The difference between the standard of income that makes private high school tuition virtually free and the difference between public high school and private high school tuition
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Private high school tuition puts pressure on households, and as a result, children feel pressure when parents tell them to go to public high school.
What is the virtually free private high school tuition system? April 2020 high school enrollment support (non-refundable tuition support) system ... → Continue reading
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Japanese public school
Public schoolInstallerIs roughly divided intoPrefectures,市町村(CityToTokyo OfAreaIncludes), andcombination(Special local governmentThere is a union).Local independent administrative corporationIsPublic university corporationInstalled byUniversity(Less than"Public university. "Junior collegeIncluding) and itsAffiliated schoolIs also included in this.
National school(Country,Ministry of education) Andprivate school(private,School corporation-Ltd.-Individual) Is a term used to distinguish it from. Of local public bodiesBoard of education,Education AgencyManages. For thisKindergarten,primary schoolからUniversityIs included. However,Public universityAbout management and execution ofLocal governmentChief (prefectural governor, mayor of municipality,Some office associationsThe board of education is not involved.
publicKindergartenIs basically managed and operated by the Municipal Board of Education. There are few kindergartens managed and operated by prefectural boards of education.
- Public kindergarten teachers are hired (appointed) by the municipal board of education and the prefectural board of education that establish the public kindergarten.SalaryTo bear.
Elementary school, junior high school, compulsory education school, high school, secondary school
- Basically, elementary and junior high schools or compulsory education schools are managed and operated by the municipal board of education, and high schools are managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but some junior and senior high schools are prefectural. Municipalities are obliged to establish elementary and junior high schools or compulsory education schools.
- High schools are basically managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but can also be set up and operated by the municipal board of education.
- Work in the first half of a public elementary and junior high school / secondary schoolStaff(head teacher-Professor-Teacher・ Assistant teacher ・nursing teacher・ Assistant teacher ・School nutrition staff-office worker)ofAppointeeIs the prefectural board of education (the administrative staff may be general administrative staff) and bears the salary (→Prefectural expense staffHowever, for simple labor staff such as janitor and school lunch cook, the municipal board of education is the appointed person, and the municipality is the salary bearer. In addition, some municipalities have municipal staff in addition to prefectural government staff at elementary and junior high schools.
- For some school staff, the principal is the appointed person.
- The Municipal Board of Education is basically the person who has the right to appoint and bears the salary for the second half of the municipal secondary school and the high school faculty and staff, but it is a part-time course.TeacherThe prefectural board of education is the appointed person and the salary bearer.
- For teachers of prefectural secondary schools and high schools, the prefectural board of education is the appointed person and the salary bearer.
Public elementary and junior high schoolsEntrance examinationWithoutSchool ageFor those who have reachedResident cardA school attendance notice will be sent to the local public elementary and junior high school.AdmissionTo do. publicHigh school consistent schoolThen, tests such as writing, practical skills, and aptitude tests are required.
Public high school is an entrance examUnofficial reportIs emphasized, and in some areasComprehensive selection-School group system(Group system)School district systemDue to such factors, it was not possible to go to the desired school, and the school area was restricted. By the examinee who disliked it1970 eraAround this time, many public high schools in urban areas dropped the number of successful applicants at difficult universities.
In recent years, abolition of school districts and emphasis on written examinations,Original entrance examinationReforms such as the introduction ofMetropolitan High SchoolThe reforms are highly evaluated, as the number of successful applicants at difficult universities has increased significantly, and other prefectures are also pursuing the reforms.
On the other hand, the consolidation of public schools is occurring one after another due to the declining birthrate and depopulation, and the number of consolidations from 23 to 30 is at the same pace as the consolidation at the time of the Great Heisei Consolidation... For example, in Ibaraki prefecture, 1976 schools were closed from 2005 to 111... Utilization of the site of the consolidated school can be classified into "abandoned school building utilization type", "school resource utilization type", "new facility construction type", and "site utilization type". Can be classified into "operation" and "private ownership / private operation".
In the case of rural areas suffering from depopulation, the closure of public elementary and junior high schools means that it will be difficult for new child-rearing generations to settle in the area, which will be a factor in accelerating the further declining birthrate and aging population in the village... Therefore, from outside the prefecture of locationNationwide recruitmentThe number of high schools that carry out this is increasing.
Basically, publicSpecial schoolIs set up, managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but can also be set up, managed and operated by the municipal board of education. Prefectural governments are obliged to establish public special needs schools.
- In both prefectural and municipal governments, the prefectural board of education appoints the faculty and staff of special needs schools and bears the salary. However, for simple labor staff working at municipal special needs schools, the municipality is the appointed person / salary bearer.
Debate over public schools
Compared to private schools, public schools cannot improve their academic ability sufficiently, and there is a disparity between public and private schools... According to the 2007 National Achievement Survey
- Comparing the average correct answer rate (6th grade), Arithmetic A, which tests basic skills, is 82.1% public, while private is 10%, which is 92.1 points higher. Arithmetic B, which tests applied skills, was 63.6% public and 77.1% private, with a wide difference of 13.5 points. The national language has the same tendency. Many of the higher schools do not participate in private schools.More quotation
It is pointed out that the percentage of correct answers was higher for private school students... Aside from urban areas where private schools are located, there are also rural areas where private schools cannot be considered as an option in the first place, so there are opinions calling for "rebuilding" the educational capabilities of public schools..
On the other hand, of the pedagogueHidenori FujitaQuestioned these opinions and pointed out the influence of the tone of the media, which repeatedly criticized for criticism, and compulsory education in Japan was "very internationally in all aspects of institutions, functions, and practices. It is at a high standard. " Fujita also points out that the high level of public education in Japan is recognized in other countries, and that there are many points to be learned from public education in Japan. According to Fujita, what is highly evaluated by foreign countries especially in Japanese public education is the continuous self-improvement of educational technology through lesson study, the collaboration of teacher groups, the community and care function of public schools. Be done.
Also known as the "Kageyama Method",Education reproduction meeting,Central Education CouncilServed as a member ofHideo KageyamaIs sometimes said to be the best in education in the world at the 17 Special Committee on Compulsory Education for Junior High School Tribunals.フィンランドHowever, while there are many educational opportunities at home, it is difficult for Japan to have such a situation, and teachers make up for it. And in response to the opinion of the Ministry of Finance that "the national treasury burden for compulsory education is increasing," "I would like to say to this financial counsel that faculty and staff are doing work that is commensurate with their salary. ".
To improve students' academic abilityCram schoolThere is an opinion that we have to rely on,RecruitmentFromCivilian principalKazuhiro FujiharaRegarding this problem, if students' academic ability is divided into five stages from 1 to 5, it is impossible to teach 1 and 5 (lowest and highest) students at school alone, and 1 student is traditionally For example, the local community has taken care of it, but it has become difficult due to changes in social conditions in recent years, and it is said that the teacher's true intention is that 5 students should go to a cram school. In addition, Fujiwara visited Finland's educational situation with Kageyama mentioned above, and said, "Finland has a large number of teachers."Wada Naka) But if there are 7 or 8 more teachers (education like Finland), we can do it. ".
Regarding the curriculum, such as application of knowledge and ability to think for oneself,Yutori educationWas also one of the highlights ofComprehensive learning timeWas fueling anxiety about Yutori educationNihon LabSuch asCram schoolHowever, the situation is becoming chaotic, such as the start of providing services that allow students to learn "total study time.".. It has also been pointed out that the background to this is that entrance exams for private schools have become more demanding for the application of knowledge..
British public school
British educationIn public schools (“State School” or “Comprehensive”, or “Grammar School” with selection exams (Grammar school) ”) Refers to a government-funded school that provides free education. This is private and paidIndependent School, Treated as a non-profit organizationPublic schoolIs contrasted with.
Public school problems
Unpaid tuition and school lunch fees are also a problem in public schools.
- ^ "Current status and issues of consolidation of elementary, junior high and high schools". Ministry of education. 2020/6/23Browse.
- ^ a b c Naoko Saio "Study on Consolidation Process of Public Elementary and Junior High Schools and Utilization of Closed School Buildings-Understanding the Actual Conditions of All Closed School Cases for the Past 30 Years and Impact on Agricultural and Mountain Village Areas-" No. 73, Architectural Institute of Japan, 627, pp. 2008-1001, two:10.3130 / aija.73.1001.
- ^ a b c d e f "" Comprehensive learning "evolving cram school, ahead of the sluggishness of public education," Sankei Shimbun, February 2008, 2.
- ^ Hidenori Fujita "Re-questioning Compulsory Education" Chikuma Shobo, July 2005, 7.ISBN 9784480062437
- ^ Compulsory Education Special Subcommittee (20th) Minutes and Handouts
- ^ "[Ask about public education] Part 1 In the shadow of private popularity (2) Correcting the academic disparity that relies on cram schools”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2008, 1). 2008/7/8Browse.
- ^ "Promoting Educational Gap" or "Providing Fair Educational Opportunities" Wada Naka, Principal Kazuhiro Fujihara ""Argument』May 2008 issue, Asahi Shimbun Publishing.
- Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular
- School installer
- Prefectural expense staff
- School district
International lawThen.International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsArticle 13Right to education"WhenConvention prohibiting discrimination in educationArticles 2 and 5 of this document clearly state the parents' choice of education and the right to establish private schools.
Japan"Private school" is defined as follows in a narrow sense.
- School education lawStipulated in Article 1Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular"(Ichijo school), the following in Article 2 of the same law:School corporationInstalled by.
- Private school lawIt is a school specified in Article 2 Paragraph 3, Article 3 of the same lawInstalled by.
Broadly speaking, it refers to all educational facilities that do not fall under national educational institutions or public educational facilities, and is subject to Article 124 of the School Education Act.Vocational schoolAnd of Article 134Various schoolsincluding. Many private schools are based on private school lawSchool corporationInstalled byDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularIs. Abbreviation isPrivate school(Shigaku).
またSpecial area for structural reformDue to the start of the system, only in the corresponding special zonesLtd.(Company with a school)Specified nonprofit corporation(School-installed non-profit corporation) can now be installed (Standing schoolSee). But for these schools, the formerStructural Reform Special Area LawAccording to Article 12 "Exceptions to the School Education Law," the latter are read as "private schools" according to Article 13, respectively, but not mentioned in Article 20 "Exceptions to the Private School Law." Therefore, these schools do not fall under the "private school" in the Private School Law. Also, these installersPrivate school grantIs not subject to.
Authorization for setting up, abolishing, changing private schools, etc.Kindergarten,primary school,Junior high school,high school,Secondary school,Special school,Vocational schoolandVarious schoolsaboutPrefectural governorDo (however, in Osaka Prefecture, the exception is the jurisdiction of the Department of Education, Osaka Prefecture Education Department). on the other hand,University(Junior collegeIncluding) andCollege of technologyaboutMinister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(School Education Law, Article 4).
Kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, high school, secondary school
Publicly announced based on the School Education Law (law) and the School Education Law Enforcement Regulations (Ministerial Ordinance)Kindergarten education guidelines(notice)·Course of Study(Notification) is the standard of the curriculum that all schools must meet, unless the law requires otherwise.
Educational administrationUp,publicKindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, high school, secondary schoolEducation-Course of StudyIt is extremely difficult to deviate fromNationalIn addition, private kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools, high schools, and secondary education schools can easily deviate from the curriculum/teaching guidelines. Therefore, it is possible to form a new educational curriculum based on each school's own policy. However,Educational lawFrom the knowledge of, the educational and learning guidelines are applied equally regardless of national, public or private.
School Education Law Enforcement RegulationsAppendix table ofEducation-Course of StudyIs the minimum standard of the curriculum, so5 days a weekThere is no problem in terms of laws and regulations even if classes are held on Saturdays without implementing Also,Religious educationSince it is possible to applyTuitionThe height ofKindergarten examination-Elementary school entrance exam(Examination) and middle schoolEntrance examTo a private school with these characteristicsAdmissionThere is also a tendency to do.
- High school type- Academic abilityA school that emphasizes education and has many successful applicants for general entrance examinations at difficult universities.
- There are also schools that combine the above two types.
Private schoolTeacherRegarding recruitment, each school has adopted its own recruitment method. However, in some regions, private societies may carry out the activities, and applicants for faculty members may also apply for entry.
The Constitution of Japan89 articleProhibits the use of public money for "charity, education or philanthropy that does not belong to public control,"School education lawandPrivate school lawPrivate schools based onPrivate school grant) Has been received (also, private kindergartens that are not based on the Private School Law are allowed exceptionally).
International School,otherAmerican school-Korean school-Chinese school-Brazil schoolIn the case of,School corporationOr a corporation prescribed in Article 64, Paragraph 4 of the Private Schools Act (Associate school), it is possible to receive private school grants.
Percentage of private schools
|School type||Number of schools||Ratio of enrolled people|
|Junior high school||7.0%||7.2%|
|College of technology||5.2%||3.2%|
- Currently, about three-quarters of Japanese universities are private. For more information about private universitiesherechecking ...
- College of technology
- PrivateCollege of technologyThere are few, and there are only three schools nationwide (Salesio Technical College, Kinki University College of Technology, Kanazawa College of Technology). Regarding Kochi National College of Technology,1962It has a special history of being transferred to the national government in (Showa 37).
- Special school
- The number is small, but it is seen as it is.
- Vocational school・Various schools
- Most of the special training schools and various schools are private schools.
Elementary and junior high school
School ageIf you are JapaneseCompulsory educationThe system guarantees admission to public elementary and junior high schools. Therefore, public elementary and junior high schoolCleatThere are no private elementary and junior high schools.
- primary school
2013(25)May 5Currently a private elementary schoolJapanThere are 221 schools nationwide,Tokyo53 schools,Kanagawa31 schools,Osaka17 schools,Hyogo11 schools,Kyoto10 schools,Chiba9 schools,Hiroshima8 schools,Fukuoka8 schools,Nara6 schools,South KantoとKinkiConcentrates on.. On the other hand, some prefectures do not have private elementary schools.
- Junior high school
2013(25)May 5At that time, private junior high schoolsJapanThere are 771 schools nationwide,Tokyo188 schools,Osaka65 schools,Kanagawa64 schools,Hyogo41 schools,Saitama29 schools,Hiroshima28 schools,Fukuoka27 schools,Shizuoka27 schools,Kyoto26 schools,Chiba24 schools,Aichi22 schools,Hokkaido16 schools,South KantoとKinkiConcentrates on.
There are 1320 private high schools nationwide in Japan (this number excludes high schools with only correspondence courses. The same applies to this item below),Tokyo237 schools,Osaka95 schools,Kanagawa78 schools,Fukuoka59 schools,Aichi55 schools,Chiba54 schools,Hokkaido53 schools,Saitama48 schools,Shizuoka43 schools,Hiroshima36 schools are less concentrated in one area than junior high school (as of May 2013, 5).
High school is also publicEntrance examinationTherefore, in areas where the deviation of public high schools is high, there are also private high schools that prevent slippage of public high school entrance exams.
There are only 17 private secondary schools across Japan. The existence of private secondary schools isMiyagi1 school (Shumitsu Secondary School),Ibaraki2 school (Chigakukan Secondary Schoolas well as the Tsuchiura Nihon University Secondary School),Tochigi1 school (Sano Nihon University Secondary Education School),Chiba1 school (Tokito Gakuen Secondary School),Kanagawa3 school (Self-study center secondary education school,Toin Gakuen Secondary Schoolas well as the Yokohama Fujimioka Gakuen Secondary Education School),Nagano1 school (Hidemoto Matsumoto Secondary School),Aichi1 school (Haiyang Secondary School),Shiga1 school (MIHO Aesthetics Secondary School),Osaka1 school (Osaka Gakugei Secondary School),Nara1 school (Seishin Gakuen Secondary School),Okayama1 school (Asahi Junior High School),Ehime2 school (Sumi Heisei Secondary Schoolas well as the Nitta Seiun Secondary School) AndFukuoka1 school (Linden Hall School Middle and High School) Only.
High school consistent educationOffering PrivateHigh school consistent schoolSince the overwhelming majority of the above have not been converted to secondary education schools, there is very little regional deviation compared to private junior high schools and private high schools.
The United States of America
Schools that are not funded by any government are called private schools. It is operated mainly by donations and tuition from students. According to the 2012 census, about 1% of students in the 12st to 10th grades in the United States go to private schools. About 80% of thatReligiousAttended school, and about half of themCatholicIt is a system. The average tuition is $11,000 (up to about $40,000). 26% of students attending private schools have annual income of more than $200,000, and their parents' education is generally high. the sameannual income-Educational HistoryWhen comparing by level,WhitePrivate school rate of homeAfricasystem·Asiasystem·HispanicThe highest compared to the system, especially many Catholicアイルランドsystem·イタリアsystem·ポーランドThe rate of private schools is high.
The United Kingdom
- In Japan, the number of private high schools that have religious groups as their management parent is one-third of which 3% areキ リ ス ト 教system,BuddhismThe system is half of the Christian system,ShintoThe system becomes very small, and furtherNew religionThere are about 20 schools.
- Private school law - Private School Promotion Grant Act(Private School Grant Act)
- Kindergarten examination
- Elementary school entrance exam
- Middle school exam
- High school exam
- National school - Public school
- School installer
- List of private schools in Japan
- School in Japan
- Passing commitment problem
- Private education
Footnotes and references
- ^ However,KindergartenIn accordance with Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions,Social welfare corporation,Religious corporationEtc.) can also be installed.
- ^ In this case, in accordance with paragraph 1 of the same Article,Authorized child institution setting methodStipulated in Article 2 Clause 7Childcare cooperation type certified child institutionincluding.
- ^ A "corporation established for the purpose of establishing a private school pursuant to the provision of this Act".
- ^ Regarding the establishment of private specialized training schools, those who fall under Article 127 of the same law are eligible.
- ^ "Promotion of private schools". Ministry of education. 2013/7/1Browse.
- ^ Edition "National School Directory 2013 Edition" (Hara Shobo,2012May 12Issued) to the number in ``Table 6 Number of schools/teachers/students (elementary school) by prefecture'' (pp.1138-1139) in the appendix2013May 4Two private elementary schools opened in (Keio Yokohama Elementary School(Kanagawa横 浜 市Aoba-ku)as well as(YamanashiMinamitsuru-gunFujikawaguchiko Town), same yearMay 31 private elementary school (((GunmaAgatsumaRokugo Village)) was excluded.
- ^ According to the table aboveAomori,Akita,Yamagata,Niigata,Toyama,Tottori,Shimane ,Kagawa,Ehime,Saga,KumamotoHas no private elementary school.
- ^ Edition "National School Directory 2013 Edition" (Hara Shobo,2012May 12Issued)'Appendix' to ``Table 5 Number of schools/teachers/students (junior high school) by prefecture'' (pp.1136-1137)2013May 46 private junior high schools opened in (Iwaki Hidehide Junior High School(FukushimaIwaki),Takenan Junior High School(Saitama蕨 市),Kokusai Gakuin Junior High School(SaitamaKitadachi-gunIna Town),Tokyo Seitoku University Fukaya Junior High School(SaitamaFukaya),Sayamagaoka High School Junior High School(SaitamaIruma-shi)as well asHappiness Science Academy Kansai Junior High School(ShigaOtsu City)) added, same yearMay 31 private junior high school abolished by (Toyota Otani Junior High School(AichiToyota City)) was excluded.
- ^ Ota and ShimasaAuthor "Choice of taking a junior high school exam" (Nikkei newspaper publisher,2012May 11(Issue 4) At least one in four students in Tokyo goes to private/national junior high school under ``Chapter 1. )by. In this case, the number of students in grade 1 of the national middle school is included in the number of students in grade 2012 of the private middle school.
- ^ Edition "National School Directory 2013 Edition" (Hara Shobo,2012May 122) Private high school which opened on April 1130, 1131Happiness Science Academy Kansai High School(ShigaOtsu City)) was added.
- ^ Where “Back to School” Means Private School trulia, August 13th, 2014
- ^ Hiromi Shimada "10 New Religions in Japan" Gentosha Shinsho 8th edition 2008 (1st edition 2007) p.161.