOR) IsPeople's Republic of ChinaWith the country promoted by (China)EuropeOverWide area economic zoneIt is a concept.Xi JinpingGeneral Secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist PartyOn June 2013, 9,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfNazarbayev UniversityIn his speech atSilk roadBeginning with the proposal to build an "economic belt", Next day2014年11/10To China北京市Held atAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) Advocated by General Secretary Xi at the Summit.From ChinaEurasia"Silk Road Economic Belt" by land that connects to Europe viaWhole area) And from the coast of ChinaSoutheast Asia,South Asia,Arabian Peninsula,Africa"21st Century Maritime Silk Road" on the sea route connecting the east coast (One way) In two areasinfrastructureMaintenance,TradePromotion,資金Is a plan to promote traffic.
The largest infrastructure investment plan in history, 100th anniversary of the founding of the country2049年Is aiming for completion.. The "One Area" concept was given by General Secretary Xi on September 2013, 9 at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan, and the "One Road" concept was on October 7, 10.Indonesian ParliamentIn a speech atAsian Infrastructure Investment BankProposed for the first time with (AIIB).. AIIB and,Silk Road FundExpand infrastructure investment byDeveloping countryToFinancial aidThroughCNY OfInternational reserve currencyIt is said that it aims to establish a world economic zone centered on China through the transformation..
Chinese government OfLee KeqiangPrime MinisterCalls for support from countries along the line and obtains support or cooperation agreements from more than 100 countries and regions,furtherUnited Nations Security Council,United Nations General Assembly,Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN),Arab League,African Union,European Union(EU),Eurasian Economic Union,Asia Cooperation Dialogue,Latin American and Caribbean Community(CELAC),Shanghai Cooperation OrganizationMany international organizations such as (SCO) have expressed their support.. Prime Minister Li Keqiang said, "It is necessary to combine the construction of'Belt and Road'with the development and opening of the region, and strengthen the construction of the New Eurasian Land Bridge and the land and sea customs clearance base."And
2017年February, China in BeijingAnnounced that it will be held in May,GuterresUnited Nations Secretary-GeneralOver 70 international organization delegationsAnd Russian President Vladimir Putin and other leaders of 29 countriesDecided to participate in government delegations from more than 130 countries around the world, including the announcement of attendance, The forum was held from May 5th to 14th.
But,G7Most of the leaders were absent due to the attendance of ministerial level, etc.Italian Prime MinisterPaolo GentiloniBecame only.. ItalyギリシャIn addition to the above, EU member states are considered to be one of the countries that are active in cooperation with Belt and Road, and laterGiuseppe ConteThe administration has signed a memorandum of understanding with China on the Belt and Road Initiative for the first time in the G7... Japan and the United States, which have forgotten to participate in the AIIB, have dispatched a government delegation, being wary of the Belt and Road Initiative as a huge economic zone led by China.
2019年XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Was held in Beijing and was attended by the UN Secretary-General and delegations from more than 37 countries including the leaders of 150 countries and Japan, but the United States, which participated last time, did not attend because of increased criticism of the Belt and Road Initiative..
Central European train
The Trans-Eurasia Logistics, which is the route of the Belt and Road Initiative,Chongqing-Xin-Europe RailwayFrom before the conceptドイツ OfDuisburgOpen toと TheMainland ChinaとEuropeIt is the longest railway line in the world that connects, Belt and Road was advocated2013年At that time, the number of Trans-Eurasia Logistics trains, which was only 80, was2018年Over 1.. fundamentally(Eurasian Land Bridge,English: Eurasian Land Bridge)ofBin prefecture line,Jining-ErenViaIs typical, but it is not suitable for transportation in the midwinter.ロシアAs a route that bypasses(New Eurasian Land Bridge,English: New Eurasian Land Bridge)ofNorthern Xinjiang Lineからアゼルバイジャン,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,トルコRoutes have also been developed,Tehran,Mother Richard,HairatanAlso tied to.Hewlett Packard,BMWWestern companies such asFox con,AcerlikeTaiwanCompany,ITOCHU Corporation,Nippon ExpressJapanese companies are also using it for transportation..In addition, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative, China will transport cargo and passengers in the Trans-Eurasia Logistics Group, which has different gauges in each country.Speeding upit canVariable gaugeType rail car (Free gauge train) Is developing.
Silk Road on Ice (Arctic Ocean Route)
oceanThen.Arctic Ocean Route, The North American route is also included as a third route.RussianMurmanskDeveloped the pier, the route is Europe-Russia-Japan-China.this isPresident of the Russian FederationVladimir PutinProposed in the form of connecting the Belt and Road and the Arctic Ocean Route, China calls "Silk Road on Ice".
Japan as "Northern Kushiro South Yushinkapo" (Northern Kushiro South Singapore)HokkaidoIn the eastKushiro PortThe gateway to Asia, in the northPort of SingaporeIt is also announced that there is a strong interest in the position.China Ocean Shipping Group TheドイツOther than transporting grain from Kushiro Port to Kushiro Port,JapaneseMOLIs a joint venture with a Chinese company on the Arctic sea route of RussiaLNGCarrying.
Pacific Maritime Silk Road
Correspondence of each country
The Belt and Road Initiative in Pakistan is being promoted as the "China-Pakistan Economic Corridor" (CPEC).Imran KhanInaugurated by the Prime Minister in 2019,Pakistan ArmyHas been led by the influential CPEC public corporation.The administrative order for the establishment of the public corporation expired in May 2020,Pakistan ParliamentIs proceeding with the enactment procedure of a bill that gives the public corporation the jurisdiction over the Belt and Road-related business.If established, the latter will report directly to the Prime Minister's Office and will no longer be required to report to the Ministry of Planning and Development, and the latter staff will be given impunity and the right to investigate uncooperative civil servants. .
2015年5/8, General Secretary Xi met with Russian President Vladimir Putin and went to Belt and RoadEurasian Economic UnionIssued a joint statement to connect with.. same year11/17Putin was at that timeアメリカ合衆国Was leadingTrans-Pacific Partnership AgreementCriticized (TPP) and announced that China-Russia Eurasian Economic Union would bring prosperity to the Asia-Pacific.
2016年6/17 OfSt. Petersburg International Economic ForumPutin is in China,パキスタン,India,(I.e.Focusing on Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) participating countriesAnnounced the "Great Eurasian Partnership" concept to be promoted and the policy of collaborating with China as the first step..Joint research on this concept was agreed upon by President Putin's visit to China on the 25th of the same month., At the China-Russia Summit Meeting on the 24thEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfErbeg DorjiPresident raisesMeadow roadThe "China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor Construction Plan Outline" was signed, proclaiming the concept, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the connection of the Eurasian Economic Union..
2017年At the opening ceremony of the Belt and Road Forum in May, President Putin addressed the Belt and Road, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Eurasian Economic Union and others as the basis of the Great Eurasian Partnership...In Kazakhstan in June of the same yearAstanaSupport for Belt and Road at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization SummitThe Astana Declaration was adopted.
In a paper published by President Putin for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in November 2017, the completion of trade and economic cooperation agreement negotiations between the Eurasian Economic Union and China and the Great Eurasian Partnership Initiative are based on China's Belt and Road Initiative. Is stated to be, Next day2018年Eurasian Economic Union with China in MayTrade and Economic Cooperation AgreementAnd Iran provisionallyFree trade agreementSigned.
2019年At the second forum in April, President Putin addressed the ongoing Great Eurasian Partnership initiative...At the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum in June of the same year, China's General Secretary Xi expressed support for the Great Eurasian Partnership Initiative.Announced a joint statement between China and Russia stating cooperation to build a Great Eurasian Partnership with Belt and Road.
General Secretary Xi was the first place to launch the Belt and Road Initiative.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWe value the relationship with, KazakhstanNursultan NazarbayevThe president also raises himself(The Road of Light) The concept is part of the Silk Road Economic BeltAdmitting that it will be connected to Belt and Road.
AmericanDonald TrumpThe administration goes to the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit ForumAmerican National Security Council(NSC) Dispatched a delegation headed by Senior Asian DirectorInsisted on transparency and utilization of private capital while announcing preparations for participation of US companies and establishment of working groups.
With Trump's supportersPrivate military companyBlackwater usa OfEric PrinceIs Chinese government (CITIC Group Company) Security / distribution companyFrontier Services GroupAs chairman, he supports the Belt and Road Initiative in Africa and elsewhere... After the Trump administration, meetings of U.S. and Chinese companies began to be held at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing...When President Trump visited China, he agreed with General Secretary Xi on cooperation with Belt and Road., President Trump himself states that the United States is open about Belt and Road cooperation.
But what happened in 2018US-China trade warSince then, the Trump administration has strengthened its criticism of Belt and Road and has forgotten to participate in the 2nd Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum.,Vice President of the United States OfMike Pence"One Belt, One Road"Debt-pickled diplomacyI criticized it, but it started,United States Secretary of State OfMike PompeoAlso restrains each country participating in Belt and RoadThe United Nations Security Council has also accused the United States of Belt and Road as having "problems with excessive debt and transparency," and has also insisted on removing the wording from the Security Council resolution that had been included in the past..
JapaneseShinzo AbePrime Minister TheChina's economic and military riseCorresponding toCollective securityAs a concept, freedom,Democracy,Basic human rights,Rule of law,Market economyBased on the valueDiplomacyIn 2006NordicFrom the Eurasian Continent,Northeast asiaAreas that lead toThe arc of freedom and prosperityProposed to build as.2007年Stated the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean as one sea of freedom in a speech to the Parliament of India,AlsoJapan-US Australia-India Strategy DialogueHas been established.Second Abe administrationIn December 2012 in ChinaSouth China SeaFreedom of navigation across the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean is being threatened by the challenge in Japan, but Japan, the United States, and Australia are signed.Security diamond conceptAdvocate, 2013Policy statementHe said that he would deepen cooperation with maritime Asian countries in addition to Japan, the United States, Australia and India..
When China's Belt and Road Initiative was announced from 2013 to 2014, Prime Minister Abe further advanced his maritime strategy.2016年In 8 monthAfrican Development ConferenceSo, the marine region from the Indo-Pacific to Africa is free from force and intimidation.Rule of law(Maritime traffic safety(Building execution capacity) ・Freedom of navigation-Free tradeAs a regional order that valuesFree and open Indo-Pacific initiativeWas advocated.
For the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum in February 2017Japanese GovernmentIt is,Takaya ImaiPrime Minister Secretary,Satoshi MatsumuraDeputy Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry,Toshihiro NikaiLDP secretary general,Sadayuki SakakibaraNippon KeidanrenPresidentAbout 50 peopleAfter delegating public and private delegations of Japan to appeal for open and fair infrastructure development, Announced that it will actively cooperate with Belt and Road..Regarding AIIB, Toshihiro Nikai, secretary general, said, "How early should we decide to participate?"Prime Minister Abe stated that he will be positive about AIIB's participation in Japan if the questions such as whether fair governance can be established will be resolved.As for Belt and Road, "I would like to cooperate from the perspective of fully incorporating the common ideas of the international community."Announces cooperation with General Secretary Xi at Japan-China summit meeting.. The Chinese government welcomed the attitude of the Japanese government.
In June 2017, Prime Minister Abe announced the Belt and Road Initiative, with conditions such as open access to infrastructure, transparent and fair procurement methods, repayable debt and financial soundness.Pacific RimOf the Indo-Pacific and Belt and Road plans.. In the same month, the Japan-China Trading Association established the Belt and Road Communication Council., August 8th Japan-China ruling party exchange council summarized joint recommendations..With Nippon KeidanrenKeizai DoyukaiEncourages consideration of participation in AIIBIn November of the same year, the business delegation to China recommended the cooperation of Belt and Road and welcomed the Chinese side..
In December 2017, Prime Minister Abe stated his intention to promote the Indo-Pacific Initiative and Belt and Road cooperation.Formulated private economic cooperation guidelines while designating port developments that could be used by the military as exempt.
2018年1 month 22 dayPolicy statementBut Prime Minister Abe was welcomed by the Chinese government, expressing cooperation with China on infrastructure development in Asia.At a meeting with Prime Minister Li Keqiang on May 5, the same year, an agreement was reached to establish a public-private council in a third country on Belt and Road... Incorporate Japan-China infrastructure development cooperation in third countries into infrastructure system export strategy in JuneHeld the first meeting of the joint public-private committee in Beijing on September 9 of the same year.. In October, the Prime Minister of Japan visited Japan for the first time in seven years, and Prime Minister Abe exchanged cooperation documents for joint investment in infrastructure in a third country., General Secretary Xi said, "Building a Belt and Road together is a new platform for China-Japan cooperation.".
north koreaRefuses to apply for AIIBAlthough it has been reported that China has cooled relations with China over nuclear tests, Foreign Minister Kim Ei-tae attended the 2017 Belt and Road Forum...The U.S. government has expressed strong concern through the U.S. Embassy in Beijing over China's invitation to North Korea, which has been sanctioned by the international community, at the conference...North Korea coincides with the opening of the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum on May 5.Ballistic missileJapan's Prime Minister Abe strongly criticized this..Secretary-General Nikai, who attended, also discussed the response over the phone with Prime Minister Abe and read the protest statement at the summit..
South KoreaIs for ballistic missile interceptionTHAAD missileConflicts with China deepened over deployment, and even forum invitations to leaders and ministers were not sent,Korea Institute for International Economic PolicyOnly the directors were expected to attend the forum subcommittee. But,2017 Republic of Korea presidential electionCritical to THAADWen ZaiyinJust before the administration was born, an invitation was sent from China shortly before., Urgently decided to send a delegation..The first contact between South Korean and North Korean dignitaries under the Moon Jae-in administration was also held at the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum..
It is also a member of Shanghai Cooperation Organization and AIIBIndiaIs part of the Belt and Road, May 2017, 5Is in disputeGilgit-Baltistan(Indian claims are Indian territoryKashmirPassing through the occupied Pakistan territories)sovereigntyNo country accepts a business plan that ignores core concerns about territorial integrity, "said a Foreign Ministry statement.From the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit ForumNarendra ModiRefused to invite the prime ministersAnd the only official forum in the worldboycottBecame a country.. "We should follow the principle of financial responsibility to avoid doing business that creates an unbearable debt burden in the region," China said.Sri LankaWe are keeping in mind that we are in debt.. Russia said to its friend India, "Do not tie political solutions to all other disciplines, even if there are individual problems. Very savvy politicians who can only find ways to benefit from Belt and Road. I believe there is a diplomat in India".. June 2018, ChinaQingdaoAt the summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in India, India also expressed its disapproval of Belt and Road..
From the People's Republic of ChinaLoanReceivedfinanceSoundness and transparencyGovernanceとcomplianceHuge because there is nodebtTheDeveloping countryHas been inflicted and the land has been taken up as a problem.
MalaysiaThe ChineseState-owned enterprisePossibility that the loan received from was used for a state fundAnd excessivecostSuspended railway construction business due to problems (later resumed).
Pakistan has launched a $ 2015 billion project in 620 as a symbolic project of the Belt and Road Initiative that China will unveil to the world.Public fundsA huge amount of debt that cannot be continued unlessInternational Monetary Fund(IMF) andサウジアラビアIt was decided to request financial support from.. Also, before January 2013,GwadarTransfer of port operating rights to ChinaMarine transportIndia has become a key point ofHu JintaoOf the eraPearl necklace strategyFrom ChinaIndian OceanWas wary of military use of the port facing[Source required].
Sri LankaIn December 11, the infrastructure, which was completed with a loan from China for most of its construction costs, continued to be in the red and was subject to a $ 2000 billion debt cancellation to China.stockHanded over 70% of theHambantota PortWas forced to transfer 99 years of port operating rights to a Chinese company[Source required]..It has been pointed out that the acquired port will be used for military purposes.[Source required].
MyanmarPort business is also pointed out as a case where China's military purpose is suspected.[Source required].. 『Wall Street Journal』\ Paper is China's large-scale financial support,Laos,Maldives, Mongolia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ジブチReports that it is facing the risk of repayment of large-scale debt[Source required].
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn case of one belt one roadGovernment bond OfGDP(GDP) ratio increased from 62% to 78%Chinese PLA Djibouti Security BasePutジブチEstimated to jump to 82% at 91%[Source required]..これらの問題の背景として、建設中のインフラは完成した後に中国に返済義務化されているが、事業採算性を判断する能力やThe background to these problems is that the infrastructure under construction is obliged to be repaid to China after it is completed, but the ability to judge business profitability andKnow-howDeveloping countries with a shortage of debt may have accumulated debt[Source required].
Korean newspaper "National daily reportAccording to China's interest-first principle, it is not transparent because it has to make a loan contract from a Chinese bank to a business, and Chinese companies are increasingly borrowing money to do the construction. It is a mechanism to bear[Source required]..China's state-owned "Ring and ball newsAn Indian strategic researcher who was criticized by nameSri Lanka undermines the burden on China, a project by Japaninterest rateIs 0.5%, while the one by Chinese such as Belt and Road is 6.3%, giving the example of Sri Lanka, Belt and Road is "Debt-pickled diplomacyIs pointed out.
A country where China is considered as a military base
United States Department of DefenseAccording to the 2020 Annual Report on China's Military TrendsKingdom of Thailand,Myanmar,Pakistan,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,アラブ 首長 国 連邦(UAE), Singapore,インドネシア,Sri Lanka,セ ー シ ェ ェ,ケニア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,アンゴラOf the 15 countries, China is recognized as a country under consideration as a military base.Many of these countries are scattered along the Belt and Road Initiative.The Belt and Road Initiative of the economy runs the risk of becoming a Belt and Road Initiative of the military.[Source required].
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- Shinzo Abe, "Asia's Democratic Security Diamond, "Project Syndicate, December 27, 2012.
- Shinzo Abe"Open blessings of the sea: new five principles of Japanese diplomacySpeech, January 25, 2013
- Shinzo Abe "TICAD VI (6th African Development Conference) Opening Session Prime Minister Abe's keynote speechAugust 28, 2016
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan"Free and open Indo-PacificNovember 11, 21st year of Reiwa
- "ASEAN OUTLOOK ON THE INDO-PACIFIC'
- Jiro Okamoto "The" Indo-Pacific "Concept of Japan and Australia" "Institute of Developing EconomiesPolicy Brief ”No.130,2019, published on July 7, 11
- Masahiro Kawai"Rethinking Anti-Globalism: Research on Crisis Factors that Shake the International Economic Order" Report of the World Economic Research Association Chapter 5: "Belt and Road" Initiative and "Indo-Pacific" Initiative, 30 Japan Institute of International Affairs Project, pp104-116
- Kamiya Manjo""Cooperation Strategy" for "Competitive Strategy"-Complex Structure of Japan's "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" Strategy (Concept)-Security Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 2019, pp. 4-47.
- Takashi Shiraishi"Marine Asia vs. Continental Asia: Thinking about Japan's National Strategy"Minerva Shobo ,Year 2016
- Chinese dream
- Western development
- Pearl necklace strategy
- Trans-Asian Railway,Eurasia Landbridge,New Eurasian Land Bridge
- China Laos Railway
- Lhasa-Xigaze Railway
- Karakoram Highway
- Lanzhou beef noodles
- Shanghai New International Expo Center
- Security diamond concept
- Indo-Pacific Initiative
- Ichiha Hachikou(Similar slogan)
- (Operation Talpiot)