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semiconductor(Handotai,British: Semiconductor）Is a conductor such as metal with good electrical conductivity (Good conductor) And large electrical resistivityInsulator(Non-conductor) Means a substance with an intermediate resistivity..代表的なものとしては元素半導体のTypical examples are elemental semiconductorsSilicon(Si),germanium(Ge), compound semiconductorGallium arsenide(GaAs),Gallium phosphide(GaP),Indium phosphide(InP) and so on.
A substance with a resistivity intermediate between a conductor such as metal and an insulator such as rubbersemiconductorCalled (semiconductor).半導体は不純物の導入やIntroducing impurities into semiconductorsheat,Light,magnetic field,Voltage,電流,radiationIt has the characteristic that its conductivity changes remarkably due to such influences.But these features are solidBand theoryExplained by.
Using band theory, what is a semiconductor?Valence bandThe electronic state that fills is completely clogged (Fill zone) ButBandgapWithConduction bandThere is no electronic state to fill in (empty zone)materialIs defined as.
In general, resistors satisfy a proportional relationship with respect to current and voltage, ieOhm's lawIs called ohmic resistance because..On the other hand, in an electric circuit, a non-ohmic resistor element is as important as an ohmic resistor element.
One of the important properties of semiconductors is that various non-ohmic resistors can be obtained by appropriately contacting semiconductors with metals or semiconductors..
Specifically, a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor are pn-junctioned.diodeOr, an n-type semiconductor is sandwiched between p-type semiconductors, or a p-type semiconductor is sandwiched between n-type semiconductors.Transistorand so on.Solar cellAlso uses a pn junction.
In semiconductors, electrical conductivity usually increases as the temperature rises.
At room temperature, the carrier is in a state of being able to move through the crystal, leaving the constraints it receives from the impurity atoms.言い方を変えれば、ドナーとアクセプターの原子は多くがIn other words, many donor and acceptor atomsionHowever, as the temperature decreases, the thermal excitation also weakens, and the effect of binding due to the Coulomb attraction of impurity atoms becomes relatively large.キャリアが束縛を離れている温度の領域をIn the temperature range where the carrier is out of boundsSaturated regionOrWithdrawal areaThe temperature range in which the carrier is boundImpurity regionThat is.また、温度を上昇させると価電子までもが熱励起され、キャリアの供給源となり、この温度領域をIn addition, when the temperature is raised, even valence electrons are thermally excited and become a carrier supply source, and this temperature range is changed.Intrinsic realmCalled.When used as a semiconductor element, a saturated region is used.
Reverse biasedpn junctionIf the temperature rises too much, the current will increase due to the increase in carriers, and the temperature will rise further due to the heat generated by the resistance.Thermal runawayOccurs.
The materials used as semiconductors are as follows.
- Group IV semiconductor:Si,Ge,Fullerene,carbon nanotubeな ど
- Compound semiconductor
- Organic semiconductor,Conductive polymer
Impurities andLattice defectSemiconductors that do not contain anyIntrinsic semiconductorCalled (intrinsic semiconductor).真性半導体は、そのIntrinsic semiconductorsFermi level TheBandgapLocated in the center of, the carrier is in the entire temperature rangeValence bandSince it is supplied only by the excitation of electrons at the energy level of, it is used in electronic circuits.Semiconductor elementIt is difficult to use as.
Semiconductors that can be used as semiconductor elements are now intrinsic semiconductors.DopantMix a small amount of additive calledExtrinsic semiconductor(DopeCreate by doing).このthisDopeThe density of electrons or holes, which are carriers of semiconductors, changes depending on the semiconductor, but semiconductors in which electrons predominate as carriers that dominate the conduction phenomenonn-type semiconductor(Negative semiconductor), converselyHoleDominatesp-type semiconductorCalled (positive semiconductor).このような優勢なキャリアをSuch a dominant careerMultiple carriers(Majority carrier), on the contrary, a poor carrierMinority carriersCalled (minority carrier). In n-type semiconductors, the majority carrier is an electron and the minority carrier is a hole. In p-type semiconductors, the majority carriers are holes and the minority carriers are electrons.It does not mean that p-type semiconductors and n-type semiconductors cannot be made without doping.carbon nanotubeIs known as a P-type semiconductor.
n-type semiconductor (negative semiconductor)
n-type semiconductor(Negative semiconductor) means conduction electrons and free electrons when a voltage is applied.Nearly free electronIt is a semiconductor in which electric charges are carried by the movement of electrons, which is also called.It is made by doping elements with high valence.例えばFor examplesilicon,germaniumFor (tetravalent element) crystalsArsenicBy mixing pentavalent atoms such as, it becomes n-type.
The carriers generated by the introduction of impurities are bound by the Coulomb attraction received from the introduced impurity atoms.However, the binding is weak, and in germanium n-type semiconductors, the electron binding energy = -0.01 eV,Bohr radius = About 4.2 nm, so in the crystalInteratomic distance At about 0.25 eV, thermal excitation at 0.025 nm and room temperature leaves the binding of a single atom and moves freely between crystal atoms, and these atoms share electrons with each other. Band structureGenerally speaking, the dopant atom forms a donor level near the upper end of the forbidden band, and from there to the conduction band by thermal energy.excitationIs done.Fermi levelIs close to the donor level in the bandgap.
p-type semiconductor (positive semiconductor)
It is a semiconductor in which electric charges are carried by the movement of holes when a voltage is applied.It is made by doping an element with a low valence.例えばシリコン（4価）の結晶にFor example, for silicon (tetravalent) crystalsBoronBy mixing trivalent atoms such as, it becomes p-type.
The voids on the electron orbit created by the transition of electrons to the conduction band side and the shortage of electrons on the valence band side become holes.By moving the free electrons between the atoms of the crystal to the adjacent holes, the positions of the holes can move freely, and they flow in the opposite direction to the electrons according to the voltage.The mobility is inferior to that of electrons.In terms of band structure, dopant atoms form an empty level called the acceptor level near the lower end of the forbidden band, and valence electrons are excited from the valence band to the acceptor level by thermal energy, resulting in valence electrons. Holes are generated in the band.The Fermi level is close to the acceptor level in the bandgap.
In 1839Alexandre Edmond BecquerelIs thinSilver chlorideCovered withplatinumAn electric current is generated when light is applied to an electrode immersed in an electrolytic solution.Photoelectric effectI have found
In 1874Ferdinand BrownObserved the conductivity and rectifying action of metals sulfide, which was already described by MA Rosenschold in Annalen der Physik und Chemie in 1835.,Arthur SchusterDiscovered that the copper oxide film on the surface of the wire had a rectifying effect.
Adams and Day observed the photoelectric effect of selenium in 1876.
To explain these events in the first half of the 20th centurySolid state physicsNeeded to build the theory of.
Devices using semiconductors were manufactured by fumbling because the theory was not established at first.
Lead sulfide in 1904The rectifying element of the high frequency point contact detector made byJagdish Chandra BoseBy naturalGalenaIt was usedCrystal detectorManufactured as.これは初期のThis is the earlyOre radioUsed in and popularized.However, at that time, the principle of operation was unknown and the method of improvement was also unknown.
In 1922Oleg LosevAlso observed a similar phenomenon, but at that time this effect could not be put to practical use.Copper oxideとseleniumPower usingrectifierWas developed in the 1920s and was of commercial importance until the spread of tube rectifiers..
Before World War IIInfraredWith detectionOptical wireless communicationThe element aimed atLead sulfideIt was studied with the material of.これらの素子はThese elementsShip,aircraft OfHeat crestUsed for capture and voice calls.
It was available at that time in the frequency band above about 4000 MHzVacuum tubeIt didn't work, so point contactCrystal detector TheMicrowaveUsed in band-using radar receivers.戦争中にはDuring the warDetectorResearch and development was carried out to produce high-purity silicon material suitable for developing.
DetectorAnd powerrectifierIt was impossible to amplify the signal.Much effort was spent on the development of semiconductor amplifiers, but failed due to theoretical limitations on semiconductor materials..
Although the appearance of semiconductor amplifiers was theoretically expected in the 1930s to some extent, the results of experiments were not good.これは当時の半導体の純度が低かったためで、半導体増幅器を実現するためには1950年代のThis was due to the low purity of semiconductors at that time, and in order to realize a semiconductor amplifier in the XNUMXsZone melt methodHad to wait for the development of.
In 1935 O. Heil controls semiconductor resistance with surface electrodesMOSFETWe applied for a patent for an element similar to.Semiconductor (Te2, I2, Co2O3, V2O5 Etc.), and the control electrodes are placed on the upper surface of the semiconductor so that they are very close to the semiconductor but not in contact with each other, and the potential is changed to change the resistance of the semiconductor, thereby amplifying the signal. Was an element that took out to an external circuit. R. Hilsch and RW Pohl are element structures that use the structure of a vacuum tube control electrode in which a lattice electrode is embedded in the KBr crystal of a rectifier formed from a KBr crystal and a Pt electrode in 1938. Current 0.02 passed through the electrode embedded in the crystal as an electrode) mA It has been confirmed that the change in anode current is 0.4 mA.このデバイスは電子流の他にイオン電流の寄与もあって、素子のIn addition to the electron flow, this device also contributes to the ion current of the device.Cutoff frequencyIs 1 HzIt was too low for practical use.
From December 1947, 11 to January 17, 1947Bell Labsでgermanium OfTransistorExperiment was attempted, and the amplification effect was confirmed on December 1947, 12...December 1, 1947, one week after the discovery of the amplification effect, will be the official invention date of Bell Labs.特許出願は、12年23月1948日にThe patent application was filed on February 2, 26.Western electricBy companyJohn BardeenとWalter BrattenWas filed under the name of..同年6月30日に新聞で発表されたPublished in the newspaper on June XNUMX, the same year..この素子の名称はTransfer Resistorの略称で、社内で公募され、キャリアの注入でエミッターからコレクターへ電荷が移動する電流駆動型デバイスが入力と出力の間の転送（transfer）する抵抗（resistor）であることから、JRPierseが「trans-sistor」としたことに由来するThe name of this device is an abbreviation of Transfer Resistor, which is a resistor that is publicly offered in-house and a current-driven device that transfers electric charge from an emitter to a collector by injection of a carrier transfers between an input and an output. Therefore, it is derived from the fact that JR Pierse called it "trans-sistor"..
During World War IIradarGerman engineers Herbert Mataré and Heinrich Welker who were involved in the development ofFrance OfWestinghouseI am working at a subsidiary of the company and conducting research on semiconductor functions.,germaniumThe amplification effect between the electrodes of point contact was observed above.Bell LabsBut"TransistorShortly after announcing, Matalé's group announced their "Transistron" amplifier..
In Japan, news of transistor development was transmitted in the middle of 1948, and in October 1948, Tohoku UniversityYasushi Watanabe, Kubo, University of Tokyo,Electrical testing laboratory,Toshiba,NEC,日立A transistor study session has started by researchers such as.この勉強会は1949年4月にはThis study session was held in April XNUMXJapan Electronic Machinery Manufacturers AssociationDeveloped into a Transista Research Liaison Committee funded by the Ministry of Education (EIAJ).. In March 1948NEC OfMasatsugu KobayashiByRadio and experimentA commentary article on the first transistor in Japan was published in the magazine..続いて日本物理学会誌の1949年7-8月号に東京大学の山下次郎、澁谷元一による解説論文が発表されたSubsequently, a review article by Jiro Yamashita and Motoichi Shibuya of the University of Tokyo was published in the July-August XNUMX issue of the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan... At this point,Bipolar transistorThe operating principle of is not yet fully understood in both Japan and the United States.
September 1950, 4Tokyo Institute of TechnologyThe first symposium on transistors was held in Japan at the subcommittee of the Physical Society of Japan held inElectrical testing laboratoryDivided fromMinistry of CommunicationsResearch Institute of Electrical CommunicationIwase and Asakawa used high-purity germanium single crystals.Point contact transistorSuccessful trial production and operation check for the first time in Japan.
XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayIntegrated circuitThe prototype of is BritishradarscientistAlthough the concept was announced by, the manufacturing technology was immature at that time and it was not realized.afterwards,Texas Instruments OfJack quilby"Miniaturized electronic circuits" was filed in February 1959 and in June 2.United States Patent No. 3,138,743Was registered.Fairchild Semiconductor OfRobert NoyceThe "Semiconductor device-and-lead structure" devised by was filed in July 1959 and in April 7.United States Patent No. 2,981,877Was registered.
From Kobe Industry (currently Fujitsu Ten) in January 1954Alloy joint typeGermanium transistor was released by Sony in July of the same year.Growth junction typeGermanium transistor released.Grown-junction transistorIn the process of investigating defective productsReona EsakiByEsaki diodeWas developed.
In the early 1960sWestinghouseBut at that timeTexas Instruments(TI),FairchildIndependently named "Molectronics"Integrated circuitInspired by an article published in Semiconductor Product magazine in February 1960.Electrical testing laboratoryHowever, in December of the same year, about 12 of 3 germanium pellets, which can be said to be a hybrid IC with a multi-chip structure, depending on the viewpoint. cmSucceeded in prototyping an integrated circuit arranged parallel to a corner resin container.
- ^ The name of "semiconductor" is based on "semi-" = "half" and "conductor" = "conductor" in English "semiconductor".
- ^ Shyve (1961) p.9
- ^ Semiconductors are industrialriceThere is a demand for important industrial applications, as in the case of.
- ^ According to band theory, these have a forbidden band of appropriate widthBand structureDerived fromElectronic Conducted electronsOrValence electronBy becoming, the properties change in terms of electrical, optical, and thermal aspects.
- ^ The bandgap of substances that are usually treated as semiconductors issiliconIn about 1.1 eV,germaniumAt about 0.67 eV,Gallium arsenideIt is about 1.4 eV for compound semiconductors.Light emitting diodeWider ones are also used inGallium phosphideThen about 2.3 eV,Gallium nitrideThen it is about 3.4 eV.Currently, light emitting diodes of 5.27 eV for diamond and 5.9 eV for aluminum nitride have been reported.diamondIs sometimes treated as an insulator, but in reality, as mentioned above, diamond is a semiconductor with a large bandgap.Aluminum nitrideIt is generically called a wide bandgap semiconductor.
- ^ Shyve (1961) p.16
- ^ Shyve (1961) p.16
- ^ “History of Semiconductors Part 1 Electrical and Electronic Technological Innovation Until the Birth of Transistors in the 19th Century” (PDF) SEAJ Journal 7 (115), (2008)
- ^ This phenomenon laterXerographyWill be applied in.
- ^ Peter Robin Morris (1990). A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. IET. P. 12. ISBN 9780863412271
- ^ MA Rosenschold (1835). Annalen der Physik und Chemie. 35. JA Barth. P. 46.
- ^ a b Lidia Łukasiak & Andrzej Jakubowski (January 2010). “History of Semiconductors”. Journal of Telecommunication and Information Technology: 3 .
- ^ a b c d e Peter Robin Morris (1990). A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. IET. P. 11–25. ISBN 0-86341-227-0
- ^ United States Patent No. 1,745,175
- ^ a b c d “History of Semiconductors Part 5: The Birth of Transistors in the First Half of the 20th Century” (PDF) SEAJ Journal 3 (119): 12-19, (2009)
- ^ United States Patent No. 2,524,035
- ^ United States Patent No. 2,552,052
- ^ FR 1010427
- ^ United States Patent No. 2,673,948
- ^ United States Patent No. 2,569,347
- ^ a b 1950 Japan's first transistor operation check (Research Institute of Electrical Communication)
- ^ Masatsugu Kobayashi"What is TRANSISTOR?"Radio and experiment],Seibundo Shinkosha, March 1948 issue.
- ^ Jiro Yamashita, Motoichi Shibuya, "Transistor: Crystal triode.Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 1949 Vol. 4, No. 4, p.152-158, two:10.11316 / butsuri1946.4.152
- ^ 1954 Started selling germanium transistors for the first time in Japan
- ^ 1957 Invention of Esaki diode
- ^ Reona Esaki" (PDF) "Semiconductor Senior Association Newsletter," Volume 61, April 2009.
- ^ 1959 Planer Technology Invention (Fairchild)
- ^ United States Patent No. 3,025,589
- ^ Electric test group inspired by US magazine
- ^ A prototype of a solid circuit 36 (Showa 1961) Joint Conference of the Four Electrical Society
- Semimetal (band theory)
- high tech
- Semiconductor element --Electronic elements using semiconductors
- Integrated circuit --Electronic components using semiconductors
- Reliability engineering - Statistical hypothesis test
- Philadelphia Semiconductor Index
- Kenichi Owaki, Tetsuya Arizumi, "Transistors and Their Applications," March 1955. --The first transistor book in Japan
- JN Scheive "Semiconductor Engineering" Masahide Kamiyama, Akio Kobayashi, Masaharu Aoki, Shinji Kawaji (co-translation),Iwanami Shoten, 1961.
- Hajime Kawamura "Semiconductor Physics" Maki Shoten <New Physics Progress Series 1966>, XNUMX.
- Shuji Kubo "Technical History of Transistors and Integrated Circuits"Ohmsha, 1989.