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📊 | [2021 Edition] The latest English study method practiced by people who can speak English


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[2021 Edition] The latest English study method practiced by people who can speak English

 
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In the video, English learning professionals give lectures on various English learning, including English grammar and pronunciation, and English conversation lessons that can be used in business are also held.
 

Of course, traditional English study methods using paper textbooks and workbooks are also effective, but in addition to these, in recent years they have become more efficient ... → Continue reading

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English education

English education(Eikyo) isEnglishA general term for educational activities and contents related to.

Theory and practice

Two theoretical positions in English education

In English equivalent to English education (law),(T) ESL と (T) EFL There is.

  • (T)ESL is (Teaching) English as a Second Language (English as a second language)
  • (T)EFL is (Teaching) English as a Foreign Language (English as a foreign language)

Is an abbreviation for.

"English as a second language" has two meanings:

  • English as a second language to your mother tongue
  • English as a second language in an environment where English is widely used

English as a foreign language

  • English as a second language in environments where languages ​​other than English are widely used

Meaning (whether English is [official] or not).

When T (= Teaching) in the above notation is not indicated, it may mean "English class to take" from the student's perspective.

In addition, in terms similar toTESOL(Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages,TESOLThere is). TESOL is the world's largest English education学会It is also used as a general term in the field of English education as well as TESL. In Europe, the term ELT (English Language Teaching) is also widely used.

Representative teaching method

Traditional teaching methods

The traditional teaching method in English education is an application of activism, and the following procedure is used.

Mimicry-Memorization
The teacher presents the correct sentence model (English grammar), and the learner repeats it.
Substitution
The teacher presents a new word to the student, who uses it to make a sentence of the same structure.

AL method (Audio-Lingual Method)

AL method(Audio lingual method) is one of the teaching methods used in language instruction devised by (Charles Fries) of the University of Michigan. In Japan,Oral Approach Often referred to as. "Foreign language begins with oral practice"ActivismIt is a method based on (so-called direct method), and certain lifestyle habits are "habit enhancement" (Operant reaction). Thus correctCustomIf the habit is formed, a positive evaluation will be given, and if the wrong habit is formed, a negative evaluation will be given.

In the AL method, there is no explicit explanation of grammar as described above,Pattern practice Practice of a specific sentence structure called (Pattern Practice) is performed. Simply"型The method of remembering the "Pattern" is used and continues until it can be used automatically. In this method, the lesson is based on a certain number of repeated exercises, and the opportunity for the learner to freely create a new language pattern from himself is methodologically avoided. Teachers expect specific reactions based on language rules and do not encourage students to receive negative reviews. The AL method is a teacher-centered teaching method because both the information provided and the information transmitted are limited. However, it is a fact that some teachers and students still have the advantage that they can easily understand what is expected, and that some people still prefer the AL method.

The AL law is the product of three historical circumstances. In terms of language, "Sapir-Wharf hypothesisKnown asEdward Sapir,Leonard BloomfieldSuch as AmericaStructuralist linguisticsIt originated in the research by the researchers. The major interest of the American structural linguistics in the early 20th century wasAmerican EnglishWas to describe in detail. However, due to the lack of English teachers with the ability to make theoretical descriptions of American English,LinguistI had no choice but to rely on observation. For the same reason,SpokenThe interest in is increasing. The same era,Behavioral psychologyPerson ofBF SkinnerHas established the idea that all behaviors, including language, are learned through repetitive activities and positive/negative evaluations. And the third element that enabled the birth of the AL method isSecond World WarIs the outbreak of. The start of the war necessitated the deployment of US military personnel around the world, which required them to acquire at least basic conversational skills. The new method had to rely on the scientific methodologies that were prevailing at the time: observation and repetition, and indeed it was brilliantly educational. Due to the influence of the military, the early form of AL law became known as the "Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP)."

Since the 1960s, the AL law has been questioned for its value as an effective language teaching theory. This was in the 1950sNoam ChomskyLinguists have pointed out the limitations of American structuralist linguistics and the validity of behavioral psychology in language learning.[Note 1].. Since then, the usage of AL law has changed from classroom activities to individual instruction.[Source required]Due to the teacher-centered advantages mentioned above, this lesson system is still being used today.

CLT (Communicative Language Teaching)

As it is in JapaneseCommunicative Language TeachingIt is often said that the term "language education for communication" is included. Focus on interaction using language as a means, interaction to learn language, bothSecond language,Foreign language educationTechnique for. Sometimes referred to as a "communicative approach to foreign language education" or simply "communicative approach."

CLT is "Concept/functionsyllabus (Notional-Functional Syllabus)”. Emphasis is placed on the ability of students to use a “target language” in a variety of contexts, with a focus on learning the “work of language”. Unlike the AL method, its main goal is not to learn the perfect grammatical structure or to imitate the pronunciation of the native speaker, but to assist the learner himself in generating meaning. The success of learning iscommunication ability (communicative competence)”. In short, "communicative ability" is the ability to combine knowledge about both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of a language with sufficient skills for communication.

CLT is often seen as a broader method for teaching, rather than a well-defined classroom practice-based teaching method. Therefore, it is usually defined as a list of general principles and features. Of these, the five features created by are best known[1].

  • Focus on learning communication through interaction using the target language.
  • Introduce correct sentences into the learning scene.
  • Provide opportunities to focus on the learning process as well as language.
  • Improve the learner's own personal experience as an important factor contributing to classroom learning.
  • Associate in-class language learning with out-of-class language activities.

From these five characteristics, CLT practitioners not only relate to “words learned in the classroom” and “words used outside the classroom” but also to the needs and desires of learners. However, it can be seen that he is interested. Under this loose definition, all educational practices that help students develop their communication skills in real-world situations are considered to be good and informative forms of teaching. Therefore, in the actual classroom, CLT learns pair activities and group activities that require negotiations and collaboration between learning, activities that emphasize fluency for developing self-confidence, and language work.Role playAt the same time, you will learn to use grammar and pronunciation wisely in your activities.

At CLT, the problem is that if a teacher understands what a student is saying, it would be a great conversation. For example, if a student makes a mistake because of the influence of the first language, there may be a situation in which even if a teacher from the same area can understand it, students around the target language cannot understand the mistake as a mistake. This is an issue to be noted in CLT. In CLT that solves this problem, it should be a simulated place in which the teacher behaves so as to understand at first only what the students in the target language classroom can understand and respond accordingly. Is. This is one of the challenges for CLT.

Other

Oral method,Communicative approach,SuggestpediaSuch. For more informationLanguage teaching methodSee.

School education in each country

Japanese school education

JapanInJunior high school-high schoolFor 6 years,University-Junior college-Vocational schoolIn many cases, English classes are also given.Public educationRefers to an English professor at an institution. But besides this,primary schoolAnd earlierearly educationAs English (children's English),High school exam-College entrance examAnd so onExam English,Eiken-TOEIC-TOEFLSuch asEnglish testMeasures, and even hobbies to various specialized fields regardless of ageEnglish conversationThere are various related fields, such asmarketIs formed.

Research fields related to English education"English Education"CalledPedagogy(Subject Education) Is positioned as a field. Also, together with multilingual foreign language education"Foreign Language Education"Sometimes called.

History

In OsakaVocational school[Note 2]It has been pointed out that the Dutch teaching method established in Japan was inherited as a method for teaching and learning English thereafter.[2][3].

OpeningAs a result, the research target of scholars is also "Dutch studies"English studiesA wide range includingWestern studiesShifts to."Edo Shogunate OfWestern studiesAs an educational research instituteForeign bookshop, And the successor to itKaiseishoIs installed and will be described laterYuri MoriLearned.

American OfRanald McDonald(1824-1894) is Japan's firstNative speakers OfEnglishIt is called a teacher.

1873In the governmentForeign language schoolAs the firstFormer Tokyo Foreign Language School(CurrentTokyo University of Foreign Studies) Was established. In the same year, a private school “Kayrin Gakukan” was opened in Nagasaki, where you can study both Chinese and English.[4].

1886The first ofElementary school decreePeriod (WoodsDuring the Bunsei period, English education was promoted.Yuri MoriIt is,Japanese language foreign language theoryAlso chanted[Note 3].. Such extreme Europeanization has the right side's antipathy, and the forest will later be assassinated. After the death of the forest, radical English education was reduced, and foreign language education at elementary schoolsHigher elementary schoolIt is said that it will be limited to (current elementary school upper grade ~ middle school)[5].

1924 OfJapanese Immigration LawAs a result of the enforcement, English abolitionism, including anti-American sentiment, appeared in public opinion.[6].

19509IsJapan English Education Association(In 2009Japan English Proficiency AssociationWas dissolved and merged) was established.

2011From the degree, English became a compulsory subject in the fifth and sixth grades of elementary school.Ministry of educationIs considering compulsory less than 4[7].

Issues related to English education discussion

In principle, introduce English learning in elementary schools and teach English in high schoolsCourse of StudyThe discussion about English education, such as the description, is more likely to be a topic than other subjects. This includes English educationEducation industryBig in the field ofmarketIt seems that there is a high degree of interest in forming the. Although there are some things that affect the course of study, such as the extension of English learning time in school education and the content of learning that emphasizes conversation and disregards grammar, there are many criticisms from experts in English education. In addition, there are experts who call this situation "English education enthusiasm" and call for calm discussion.[8].

Issues related to teacher training

As a general rule, in order to teach English at a Japanese school, a license for elementary school/junior high school “foreign language (English)” and high school “foreign language (English)” is required.

primary school

It is necessary to acquire credits for acquiring a teacher's license from an elementary school.Elementary school teacherSee.

Like other elementary school subjects, although English is not listed as a specialized subject in the license acquisition conditions, English credits are required for general liberal arts subjects. In addition, the conditions for obtaining a teacher's license include graduation from a university for a one-class license and graduation from a junior college for a two-class license (or 2 credits at the university for two years or more, and required credits). In many cases, it is necessary to take a second foreign language, so in most cases it is necessary to take a language other than English at the time of obtaining a license.

Middle school/High school

in JapanJunior high schoolandhigh school"Foreign language (English)"Teacher licenseWhen you getEducation Staff License Act Enforcement RegulationsBased on Articles XNUMX and XNUMX, it is necessary to acquire more than the specified number of credits for subjects that include the following:[9].. Teacher licenses for junior high and high school "foreign languages ​​(English)" are available at many universities in teacher training, literature, and language (Distance learningIs included)[10].

In addition to this, the teaching method of "English" as the "teaching method of each subject" prescribed in Article XNUMX, fourth column (also called the English education method, etc., basically includes English pedagogy) It is necessary to acquire the credits of.

Incidentally,2007Degree (FY19)Ministry of educationAccording to a survey byEikenQuasi 1st grade or higher,TOEIC730 points or more,TOEFLThe percentage of English teachers who received more than 550 points was only 26.6% in middle school and 50.6% in high school. In addition, 3% of all third-grade junior high school students have Eiken Level 3 or higher, and 33.7% of third-grade high school students are in Eiken Level 3 or higher.[11].

School education in china

1949 yearsPeople's Republic of ChinaThe education system at the beginning of the country was modeled on the Soviet UnionRussianWas the mainstream, and English was only a foreign language to selectively learn[12].. After that, when China and the Soviet Union moved away from each other, the 1963st foreign language in foreign language education was English in the 1964 "Full-day Middle School English Teaching Outline (draft)" and the 7 "Foreign Language Education 1 Year Plan Outline". And lessons in Russian were reduced[12].. But from 1966Cultural RevolutionAs a result, the English course of school education was almost stopped, and the seven-year plan was stalled.[12].

Foreign language education was resumed under the reform and open policy of 1978, and in 1978, the full-time ten-year system for teaching elementary and middle school (trial draft) was promulgated.[12].

Korean school education

In Korea, from 1981, English education was provided at the discretion of each school in the “special activity” class for elementary school students 4th grade and above.[12].. Since joining the WTO in 1994, in 1995, at the discretion of the principal, it became possible to open English as an elective subject.[12].. In 1997, English was gradually introduced as a compulsory subject for third graders and above.[12].

School education in Taiwan

In Taiwan, English was a compulsory subject in secondary education in 1945[12].. In 2001, English education was compulsory for 5th grade and above, and in 2005, English education was compulsory from 3rd grade.[12].

Danish school education

Education costs are free in Denmark, but at the university, the classes are all taught in English, not Danish. The problem is that even in Denmark, the importance of the Danish language is declining, and children who have been educated free of charge by the tax of the Danish citizens leave the country and do not remain in Denmark. In 2018, the Danish Minister of Education said that “it is not possible to educate the public on behalf of other countries,” and called on the university to reduce its English lessons. 8 out of 6 accepted request[13].

Comments/quotes

  1. ^ Nunan, David. 1991. Communicative tasks and the language curriculum.TESOL Quarterly 25(2), 279-295
  2. ^ Minoru Shimizu, "About foreign language learning and education in Japan from the perspective of acceptance of foreign cultures"Faculty of Literature, 2010, Issue 94, p.1-14, Faculty of Literature, Bukkyo University
  3. ^ Looking Back on the History of Japanese Foreign Language Learning and Education: Rethinking Japanese Learning and Educational Objectives Yoshitaka Sato Bulletin No. 31 (2002.3)
  4. ^ Discover "Nagajin"! How to walk in Nagasaki
  5. ^ Transition of Elementary School English Education in Japan (1)-Meiji Period- Kyoritsu Women's University Nishimura Fumiko
  6. ^ A Study on Internationalization of English and English Education in Japan
  7. ^ Elementary school 4 or less is also required for English, study by the Ministry of Education Study on teaching method: Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2012/9/9
  8. ^ Ken Kanaya "English Education Fever: Cooling your heating mind with common sense", Kenkyusha, 2008
  9. ^ "Education Staff License Act Enforcement Regulations”. E-Gov. 2020/1/26Browse.
  10. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "Universities that can obtain a license for junior high and high school teachers (English)"andPrivate University Correspondence Education Association "List of Teacher's Licenses That Can Be Acquired"
  11. ^ About the 19 elementary school English activity implementation status survey and English education improvement implementation status survey (junior high school/high school)
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Research Report on Elementary School English Education". National Institute for Educational Policy Research. 2019/5/4Browse.
  13. ^ “Denmark to cut places on English-language university programs” (English). (June 2018, 8). https://www.thelocal.dk/20180823/denmark-to-make-cuts-to-english-language-university-programmes/ 2018/8/24Browse. 
note
  1. ^ It is well known that Chomsky reconsidered Skinner's "verbal behavior" in 1959.
  2. ^ Fukuzawa YukichiDutch studies school that we learned.
  3. ^ Immediately after the end of the war, "God of Constitution"Yukio OzakiReplied as well.

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