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Cram school(Gakushuju) is a facility that privately collects children and provides supplementary school education and preparatory education.
While some areas, such as East Asian countries, have many cram schools,フィンランド OfHelsinkiIn some areas, there are almost no institutions equivalent to cram schools, and some children participate in learning circles with free participation..
Cram school in Japan
Definition of cram school
Ministry of educationIn the "Fact-finding report on children's learning activities outside of school", the cram school was described as "outside the home, not at school."National language,ArithmeticThose that teach subjects such as,AbacusIt does not include so-called stakes such as..The lesson is "At home or outside the home,Penmanship, Abacus,ピ ア ノ,SportsIt is defined as "the one who receives guidance such as".
Classification of school
By academic ability
There are cram schools with difficult classes and those with no classes, but major junior colleges often classify classes according to their academic ability. Most small and medium-sized cram schools do not classify. Individual tutoring schools and self-study schools are not divided into classes because they can respond to individual abilities.
- Cram school with difficult school advancement class
- A cram school that teaches students who want to go to a difficult school by adding more difficult content than the school lessons. Most of the classes are divided in the entrance examination. There are almost no cram schools for students who aim to become difficult schools, and most of them take the form of scholastic ability classes.
- General cram school
- A cram school that does not have classes according to academic ability. Classes and supplementary lessons precede school lessons according to the medium level of academic ability. Most of the small and medium-sized school belong to this.
Number of people
- Private lessons for group classes
- More than 1 people per classclassStructured cram school. At a major school,EmployeeThe instructor will handle the class of advanced content,UniversitySuch asPart-time jobInstructors are often in charge of other classes. Since it is not possible to distinguish between employees and university students working part-time,lecturerIt is difficult to judge the quality. Classes handled by instructors treated as employees have a large number of students per class and high tuition fees. As the scale grows, the quality of teachers may decline mainly in lower classes..
- In the middle class, there are many places that are part-time teachers even in group classes, and in this case the tuition fee is often relatively low.
- Self-study private supplementary school
- There are no classes, and elementary and junior high school students of different grades are gathered in a large room to study various subjects simultaneously in a self-study format. Receive the special print and question paper written by the commentary, and study by yourself. The graders are scared of scoring, so they can hardly give them guidance. In places with a large number of people, part-time instructors may also provide tour guidance. Most areFranchiseIn many cases, housewives at home do this as leaders.Kumon,Gakken classroomCorresponds to this.
- Small class classCram school
- This class is often used in privately run private schools with a class composition of approximately 1 to 5 students per class. Unlike group lessons, you can also give individual guidance.
- Individualized instructionCram school
- One instructor supervises 1 to 1 students. Although tutoring is possible, tuition is expensive because there are few students per instructor. Compared with the hourly unit price, it is 4 to 1 times that of the cram school of group lessons. Some say that it is safe to use it as a follow-up for subjects that are not good at repairing..
Development and negative effects of school
The number has increased rapidly since the 40s, and it is now an indispensable existence,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularSide is also paying attention to the teaching method of the major school.. OnceMinistry of Education(Current: Ministry of education) Said that the private supplementary school was unfavorable,Advisory bodyIn Although1999(HeiseiSince the recommendation made in 11, the school has changed to a policy of coexisting school education and learning cram school.Service industryBecause the industryMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryIs the jurisdiction of).
One of the reasons why cram schools are popular is that public schoolsYutori educationI have a feeling of anxiety. In addition, the schoolComprehensive learning timeThere is also a movement to provide "(Details,Public Schools # Discussing Japanese Public SchoolsSee). However, "even if you go to the cram schoolLower academic abilityCannot be prevented.", "Some students teach only difficult questions, but on the contrary, basic academic ability is sluggish"Is pointed out. It is pointed out that many elementary, junior high, and high school students have both schools and cram schools/preparatory schools, which may have a negative impact on the physical and mental health..
Even overseas, the number of children attending school for cram school is increasing among Japanese children living overseas. For local study, after returning to Japan, enrolling in a Japanese schoolTransferThe problem is that it is not possible to match the learning content and level required for.
Trends in cram schools in recent years
As an environment surrounding the school,Younger,High school consistent schoolThe number of target students is decreasing due to the increase in the number of students, but on the other hand, there is a trend of expansion of the market due to the aging of school attendees and the increase in spending from households to school..
Acquisition of a company
With the increase in acquisitions of major cram schools, it is sometimes said that "small and medium-sized cram schools may not survive." There are also acquisitions of peers (for example, Toshin High School's acquisition of Yotsuya Otsuka), but the entry of other industries is emerging as a new move. EspeciallyDistance learningLargestBenesseSell this companyShinken seminarSince it is a supplementary teaching material, it is trying to acquire students who are studying for the examination by acquiring the cram school with a capital power that is far different from existing cram companies. In fact, Benesse2007(Heisei19 years)6ToTokyo Tutoring AcademyBecame a consolidated subsidiary,2007(Heisei19 years)May 12ToTetsuryokukaiAnnounced the acquisition ofReference bookAnd sell learning magazinesGakkenWill prepare for school lessons and reviewGakken classroomBut have started the cram school business to prevent this student from withdrawing during the examination period.
Shift to small class
YoungerResponding to trends,Individualized instructionAlso, there are many small classes with less than 10 students. Larger cram schools tend to expand the number of classrooms, but there are also cases where a private cram school is set up as a sister school, or an individual booth is set up inside the cram school. Even if you say individual instructionTutorTeaching is not always one-to-one like. Individual instruction refers to one instructor who gives 1-1 students with different grades and different courses at the same time. In other words, it is "individual instruction" rather than "individual lesson." Naturally, the tuition will be considerably high because the number of students is small for one teacher. Even so, students with moderate or lower academic ability can be given more thorough guidance than group lessons.
In the case of individual tutoring, the ability and the point of being able to respond to the instruction of different grades and subjects at the same time while traveling are required. It is often assumed that one instructor will be in charge of all grades and subjects, but since the instructor is in charge of only the subjects and grades that the instructor can teach, the instructor will not teach subjects that he or she is not good at. However, these cram schools often provide not only "learning contents" but also "study methods", and until the teachers become familiar with the overall flow and can adjust the pace according to the students in charge. Is a heavy load.
Prolonged recession and excessive competition and problems in private supplementary schools
There are pros and cons to the school, but in recent yearsYoungerOr prolongRecessionDue to theMarketThe scale is shrinking. Large in recent yearscityRangeStation squareMany cram schools have risen to the ground, and some cram schools are being closed due to excessive competition. Also,Teacher licenseTeachers who have not acquiredUniversitySupervised byDeviation valueThere are various contradictions, such as education and school teachers, and cram school teachers giving guidance. In addition, due to the industry reorganization, there are also learning schools that add successful applicants among affiliated private schools and increase the number of successful applicants and put the successful results in advertisements, etc., which is becoming a social problem. In April 2011, a major school admitted to the inflated display,Consumer Affairs Agency Administrative sanctionsThere was also an incident of defeating him. In addition, at some study schoolsInfomationWithout permission oftextbookCreate teaching materials by quoting or copying from without permission,Copyright infringementThere are some cases in which.
The statistics related to the school are listed below.
School attendance rate
|school year||School attendance rate|
|Junior high school third grade||62.5|
|High school third grader||12.7|
In cities and rural areas, cities tend to be higher.
|Classification||Paying for the cram school|
Student ratio (%)
|Annual average of spenders (thousand yen)|
|Junior high school||public||71.6||246|
|High school (full time)||public||35.3||224|
Number of cram schools by prefecture
The following is the number of cram schools nationwide and their statistics.
|Ranking||Prefectures||Number of houses|
|Total number||1000 students|
あ た り
|1||Wakayama||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|2||Tokushima||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|3||Kagawa||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|4||Ehime||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|5||Hyogo||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|6||Hiroshima||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|7||Nara||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|8||Kyoto||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|9||Gifu||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|10||Shiga||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|11||Kochi||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|12||Mie||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|13||Yamaguchi||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|14||Okinawa||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|15||Kanagawa||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|16||Shizuoka||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|17||Saitama||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|18||Tottori||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|19||Aichi||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|20||Osaka||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|21||Okayama||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|22||Tochigi||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|23||Niigata||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|24||Tokyo||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|25||Yamanashi||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|26||Chiba||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|27||Ishikawa||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|28||Nagano||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|29||Oita||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|30||Fukushima||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|31||Ibaraki||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|32||Akita||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|33||Nagasaki||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|34||Gunma||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|35||Saga||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|36||Fukuoka||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|37||Miyagi||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|38||Fukui||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|39||Miyazaki||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|40||Toyama||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|41||Kagoshima||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|42||Shimane||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|43||Hokkaido||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|44||Kumamoto||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|45||Aomori||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|46||Yamagata||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|47||Iwate||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|全国||XNUM X houses||XNUM X houses|
|Unit population: per 1000 high school students (2014)|
Cram school in Korea
There is a cram school called Hagon in Korea..It is said that 4 out of 3 people attend cram schools in Seoul, and according to a 2014 survey, 5% of elementary school students attend cram schools for 73.0 days or more...In South Korea, English is compulsory from the third grade of elementary school, so about half of the elementary school students attending cram schools choose foreign language cram schools..
Cram school in China
According to a 2014 survey, the attendance rate for elementary school students in Beijing was 76.6%...In Beijing, there are many cases of attending cram schools on holidays, and many elementary school students go to cram schools for one or two days, but the time spent studying at cram schools was three to four hours a day...In China, English is compulsory from the third grade of elementary school (first grade of elementary school in Beijing), so about 3% of elementary school students attending cram schools choose English cram schools..
Cram school in England
According to a 2014 survey, the attendance rate for elementary school students in London was 13.1%...Many elementary school students are doing lessons other than cram school, with 65.2% for sports, 18.1% for music, 13.1% for ballet and dance, and 11.4% for painting..
Cram school in the United States
In the 2014 surveyWashington DCThe attendance rate of elementary school students was 7.2%..In Washington, DC, there are many elementary school students who are learning other than cram schools, with sports at 75.5%, music at 27.5%, ballet and dance at 13.7%, and painting at 11.5%..
- List of school and prep school
- Prep school
- Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular
- Free school
- Individualized instruction
- English class
- Practice exam
- Educational mom
- Yutori education
- ^ a b c Basic Learning Survey / International 6 Cities Survey / Bulletin Version 7/16 Benesse Institute for Education, Retrieved January 2021, 1.
- ^ a b Fact-finding report on children's learning activities outside of school (August 20) Retrieved October 2021, 1, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
- ^ a b c d "Weekly Toyo Keizai" "Gekisen! Cram School Business" June 2007, 6 issue
- ^ Asahi Shimbun, March 2006, 3
- ^ Takehiko Kariya, Mutsumi Shimizu, Kokichi Shimizu, Yuko Moroda, "Actual State of "Academic Degradation"", 2002,ISBN-978 4000092784
- ^ Sankei iza "In the shadow of private popularity (2) Reducing the academic gap due to the private supplementary school"2008(Heisei20 years)May 1付
- ^ "Problems of attending school for children and students" 1992, White Paper on Education (Ministry of Education(Current: Ministry of education))
- ^ Unauthorized use of textbooks in cram school materials "Copyright violation, unrecognized" Sankei Shimbun, April 2012, 4
- ^ School copy "Hama Gakuen", copy and use textbooks without permission Yomiuri Shimbun, April 2012, 4
- ^ a b "Survey on the actual situation and consciousness toward the enhancement of local educational ability under a full-school five-day system" Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology,2003(Heisei15 years)4
- ^ "18 Child Expenses Survey" Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
- ^ Economic Sances-Basic Survey XNUMX
- ^ a b c d Basic Learning Survey / International 6 Cities Survey / Bulletin Version 6/16 Benesse Institute for Education, Retrieved January 2021, 1.
- ^ a b c d Basic Learning Survey / International 6 Cities Survey / Bulletin Version 8/16 Benesse Institute for Education, Retrieved January 2021, 1.