Portal field news

Portal field news

in

📊 | Costco raises minimum wage to $ 16 and CEO announces at Senate Budget Committee


Photo Costco, the largest US membership warehouse, will raise the minimum wage (hourly wage) for employees from $ 15 to $ 16.Photo taken by Logo, May XNUMX in Illinois (Reuters / Jim Young, XNUMX)

US Costco raises minimum wage to $ 16, CEO announces at Senate Budget Committee

 
If you write the contents roughly
The Democratic Party of the United States is aiming to raise the minimum wage set by federal law from the current $ 7.25 to $ 15.
 

Costco, the largest US membership warehouse, will raise the minimum wage (hourly wage) for employees from $ 15 to $ 16. February 2 ... → Continue reading

 DCS online

The Diamond Chain Store Online is the first to publish news information regarding management and sales promotion in the retail and distribution industries. For those who work in the retail / distribution industry, please see the comprehensive information news site.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

minimum wage

2019 OECD Minimum Wage,
US dollar Purchasing power parity[1]
CountryDollar / hour
Australia
12.59
France
12.06
Germany
11.81
New Zealand
11.04
Netherlands
11.02
ベルギー
10.97
The United Kingdom
10.47
カナダ
10.23
アイルランド
10.06
South Korea
8.61
スペイン
8.58
Japan (2018)
8.00
米 国
7.25
ポーランド
6.89
イ ス ラ エ ル
6.85
トルコ
6.74
リトアニア
6.69
Portugal
6.29
チ ェ コ
5.8
Greece
5.71
ハンガリー
5.53
エストニア
5.17
ラトビア
4.32
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
3.46
Slovakia
3.18

minimum wage(Saito Ichingin) isLabor market OfSafety netAs a minimum you must paywageA system that sets the lower limit of and enforces it on users.[2]Highest fare(Saichin) is also abbreviated (not legally defined as an abbreviation, but is used in newspaper article headlines and labor unions).National minimumOne of the.

Basic labor rightBased on. In many countriesWorkerIs widely applied as a basic right of, but not necessarily allThe laborForeign workers may be reduced or exempted from certain classes of people who are not eligible.SingaporeThere is no minimum wage system other than cleaning, security, and landscaping, and wages are determined by the balance between supply and demand of the labor force in some countries.[3].

In Japan, in Article 1 of the Minimum Wage Law, "This lawWorkerabout,wageThe minimum amount ofProtectionBy doingThe labor条件To improve the life of workersStable,Labor forceQuality improvement and businessFairnessIcompetitionTo secure theNational economyThe sound ofdevelopmentThe purpose is to contribute to. ]” [4]I sing.

As a trend,Developing country,French speakingMinimum wages are widely applied in countries[5].

History

[6]

The reason why it was introduced for the first time in the world is1890ToNew ZealandPort that happened inLabor disputeIs. The 56-day dispute has had a tremendous impact on New Zealand society. However, at that time,lawSince it could not be solved with the system of,1894ToForced arbitration lawWas enacted.[7]

In addition,1907 OfAustraliaJudge Higgins of the Federal Arbitration and Arbitration Tribunal ruled on a minimum wage arrangement, later referred to as what was called the basic wage.

This trialVictoriaManufactured by Hugh Victor McKay, his companyAgricultural machineryTo the exemption of the 1906 Excise Duty Act. The reason for this is that the manufacturer stipulated that he had to pay duty in the form of excise duty unless he admitted that he was paying "fair and reasonable" wages. At that time, the judge in charge decided that the claim should be dismissed, paying attention to the protection of workers rather than the profitability of the company. Although the Federal Supreme Court later unconstitutionally, his principles were accepted as a strong argument for the lowest living wage.[8].

Before this ruling, the idea of ​​living wages existed.1776Published inAdam Smithof"Wealth theory』States that at least enough wages are needed to support the family, and without rising wages, the country's economy will not develop, and there are thoughts to support living wages (Source: AdamSmith , Wealth of Nations, I .viii.36[9]). But thattheoryThe maturity of the system is20st centuryFrom the end21st centuryIt is being done in the early days.[10]

In 1894, the British economic magazine The Economic Journal (Vol.4, No.14) "A Living Wage"[11]The paper was published under the name of, and at the beginning the living wage was "workers keep their working efficiency at the highest level,Citizenship OfobligationNeeded to fulfillLeisure timeEnough years to providewageIt is the total amount.[*1],” was clearly defined.[10]

Then the BritishMinister of FinancewasPhilip SnowdenWas trying to legislate living wages. And a pioneer of the American living wage movementAugustine RyanHe published the book A Living Wage: Its Ethical and Economic Aspects in 1906,EconomicsHe advocated the justification for living wages from the perspective of. In his book, Ryan argued that an adult man with no assets had the right to ask employers for "fair wages" (Just Price) as income to adequately support his family.[10]

And in terms of minimum wages,1909The Industrial Commission Act was enacted in the United Kingdom,1911The Wage Commission was established as an institution to forcibly determine wages for workers in low-wage industries.[12]

The following year, it was first enacted in a state in the United States. That stateMassachusetts, Was established to protect the labor of women and young people.[13]Furthermore,1915For the first time in FranceDomestic laborA minimum wage system was established for those[14]

1928May 6IsILOAdopted ILO Convention No. 26 by[15][16].

For Japan,1947In the Labor Standards Act enacted in (Showa 22),AdministrationGovernment officeThere was a provision that the minimum wage can be set by hearing the opinion of the Minimum Wage Council. afterwards,1959In (Showa 34), the minimum wage system was introduced by the Minimum Wage Act (Law No. 34 on April 4, 15).[17]

1970May 6IsDeveloping countryNo. 131 of the ILO Convention was adopted with that in mind. No.135 was also adopted at the same time[18][19].

Decision method

The ILO Convention on the Minimum Wage System (No. 26) is also the subject of discussions on the application of the minimum wage rate, income security for low-wage workers, and participation of both labor and management. ing[20].

However, even if the purpose is the same, the method of revising or determining the minimum wage differs depending on the country. Generally, it is divided into four, and most countries are operated by the above three methods. However, even in the same country, there are cases where decision methods are parallel, depending on the type of industry and region. The following is Yuuo Ohashi's "Special Feature: Minimum Wages: Minimum Wage System in Japan Based on the facts and discussions in the West[17]Is reprinted.

  • Council method
The minimum wage is decided by the council consisting of the same number of members representing the labor side and the employer side and the neutral member, but the council, which is formally and practically called the wage committee, has the decision right. Of the person who has the decision-making power but formally the decision-making power.ConsultationIt may function as an institution.
Currently, as a country that adopts the former method,ベルギーI wanted to set up a wage council in a certain industryThe United Kingdom (1993Abolished).
On the other hand, the present EnglandFrance,Germany,スペインMany asEUCountries, andJapanThen, the latter council method is adopted. Also, if the minimum wage is decided by a council consisting of representatives of labor and management,Collective bargainingBelgium is classified as a country with a minimum wage as a result of collective bargaining.
Elsewhere in the UKThatcherUnder the administrationDeregulationThe policy was promoted, and as a part of it, the Wage Council Law was abolished. But then1998The Minimum Wage Act established a low wage committeeRecommendThe government determines the minimum wage based on. And in Germany, the decision method used to be the collective agreement method only, but since 2016, like France and Spain, the council method and the collective agreement method have become parallel.
  • Legal system
Since the minimum wage is determined by law, the revision must be done in the same way as general law revisions. As an example,AmericaThe federal minimum wage ofSenateとHouse of RepresentativesIt was decided after the legislative process of parliamentary deliberation inFair Labor Standards Act(1938The enactment) directly regulates the amount.
In addition, each state in the United States has a state minimum wage system based on state law, but it varies from state to state, and there are council methods centered on statutory methods and combinations of both. Depending on the state, there are also minimum wages by industry and occupation.2009Since then, there has been no revision of the federal minimum wage,物 価Many states set a minimum wage level above it to avoid a substantial reduction in the minimum wage and to be influenced by the Fight for $15 (fight to raise to $15 minimum wage) movement.
However, in some states, the minimum wage is the same or lower than that of the federal state. This applies in most states to all workers in a state, whereas in the case of the federal minimum wage, interstate commerce (between states or between one state and a region outside its territory). oftransaction,輸送,communicationIt is because the range is decided such as being engaged in work related to () etc. or being employed by a company of a certain size or more.
  • Collective agreement
Under this method, the minimum amount of wages under a collective agreement concluded in collective bargaining between a labor union and an employer shall be based on the Extended Applicable Law, and the labor outside the parties other than the parties to the agreement (union members). It is forcibly applied to other people. However, the underlying collective agreement must apply to a significant portion of the workers of a particular industry or occupation within a given region, ie above a certain percentage of the law.
As a country that adopts this method, Germany,イタリア,オーストリア,デンマーク,スウェーデン,ノルウェーand so on.
こうした各部門別の協約賃金の拡張適用の結果、経済全体で協約最低賃金によってカバーされる雇用者割合は、ドイツが56.0%(2016)、イタリアが80.0%(2016)、オーストリアが98.0%(2017)、デンマークが82.0%(2016)、ノルウェーが72.5%(2014)となっている[21].
The Netherlands is said to be decided by the government with the aid of wages concluded through collective bargaining, but in reality it can be classified as a collective agreement system. Even in France, collective agreements exist in certain industries and coexist with the Council-based “Minimum Wage for All Occupations” (SMIC), which is applied uniformly to workers in all industries across the country. If the contracted minimum wage for a specific industry exceeds that of SMIC, the minimum wage will be determined by applying the extension. This is basically the same in Spain.
In Japan, the extended application of collective agreements has been legalized,HiroshimaとShiga OfPainting製造It was carried out in business relations, but it is said that it does not match the labor relations in Japan2007The amendment of the Minimum Wage Law of Japan will abolish regional minimum wages based on collective agreements.
  • Labor court method
Used in Australia and New Zealand, labor courts and labor committees and other bodies that coordinate labor relations make deliberations while listening to the opinions of labor and management to determine or determine the minimum wage.

Reduction / Exemption

The minimum wage may be reduced or exempted in the following situations:[5].

  1. Labor productivityWhere the wages are low and it is difficult to pay the minimum wage in situations where there is no danger of being out of scope
    • Example: Young people, students, persons with disabilities, apprentices
  2. In the first place, people with high incomes and generous blessings who do not need minimum wage protection (White collar execution)
  3. Due to special employment relationships, it is justified not to apply the minimum wage
    • For example: managers, professionals, domestic helpers,チップThose who have received
  4. Employees in the public sector
    • Example: General government officials in Japan and France

Other than that, if the number of establishments is less than 10, (バングラデシュ,スーダン,MyanmarSuch),Agriculture:Is excluded (カナダ,PakistanEtc.) in some countries.

Reductions and exemptions are common in countries that reduce[5].. Also, in the past, reductions were generally made to women.[5].

Application to young people

Although the majority of countries do not apply the reduction to young people,[5]In some countries, a reduction system is being applied because labor demand is created by reducing the burden on companies.

When applying, the amount to be reduced and the age limit for exempting the minimum wage vary from country to country. In general, "we apply a rate between 18% and 17% less to workers under 5 or 15"[5]More quotation(In the text below, the reduction rate for young people is the minimum wage for adults).

  • Netherlands
    Minimum wages apply for 21 years and older. Minimum wages are reduced for those under 21 years of age. The reduction rate is shown in the table below. The minimum wage was once 23 years old and older, but since January 2018 it has been 1 years and older. Being 22 years old or older after July 2019. In addition, due to the change, the reduction rate was changed.[22].
Minimum wage reduction rate by age in the Netherlands (%)
age20 æ­³19 æ­³18 æ­³17 æ­³16 æ­³15 æ­³
Reduction rate (%)20.040.050.060.565.570.0

The following are examples of ways to set the minimum wage for young people, taking the Netherlands as an example.

  • Productivity: The idea that the productivity of workers under the age of 21 can set a lower minimum wage than general.
  • Necessity: Young people usually have to live with their families, so they are less likely to work and earn wages. Therefore, it is not necessary to guarantee a general minimum wage for income security.
  • Attending schoolRelationship with: Young people are supposed to attend school, and if the minimum wage is the same as that of the general public,SchoolworkNegative effects such as neglecting.

In the Netherlands20045Age by law enacted byDiscriminationThe minimum wage for young people is maintained as an exception. In addition, the Working Hours Act (for labor aged 13 and 14Working Hours Act -ATW) allows minor jobs that are not industrial jobs on days without school. However, the minimum wage is not applicable based on the belief that the age should be devoted to studying.

In addition, in some industries, the minimum wage for young people does not apply, or the reduction rate decreasesDismissalThe central labor organization (FNV) Calls for the abolition of the minimum wage for youth and the application of the general minimum wage from the age of 18. In response to this demand, the minimum age for general minimum wages has been reduced from 23 years old to over 21 years old. Also, Belgium, which is a neighboring country of the Netherlands,LuxembourgDutch reduction rate is large compared to general minimum wage reduction for young people[23].

Relationship with employment

Minimum wage lawemploymentThe good and bad influences on are controversial[24][25].. Regarding the interpretation of accumulated studies on minimum wages, some say that there is no evidence that minimum wages have a negative effect on employment, others conclude that there is no consensus on minimum wage studies.[26].

Theoretical consideration

originally,economistWe are traditionalPerfect competitionStrictly criticized the Minimum Wage Act based on a model[27].. In generalEconomicsThen, since the employment amount and wage are determined at the point where the demand amount (employment amount) of labor and the supply amount (equal wages) match,unemploymentIs said to not exist[28].. From the viewpoint of social security, the minimum wage law sets the minimum wage higher than the equilibrium wage if it is lower than the equilibrium wage.[28].. Therefore, it is said that people with labor productivity below the minimum wage will be deprived of employment opportunities and will be unemployed.[28].. It is said that the minimum wage that should correct the income gap creates the possibility of widening the gap.[28].

Micro economyOne of the representative theories is the proposition that the existence of the minimum wage rather lowers the welfare of low-wage workers.[29].. The minimum wage system that raises labor costs for companies and reduces labor demand is not an effective tool as a means of guaranteeing the minimum living standards for workers.It does not directly intervene in the supply and demand of the labor market. The two basic propositions that security should be provided ex post facto income transfer from the government have been consensus among mainstream economists since the 1990s.[29].

But as of 2013,Labor marketOf economists themselves point out the inadequacies of considering[27].. First, rising wages work hard for workersIncentiveAs a result, productivity is improved and job changes are suppressed. Employers, therefore, tend to pay wages above the equilibrium level in anticipation of these effects.[*2].Joseph E. StiglitzSaid the wage increase under the Minimum Wage Act may be offset by the resulting increase in wages, so the Minimum Wage Act may not be as bad as expected.[30].

There is also an opinion that the Minimum Wage Law has a positive effect on employment in the long run. The minimum wage law may destroy industries that were made up of low-wage workers in the short term, but as a result it can increase investment in workers and increase productivity in the long run. Because there is a nature. For exampleStanford University OfEconomic historyAccording to my house, the minimum wage law isCivil WarからGreat DepressionAnd played a decisive role in eliminating low wages in the southern United States until that time and played a dynamic role in shifting the labor market in the southern United States to higher-wage industries.[30].

Another point is that the labor market is not completely competitive.Demand monopoly[*3]There is a possibility that According to this model, companies can use their monopoly position to unjustly reduce employment and unjustly reduce wages. The Minimum Wage Act says it will help improve this situation. Furthermore, although it is short-term, employment will increase as long as the minimum wage increase does not exceed W'm in the figure on the right. However, in the long term, personnel costs will increase and profits will decrease due to the increase, so it is possible that some companies will go bankrupt due to the decrease, in which case there will be a downward pressure on employment. Need to be careful.[24]

In addition, the high standard minimum wage isWorking PoorThere is an advantage of eliminating the problem of. High minimum wages are said to ensure that the income earned from labor is higher than the amount earned from welfare when unemployed, resulting in incentives for unemployed people to seek employment.[30].

University of California IrvineWith Professor Newmark ofFRBWashers are looking into the impact of minimum wages on employment,

  1. The effects of wage increases often appear in the long term, not in the short term
  2. Analyzing the employment of low-wage workers as a whole, not just the impact of specific industries
  3. Increasing the minimum wage could cause employment substitution among low-wage workers

Is going to need to be careful[31].

Regarding specific minimum wages (minimum wages by industry), theoretically there is theoretical support that the welfare of workers will increase when applied to labor-intensive industries. Is applied to industries and industries with high[Who?].. In addition, the specified minimum wage also has the effect of being a barrier to new entry into the industry, and therefore has the meaning of profit for the industry.[Source required].

Demonstration

Empirically, there is no case where the minimum wage has increased significantly enough to have the effect of reducing the minimum wage employment. Not done[30].

19949"American economic reviewWith the David card posted inAlan KrugerThe paper isNew JerseyとPennsylvaniaWe surveyed 410 fast-food restaurants in the eastern part of the employment impact of raising the minimum wage and found no decline.[32][33]

In addition,British Minimum Wage CommissionCommissioned fromLand Institute``The impact of the National Minimum Wage on employment A meta-analysis,'' published in 2017 by the United States, said that employment by raising the minimum wage in the UK since 1999 Of 1451 studies that analyzed the impact onMeta-analysisAs a result, it was found that although part-time workers were adversely affected, they did not adversely affect overall employment. This is because raising the minimum wage reduces non-regular employment and increases regular employment. Furthermore, by raising the minimum wageWage gapThe benefits of reducing wages and improving the standard of living of low-wage workers[34][35].

20198According to a paper by Peter Harastoshi and Attila Lindner in The American Economic Review,ハンガリーAre exposed to international competition when the minimum wage was significantly increased in 2001 and 2002 (2000: 2 Hungarian forint → 5500: 2002 Hungarian forint)Trade goodsEmployment in industries (many of which are large companies) decreased, and in non-tradable goods industries that do not, the price was passed on in the form of burdening consumers (price increase of 2%). In addition, of the 29 minimum wage workers, about 3 lost jobs (0.076% of total employment) and the remaining 26 benefited from a 60% increase in wages. Ultimately, of the labor costs increased by raising the minimum wage, 77% will be borne by the seller who purchased the product with the increased price, and the remaining 23% will be borne by the employer in the form of a decrease in profit did[36][37].

Bill ClintonWhen the minimum wage was raised in 1996, the unemployment rate did not rise, and the salaries of low-income earners increased.[38].

AustraliaThen,Toyota,Ford,HoldenWithdrawals such asAutomobileThe production base ofManufacturing industryThere is an opinion that employment is decreasing due to tapering as a whole, but the cause is that economic growth has raised the minimum wage and lost international competitiveness.[39][40].

The United KingdomThen,1999Has reintroduced the national minimum wage and has had a positive impact on the economy and society for raising the minimum wage[41].

Because not only the national minimum wage,Tax credit,Job trainingThis is because the measures for low-income earners have been taken by using other policies such as[41].

その結果、最低賃金が1999年から2019年までの20年間の間に約2.3倍(1999年:3.60ポンド[22歳以上]→2019年:8.21ポンド[25歳以上])もの引き上げが行われたにもかかわらず、その間の失業率は、2008年のLehman shockAnd then became more seriousEuropean debt crisisIs decreasing, except for. Moreover, the average economic growth rate (nominal) from 1999 to 2018 has been maintained at a high level of 0.9%, which is higher than Japan's 1.9%.[41].

On the contrary, in the case of negative impact,South KoreaCan be mentioned[41].

Because,Income distributionThe policy biased to stipulates a heavy burden on the company and did not give the company room to improve its management.2018This is because the price was raised while ignoring economic conditions. as a result,Unemployment rateWorsened the real economy. The unemployment rate in January 2019 isLehman shockIt has deteriorated to 2010%, which is close to 1% recorded in January 4.7.[41].

In addition,David AtkinsonAccording to the report, a minimum wage increase of 12% or more is dangerous. The adverse effects of South Korea's 2018 minimum wage increase have been pointed out as above.[42]. But,2020May 8In an article by Toyo Keizai ONLINE, he turned around, denying the failure to raise the minimum wage in South Korea and arguing that the increase would not have much impact. At the same time, he denied that Japan did not insist on a sharp increase like South Korea.[43]

Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry OfMasayuki MorikawaAccording to the report, unlike Japan, which is uniform throughout the country, in Japan, where minimum wages are set for each prefecture, it has not been confirmed that raising the minimum wage has the effect of increasing productivity or reducing the ratio of non-regular employment. Was[44].

Alternative proposal

Some economists have proposed a system to replace the minimum wage. Fumio Otake points out that “poverty problems should be addressed by income redistribution policies that use tax and social security, rather than the distortion of unemployment through the hard-line means of wage regulation.”[45].

In addition,Daiji KawaguchiAccording toTax credit with benefitsIsLabor income tax creditProposing (Earned Income Tax Credit),WelfareCompared toEmploymentWillingnessIt is said that there is an advantage in promoting the employment rate of low-wage workers. On the other hand, if the system design is not carefully done, there is a risk that companies will not be able to raise wages, which in turn will reduce the wages of workers. Point out that there is a drawback that disappears[46].

Author of "Law, Legislation and Freedom"Friedrich HayekSuch as the principle of non-intervention in the labor marketRule of lawIn order to achieve both protection of individual survival rights byBasic incomeSome economists advocate[47].

Status of each country

The following are the legal minimum wages in each country and their trends. Note thatDeflationSuch,物 価Fluctuations have not been adjusted.

  • Luxembourg flag Luxembourg -Month 2,201.93Euro*Age 18 or older (Some workers, such as skilled workers aged 18 and over, will be charged 20% to €2.642,32) [As of January 2021][48]
  • Irish flag ã‚¢ã‚¤ãƒ«ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰ - 時給10.20ユーロ(2021å¹´1月現在) ※20歳以上(2018年雇用雑則法より簡素化され、勤続年数や研修中か関係なく年齢のみとなった。20歳未満は減額適用され、19歳は最低賃金額の90%、18歳は80%、18歳未満は70%となっている。)[49]
  • Dutch flag  Netherlands -1,684.80 euros per month (as of July 2021) *1 years and over (excluding apprentice)[22]
  • Belgian flag ãƒ™ãƒ«ã‚®ãƒ¼ -1,643.57 euros a month (as of March 2020) *3 years old or older. However, trainees under the age of 18 and under the age of 18 who do not receive the benefits from alternate vocational training and who do not have work experience are eligible for the reduced youth. In addition, there is an addition system based on the number of months of service, and workers aged 18 or older for 20 months or less of service, workers aged 12 or older for 19 months or more and less than 12 months of service, and workers aged 24 or older for 20 months or more of service. Are added. Workers aged 24 and over spend 22 euros a month for 22 months and 6 euros for 1,687.18 months. 12 years old and above with 1,706.56 months of service €22 a month, 24 months of service €1,722.54 a month[50][51]However, public sector employers, apprentice workers, and trainees are excluded.
  • French flag France --Monthly 1,554.58 euros, hourly wage 10.25 euros (as of January 2021)[52][53]
  • German flag Germany - 時給9.50ユーロ(2021å¹´1月~2021å¹´6月)、9.60ユーロ(2021å¹´7月~2021å¹´12月)、9.82ユーロ(2022å¹´1月~2022å¹´6月)、10.45ユーロ(2022å¹´7月より)[54]
  • 950 euros a month, 1 euros a year (13,300 months including 2 months bonus) (as of January 14)[55]
  • Czech flag ãƒ ェ コ -Monthly 1Koruna(Simple tasks whose scope is strictly defined by instructions [Example:Cleaner,, simple instruments, etc.].The minimum wage differs depending on the work content, and it is divided into seven categories other than simple work, and the minimum monthly wage is 7 to 1 CZK. ) (As of January 6,800)[56]
  • Turkish flag ãƒˆãƒ«ã‚³-Monthly salary 2,825.90Lira(Social insurance premium-income taxDeductionIf you are single with a later take-home amount.In the case of a married couple, depending on whether they work together and the number of children, 2,825.9 to 3,013.7 lira) [January 2021 to December 1][57][58][59]
  • Australian flag Australia -Weekly 753.80, hourly wage 19.84Australian dollar(New coronavirusThe medical industry, social assistance, teachers, and nursery teachers who bear the brunt of the impact of the impact of the new coronavirus on July 2020, 7, and the construction, manufacturing, and other industries on September 1, 2020. Accommodation, food service, arts, entertainment, aviation, retail and tourism will be revised from February 9. ) *1 years or older (excluding apprentices and trainees)[60][61]
  • New Zealand flag New Zealand -Hourly wage 18.90NZ dollar(2020å¹´4月より)、時給20.00NZドル(2021å¹´4月より)※16歳以上。ただし研修期間中の場合は、15.12NZドル(2020å¹´4月より)、16.00ドル(2021å¹´4月より)[62][63][64][65].
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of ChinaIn the case of, the minimum wage varies depending on the area. (Highest: Shanghai [2,480 yuan monthly]-Lowest:Anhui Province4 types [monthly 1,180 yuan]))[66](As of 2020 year 3 month)
  • Hong Kong flag Hong Kong-Hourly wage 37.5Hong Kong dollar(May 2019-April 5) [73][74][75][76]In addition,Foreign housekeeperIn the case of, the monthly salary is HK$4,630 (However, in addition to the minimum monthly salary, HK$1,121 is also obligated to be paid for food expenses.) (As of September 2019, 9)[77][78]
  • Republic of China flag Republic of China -Hourly wage 160New Taiwan dollar, NT$24,000 a month (since January 2021, 1)[79][80]
  • Mongolia flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu -42 a monthTugurk(As of May 2020, 1)[81]
  • Republic of Korea flag South Korea --Hourly wage 8,720 won (as of January 2021)[82][83].
  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea flag DPR Korea - US Department of State2019 Country Human Rights Report[84]According to him, there is no minimum wage system. However,Gaeseong Industrial AreaWas set in.
    • Kaesong Industrial Area (Employee of North Korea)-Mon 73.87Dollar(As of 2015 month of 8)[85]■2016 North Korea missile launch experimentNote that it has not been shut down by. (Currently, operations are resumed by North Korea without prior consultation with South Korea.)
  • Indian flag IndiaIn this case, a complicated minimum wage system is used, and as of the end of 2014, the central government set minimum wages for 45 job types and the state government set a total of 1,822 job types, and revised them from time to time.[86]..However, it was enacted in August 2019 by integrating and reorganizing the four laws of the 8 Minimum Wage Law, the 1948 Wage Payment Law, the 1936 Bonus Payment Law, and the 1965 Equal Compensation Law.2019 Wage Code[87]It is stipulated that all industries, including those that have not been set by the central government and the state government, must not fall below the minimum wage standard (floor wage) set by the central government, April 2021. Will be enforced on the day[88][89].
    • National Floor Level Minimum Wage-Daily 178Rupee(As of 2019 year 7 month)[90]
    • Central Government (Unskilled Agricultural Workers)-Area A: Rs 400/day B Area: Rs 365/day C Area: Rs 362/day (October 2020-March 4)[91]
    • Delhi(Unskilled workers)-Monthly income 15,492.00 rupees (daily sum 596 rupees) (as of December 2020)[91]
    • Uttar Pradesh(Unskilled workers)-Monthly income of Rs 8,758 (April 2020-September 10)[91]
    • Maharashtra (Unskilled workers working at hotels and restaurants)-District I: monthly income 11,232 rupees, Region II: monthly income 10,932 rupees, Region III: monthly income 10,732 rupees (as of May 2020)[91]
    • Bihar(Unskilled Agricultural Worker)-Rs 279/day (however,ト ラ ク タ ーExcept when harvesting work such as. ) (April 2020 to September 10)[91]
    • Chattiesgarh(Unskilled workers) --A district: 365.00 rupees per day B district: 355.00 rupees per day District C: 345.00 rupees per day (However, agriculture is 257.00 rupees per day regardless of the district) (October 2020-10 March)[91]
    • Nagaland (Unskilled worker)-Rs. 176 per day (However, loading and unloading work is done by weight, and loading trucks depends on the size of timber.) (As of June 2019)[91]
    • Haryana (Unskilled worker)-Daily 358.42 rupees (as of January 2020)[91]
  • Bangkok -Month 9,930Baht(As of 2020 year 1 month)[92]
  • Ho Chi Minh -Month 4,420,000Don(As of January 2020)[93][94][However, at least 7% above this minimum wage for workers who receive vocational training.[95]]
  • Manila -Month 13,425Peso(As of January 2018)[96][97]
  • Jakarta --Monthly 441 Rupiah(From January 2021)[98]
  • Myanmar flag Myanmar -Month 144,000チ ャ ッ ト(As of January 2018)[99][100]
  • Malaysia flag Malaysia -Month 1,100Ringgit(Municipalities with a population of less than 15), 1,200 ringgit per month (Municipalities with a population of 15 or more) [As of February 2020][101][102][103]
  • Cambodia flag Cambodia --$ 192 per month ($ 2 during the 187-month trial period) [as of January 2021]Sewing-shoemakingOnly workers engaged in the business.In addition to the minimum wage, you will continue to receive a $ 10 perfect attendance allowance, a $ 7 residence and commuting allowance, and other benefits. From 2021Volume-based salary systemIssued by the Ministry of Labor and Vocational TrainingMinisterial OrdinanceIt is clearly stated that the payment amount will not be less than the minimum wage, but not so much.[104][105].

Disparities between countries

EUHowever, it has been pointed out that there is a minimum level of disparity between member countries.

EU member states

For GDP

As of January 2006: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,503 euro] Minimum:Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢[€129/month])[106]

As of January 2009: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,642 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag ãƒ–ルガリア[€123/month])[107]

As of January 2020: Approximately 2 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 2,141.99 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag ãƒ–ルガリア[€311.89/month])[108]

Purchasing power parityWhen converted by

As of January 2006: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,417 euro] Minimum:Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢[€240/month])[106]

As of January 2009: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly 1,413 euro] Minimum:Bulgarian flag ãƒ–ルガリア[€240/month])[107]

As of January 2020: Approximately 1 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Monthly salary 1,562.37 euro] Minimum:Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢[Monthly salary 538.35 euro])[109]

Ratio of legal minimum wage to full-time worker wage (EU)[109]

For central wages (as of 2018) Maximum:French flag France(0.616) Minimum:Spanish flag ã‚¹ãƒšã‚¤ãƒ³(0.412)

Average wage (as of 2018) Max:French flag France(0.497) Minimum:Greek flag Greece(0.323)

OECD member countries

OECDReal minimum wage gap between member countries (DollarConversion)[110] For GDP (2019 real exchange rate)

2000: About 24.7 times (Max:Australian flag Australia[Hourly wage $12.09] Minimum:Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³[Hourly wage $0.49])

2010: About 26.8 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $13.15] Minimum:Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³[Hourly wage $0.49])

2019: About 23.5 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $13.40] Minimum:Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³[Hourly wage $0.57])

When converted to purchasing power parity (2019)

2000: About 11.7 times (Max:Australian flag Australia[Hourly wage $10.55] Minimum:Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³[Hourly wage $0.90])

2010: About 12.4 times (Max:Luxembourg flag Luxembourg[Hourly wage $11.29] Minimum:Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³[Hourly wage $0.91])

2019: About 12.1 times (Max:Australian flag Australia[Hourly wage $12.59] Minimum:Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³[Hourly wage $1.04])

*Mexico's minimum wage (for the general public) is 2021 per day as of January 1.Peso($7.12),Northern borderThe area has a daily salary of 213.39 pesos ($ 10.72), the domestic help business is 154.03 pesos ($ 7.74), and the seasonal farmer is 160.19 pesos ($ 8.05).[111].. In 2019, the daily wage is 102.68 pesos and the northern border area is 176.62 pesos.In 2020, the former is about 2019 times and the latter is about 1.20 times compared to 1.05.[112][113].

Ratio of legal minimum wage to full-time worker wage (OECD)[114]

Central wage (as of 2018)
Best:Colombia flag ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢(0.89) Monthly salary 98Peso(Approximately $300.63 in US dollars. A separate transportation subsidy of 2 pesos/month will be paid to workers whose monthly income is less than double the minimum wage.) [As of January 10][115]
Minimum:United States flag The United States of America(0.33)

Average wage (as of 2018) Max:Colombia flag ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢(0.58) Minimum:United States flag The United States of America(0.23)

世界

GDP per capitaRatio of legal minimum wage toUnderground economyAndUnemployment rateThere is adjustment)[116]

Best:Central African Republic flag Central African Republic(2.511) (Average minimum wage 28,000CFA franc Civil servant monthly salary: 26,000 CFA franc Agricultural worker monthly salary: 8,500 CFA franc [as of 2018][117])

Minimum:Burundi flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(0.003) (Bujumbura[Unskilled worker]: Unofficial minimum wage 3,000Burundi Franc Rural Area: Informal minimum daily wage of 2,000 Burundi Franc +lunch[As of 2018][118])

■Poorest countryNote that some parts of the country may have higher minimum wage ratios due to relatively low GDP. In addition, the minimum wages stipulated in the minimum wage system and collective bargaining agreements based on collective bargaining have not been introduced, or are applied only to specific fields, so the ratio is 0 (Cambodia,Singapore,トンガEtc.) are excluded.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Original: yearly wage sufficient to maintain the worker in the hightst state of industrial efficiengy and to afford him adequete leisure to diacharge the duties of citizenship
  2. ^ This is due to the fact that the labor market is not really completely competitive. Employers are in the labor marketIncomplete informationDue to gender, it is not possible to fully grasp the good or bad of workers. Therefore, it is necessary to generate incentives in places that have nothing to do with the quality of labor.
  3. ^ It refers to the situation where there is only one buyer in the market. However,Incompleteness of informationAs a result, the seller (worker) has a cost of finding a job, and if the employer is incurring costs in recruiting activities, the employer will be in the same position as a pure demand monopoly situation. You will face a supply curve.

Source

  1. ^ "Real minimum wages from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development”. Stats.oecd.org. 2021/2/15Browse.
  2. ^ Kanno 2017, p. 442,444.
  3. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2020-06-20) (PDF). [Overseas Situation in 2019] Chapter 5 Overview of Health, Labor and Welfare Measures in Southeast Asia and Recent Trends Section 1 Republic of Singapore (XNUMX) Labor Measures (Report). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/wp/hakusyo/kaigai/20/dl/t5-09.pdf#page=7 2021/3/6Browse.. 
  4. ^ Government of Japan (April 2012, 4). “Minimum Wage Law (Law No. XNUMX, XNUMX)". e-Gov. 2019/8/12Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2004-12-7). "Distribution material "About the concept of reduction measures and exemptions in the minimum wage systems of other countries"". The XNUMXth Study Group on Ideal Wage System. https://www.mhlw.go.jp/shingi/2004/12/s1207-5c.html 2019/4/16Browse. 
  6. ^ Norio Taguchi (2010-12-25). “The role and limits of the minimum wage system” (Japanese). Iwate University Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Iwate University) 87: 107-108. ISSN 0385-4183. NOT 120002808239. https://irdb.nii.ac.jp/01335/0002137489 2018/9/3Browse.. 
  7. ^ Tadashi Hiroishi (2017-03-15). “Impacts of changes in labor law on companies and trade unions-A case study of New Zealand- 1894. Overview of the history of legal relations between NZ and labor relations (XNUMX) NZ labor law before XNUMX” (Japanese). Collection of specialized management studies (Senshu University Business Association) 103: 27. ISSN 0386-4375. http://id.nii.ac.jp/1015/00011348/ 2018/10/18Browse.. 
  8. ^ Fujikawa Laboratory, Graduate School of Letters, Osaka University. “Australian Dictionary Harvester Judgment (Harvester judgment)". 2018/10/18Browse.
  9. ^ Adam Smith (1776-03-09). “Book I, Chapter VIII Of the Wages of Labor (Part 1 Chapter 8 Wages for Labor)” (English). 1 (The Library of Economics and Liberty(Economic and Freedom Library): 11. https://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN.html?chapter_num=11#book-reader 2019/7/16Browse.. 
  10. ^ a b c Zhou Yanfei (2017-11). “Japanese living wages” (Japanese). Quarterly personal finance (Japan Post Bank) Fall 2017: 73-89. NOT 120006343299. http://www.yu-cho-f.jp/wp-content/uploads/2017autumn_research01.pdf 2019/7/14Browse.. 
  11. ^ Royal Economic Society(Royal Economic Society of England) (1894-06). “A Living Wage” (English). The Economic Journal 4 (14): 365-368. two:10.2307/2956027. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2956027?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. 
  12. ^ Niko Kim (2017-10-26). "Industrial Commission Act in the United Kingdom (The Trade Boards Act 1909) ”(Japanese). Discussion Paper, Series B (Sapporo: Hokkaido UniversityGraduate School of Economics) 150: 1-11. NOT 120006360129. https://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2115/67360 2018/8/30Browse.. 
  13. ^ Yoshio Sasajima (2009-12). “Special Issue: Minimum Wages Background, Actual Conditions and Issues of Minimum Wage Systems in the United States” (Japanese). December 2009 issue of the Japanese Journal of Labor Studies (Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training) 593: 55-67. NOT 40016911324. http://www.jil.go.jp/institute/zassi/backnumber/2009/12/pdf/055-067.pdf 2018/8/19Browse.. 
  14. ^ Yohei Takatsu (2008-12-22). “Minimum Wage System in Western Countries Chapter 3 French Minimum Wage System” (Japanese). JILPT Material Series (Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training) 50: 32-47. http://www.jil.go.jp/institute/siryo/2009/documents/050_03.pdf 2018/8/9Browse.. 
  15. ^ ILO (1928 June 6). “Minimum Wage Decision Treaty of 1928 (No. 26)". 2019/8/12Browse.
  16. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2005-01-07). "Handout XNUMX about the meaning and role of the minimum wage system". The XNUMXth Study Group on the Minimum Wage System. https://www.mhlw.go.jp/shingi/2005/01/s0107-2b.html 2018/9/3Browse. 
  17. ^ a b Yuu Ohashi (2009-12). "Special feature: Minimum wages Japanese minimum wage system based on the actual situation and discussions in the West". Japanese Labor Research Magazine (Independent administrative agencyLabor Policy Research and Training Organization) 593: 4-15. NOT 40016911320. https://www.jil.go.jp/institute/zassi/backnumber/2009/12/pdf/004-015.pdf. 
  18. ^ ILO (1970 June 6). “1970 Minimum Wage Determination Convention (No. 131)". 2019/8/12Browse.
  19. ^ ILO (1970 June 6). “1970 Minimum Wage Determination Recommendation (No. 135)". 2019/8/12Browse.
  20. ^ ILO (1928 June 6). “Convention content of 1928 Minimum Wage System Convention (No. 26) (Japanese translation)". 2019/8/12Browse.
  21. ^ Jelle Visser (June 2019). “ICTWSS Downloads Version 6.0-June 2019 AdjCov: Adjusted bargaining (or union) coverage rate (Excel) ”. University of Amsterdam (Amsterdam university). 2020/8/13Browse.
  22. ^ a b government of Netherlands. “Amount of the minimum wage". 2021/3/17Browse.
  23. ^ Yoshihiro Matsuo (2008-12-22). "Minimum Wage System in Western Countries Chapter 5 Minimum Wage System in the Netherlands" (Japanese). JILPT Material Series (Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training) 50: 70-82. http://www.jil.go.jp/institute/siryo/2009/documents/050_05.pdf 2017/4/30Browse.. 
  24. ^ a b c d Yoko Tomorrow (2006-12). Controversy over US minimum wage increase (Report). Japan External Trade Organization. https://www.ide.go.jp/Japanese/IDEsquare/Overseas/2006/ROR200655_001.html 2019/7/19Browse.. 
  25. ^ Yoichi Takahashi (2004-01-10), Politics/Society [How to solve Japan] Controversial minimum wage controversy Shortcuts for monetary policy to increase employment and sustained economic growth, ZAKZAK, http://www.zakzak.co.jp/society/domestic/news/20140110/dms1401100722001-n1.htm 2018/12/25Browse. 
  26. ^ Minimum wage and employmentRIETI November 2007, 11
  27. ^ a b c d e Truth of raising the minimum wage of 14 yen Expecting a virtuous cycle with employment improvementZAKZAK August 2013, 8 (as of August 13, 2013Internet archive)
  28. ^ a b c d Research and industry-academia collaborative news Age when minimum wage system is questionedChuo University April 2013, 4
  29. ^ a b c Kazumasa Niimi (2002-10-25). [OPINION] A Study on Japan's Minimum Wage System-The minimum wage requires strict operation (Report). Japan Research Institute. https://www.jri.co.jp/page.jsp?id=14611. 
  30. ^ a b c d Stiglitz, Microeconomics Third Edition, p512-514
  31. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.197.
  32. ^ David Card; Alan Krueger (1994-09). “Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (Case Study of the Fast Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania)” (English). THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW (American Economic Association (American Economic Association))) 84 (4): 772-793. JSTOR 2118030. http://davidcard.berkeley.edu/papers/njmin-aer.pdf 2019/9/12Browse.. 
  33. ^ David Card; Alan Krueger (2000-12). “Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: Reply (English). American Economic Review (American Economic Association) 90 (5): 1397-1420. JSTOR 2677856. https://inequality.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/media/_media/pdf/Reference%20Media/Card%20and%20Krueger_2000_Policy.pdf 2019/9/12Browse.. 
  34. ^ Marco Hafner; Jirka Taylor; Paulina Pankowska; Martin Stepanek; Shanthi Nataraj; Christian Van Stolk (2017). “The impact of the National Minimum Wage on employment A meta-analysis” (English). Research Reports (Rand Corporation): 1-32. two:10.7249 / RR1807. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1807.html 2020/8/3Browse.. 
  35. ^ David Atkinson (July 2020, 7). "Common sense of the world that minimum wage "opposition against" does not know Experts' consensus "No effect on employment" (Japanese). Toyo Keizai ONLINE: pp. 2. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/364757?page=2 2020/8/3Browse. 
  36. ^ Peter Harasztosi; Attila Lindner (2019-08). “Who Pays for the Minimum Wage?” (English). American economic review (American Economic Association) 109 (8): 2693-2727. two:10.1257 / aer.20171445. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.20171445 2020/8/8Browse.. 
  37. ^ Shigeo Ito (October 2019). “31st Impact of minimum wage increase (Part 2) In Hungary, consumers seem to have paid three-quarters of labor cost increase”. Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization. 2020/8/8Browse.
  38. ^ Raising the Minimum Wage: Old Shibboleths, New Evidence Laura Tyson, Economix, The New York Times December 2013, 12
  39. ^ “Australia: The End of the Automotive Industry”. Japan Business Press (The Economist,). (November 2014, 2). http://jbpress.ismedia.jp/articles/-/40010 2014/11/29Browse. 
  40. ^ Mitsuyoshi Hirano (March 2014, 11). “Australia: “Protect the submarine industry” Local employment anxiety”. Mainichi Newspapers. http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20141129k0000m030118000c.html 2014/11/29Browse. 
  41. ^ a b c d e Koji Yajima; Tomoya Suzuki (2019-06-08). Discussion on Minimum Wage and Raise-A valid policy mix is ​​essential for raising (Report). Nisseikiso Research Institute. https://www.nli-research.co.jp/report/detail/id=61750&pno=1?site=nli 2019/7/21Browse.. 
  42. ^ David Atkinson (July 2019, 2). “Learning from the reason why raising the minimum wage is “common sense in the world” from “Failure in Korea, Success in England” (Japanese). Toyo Keizai ONLINE: pp. 5. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/263406?page=5 2019/7/21Browse. 
  43. ^ David Atkinson (July 2020, 8). “Short wages: Short circuit for those who believe in the Korean blunder” Myth of peace is given to those who talk about the big problems in the country. (Japanese). Toyo Keizai ONLINE: p. 6. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/366243?page=6 2020/8/6Browse. 
  44. ^ Masayuki Morikawa (2019-06). “Minimum wage and productivity” (Japanese). Policy Discussion Paper (Japanese) (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry) P-19-012: 1-9. https://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/summary/19060006.html 2020/8/8Browse.. 
  45. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.201.
  46. ^ Daiji Kawaguchi (June 2009). “Is Minimum Wage an Effective Poverty Countermeasure in Japan?". Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry RIETI. 2019/7/24Browse.
  47. ^ Law, Legislation and Liberty: (2) The Statement of Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economiy, London, Routledge, 1973
  48. ^ Ministère de la Sécurité sociale (Ministry of Social Security, Luxembourg) (January 2020, 12). “Paramètres sociaux valables au 1er janvier 2021". 2021/1/1Browse.
  49. ^ Citizens Information. “Minimum rates of pay". 2021/1/1Browse.
  50. ^ Yoshihiro Matsuo (2008-12-22). "Chapter XNUMX Belgian Minimum Wage System" (Japanese). Document series (Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training) 63: 94. https://www.jil.go.jp/institute/siryo/2010/documents/063_02.pdf 2017/8/1Browse.. 
  51. ^ "Accueil> Thèmes> Rémunération> Salaires minimums par (sous-) mission paritaire> Current Page: Banque de données Salaires minimums> Commission paritaire 1000000: CP AUXILIAIRE POUR OUVRIERS (Home> Themes> Rewards> Minimum Wage (Subcommittee)> Current Page : Minimum Wage Database> Joint Committee 1,000,000: Auxiliary CP for Workers)". (English edition) (September 2020, 3). 2020/8/13Browse.
  52. ^ National Institute of Statistics and Economic Research (INSEE). "Accueil Statistiques Salaire minimum interprofessionnel de croissance (Smic) en 2021". 2021/2/8Browse.
  53. ^ Direction de l'information légale et administrative (Premier ministre) (Legal Affairs and Administrative Information Bureau (Prime Minister)) (January 2021, 1).[PDFSmic (Salaire minimum de croissance)] ”. 2021/2/7Browse.
  54. ^ Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (July 2020, 7). “Research Results> Overseas Labor Information> Labor Topics by Country> 2020> July> Germany> Minimum Wage Commission recommends a four-step increase with a view to post-Corona". 2020/7/23Browse.
  55. ^ Spanish Ministry of Employment, Immigration and Social Security (2020-02-05). Real Decreto 231/2020, de 4 de febrero, por el que se fija el salario mínimo interprofesional para 2020. (2020 Minimum Wage Decree 231/2020) (Report). https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2020-1652 2020/5/29Browse.. 
  56. ^ Keiko Nakagawa (November 2020, 11). “Minimum wage increased by 2021% from January 1 (Czech Republic)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2020/12/17Browse.
  57. ^ TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services(Ministry of Family and Social Policy, Turkey) (2021). “Asgari Ücret – 2021 (Minimum Wage-2021)". 2021/1/9Browse.
  58. ^ Elai Bash (January 2021, 1). “2021 minimum wage, up 21.5% year-on-year (Turkey)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2021/1/9Browse.
  59. ^ TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services(Ministry of Family and Social Policy, Turkey) (December 2020, 12). “Bakan Selçuk: “1 Ocak'tan İtibaren Geçerli Olacak Asgari Ücret Brüt 3.577 Lira 50 Kuruş, Net 2.825 Lira 90 Kuruş Olarak Belirlendi” (Minister of Selcuk: Take-home 1 Lira 1 Penny decided ")". 2021/1/1Browse.
  60. ^ Fair Work Commission. “Awards & agreements> National minimum wage orders". 2018/8/28Browse.
  61. ^ Paul Carp (June 2020, 6). "Australia's minimum wage to rise by $13 a week, but increase will be staggered (Australia's minimum wage increases by $13 a week, but the timing of the increase will vary by industry)." (English). Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jun/19/australia-minimum-wage-rise-13-dollars-week-increase-staggered-fair-work-commission 2020/6/22Browse. 
  62. ^ “Hours and wages> Pay and wages> Minimum wage> Current minimum wage rates” (Press Release), EMPLOYMENT NEW ZEALAND (New Zealand Ministry of Labor), (April 2020, 4), https://www.employment.govt.nz/hours-and-wages/pay/minimum-wage/minimum-wage-rates/ 2020/4/9Browse. 
  63. ^ “The minimum wage is increasing – make sure you are prepared” (Press Release), EMPLOYMENT NEW ZEALAND (New Zealand Ministry of Labor), (April 2020, 12), https://www.employment.govt.nz/about/news-and-updates/minimum-wage-increasing-make-sure-you-are-prepared/ 2021/3/28Browse. 
  64. ^ Debrin Foxcroft (December 2018, 12). “Govt to lift minimum wage to $17.70 an hour next year” (English). Stuff Limited. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/109469758/govt-outlines-pay-boost-for-minimumwage-earners 2019/3/26Browse. 
  65. ^ Takashi Oku (April 2020, 4). “New Zealand government raises minimum wage from April 2020, 4 (New Zealand)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2020/4/9Browse.
  66. ^ Human Resources and Social Security Department, People's Republic of China (October 2020, 4). “Nationwide minimum industry standard information in each region (Short March 2020) (Minimum monthly wage of each region [as of March 3)] ”. 2020/8/1Browse.
  67. ^ Sharla Cheung (May 2019, 5). “Beijing's minimum wage rises 7% from 1st July to 3.8 yuan (China)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/5/23Browse.
  68. ^ “Related 《Beijing City Adjustment 2019 Minimum Engineering Standards》 (Kyotosha Co., Ltd. [2019]71) Policy Review (Beijing Minimum Wage Standard 2019 (Kyotosha Labor Start [2019]71) Policy Interpretation)” (Press Release), Beijing Human Resources and Social Security Administration, (May 2019, 5), http://www.beijing.gov.cn/zfxxgk/110070/zcjd22/2019-05/10/content_9a64b355c79e4af0aaf5e11cd6467068.shtml 2019/5/23Browse. 
  69. ^ "Starting on April 4st, Honichi's monthly minimum industry standard adjustment 1 yuan (Rise! From April 2480st, the minimum monthly salary will be 4 yuan.)" (Press Release), Shanghai Human Resources Agency, Social Security Bureau, (March 2019, 3), http://www.12333sh.gov.cn/201712333/xwfb/zxdt/01/201903/t20190325_1295409.shtml 2019/3/30Browse. 
  70. ^ Liu Yuan Mori (April 2019, 4). “Business Report> Shanghai City Statutory Minimum Wage, 4% Increase from April 1 (China)". 2019/4/4Browse.
  71. ^ Enhiro Kono (June 2018, 6). “Business Report> Guangdong, revised minimum wage from July 7 (China)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2018/7/5Browse.
  72. ^ "Notice regarding the adjustment of the minimum wage standard for corporate employees and workers of our province" (Kakufu Box [2018] 187) (Press Release), People's Government of Guangdong, (June 2018, 6), http://zwgk.gd.gov.cn/006939748/201806/t20180621_770640.html 2018/7/5Browse. 
  73. ^ Hong Kong Government Labor and Industry Office (October 2019, 3). “Public Service> Fellowship and Welfare> Minimum legal capital". 2019/4/7Browse.
  74. ^ Hong Kong Minimum Construction Committee (2018-10) (PDF). Main page >> Publications and materials> Minimum Wage Committee 2018 Report> Summary I (10 pages, 12 pages of PDF) (Report). https://www.mwc.org.hk/tc/downloadable_materials/2018_MWCReport_Chi.pdf 2019/1/15Browse.. 
  75. ^ Electronic version of Hong Kong law example. “Cap. 608 Minimum Wage Ordinance Schedule 3 Prescribed Minimum Hourly Wage Rate". 2019/5/4Browse.
  76. ^ “Minimum wage raised to $XNUMX next year [Hong Kong-Economy]” (Japanese). Hong Kong Post(July 2018, 10). https://www.hkpost.com.hk/20181004_14012/ 2018/10/8Browse. 
  77. ^ Hong Kong Government Labor Works (September 2019, 9). “Foreign-registered family worker> Latest news> Foreign-registered family worker "Minimum wage" and Zenshokutsu paste (minimum wage and meal allowance for foreign housekeepers)". 2019/10/12Browse.
  78. ^ “Minimum wage, first deferment = recession consideration” (Japanese). NNA Asian Economic News(July 2021, 2). https://www.nna.jp/news/show/2148523 2021/4/6Browse. 
  79. ^ Ministry of Labor, Taiwan (Ministry of Labor).Adjustment of basic capital resources". 2019/9/6Browse.
  80. ^ Wu Xinhui; Zhang Yufu (August 2020, 8). “Taiwan's monthly minimum wage raised to 0.84%” (Japanese). Focus taiwan. http://japan.cna.com.tw/news/apol/202008180008.aspx 2020/8/25Browse. 
  81. ^ Kazunori Fujii (September 2018, 9). “Business Report> Minimum wage increase by more than 2019% from January 1, 1 (Mongolia)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/7/27Browse.
  82. ^ 최저 임금 위원회(Korea Minimum Wage Commission). “HP> 최저 임금 제도> 최저 임금액 현황 (HP> Minimum Wage System> Minimum Wage Current Status)". 2020/8/5Browse.
  83. ^ “XNUMX-year minimum wage confirmed, effective next January = Korea” (Japanese). Union News(July 2020, 8). https://jp.yna.co.kr/view/AJP20200805000800882 2020/8/5Browse. 
  84. ^ United States Department of State (October 2020, 3). “2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Democratic People's Republic of Korea". 2020/5/17Browse.
  85. ^ Mitsuyuki Nemoto (October 2015, 10). “Business brief> Minimum wage in Kaesong Industrial Park, 2015% increase in 5 (South Korea, North Korea)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2018/8/31Browse.
  86. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2019-03) (PDF). 2018 Overseas Situation Report Chapter 6 Overview and Recent Trends of Health, Labor and Welfare Measures in South Asia Section 1 India (1) Labor Measures (Report). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/wp/hakusyo/kaigai/19/dl/t6-01.pdf#page=11 2019/4/16Browse.. 
  87. ^ Ministry of Labor and Employment of India (2019-08-08) (PDF). THE CODE ON WAGES, 2019 No. 29 of 2019 (2019 Wage Code 2019 No. 29) (Report). https://labour.gov.in/whatsnew/code-wages-2019-no-29-2019 2021/3/6Browse.. 
  88. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2020-06) (PDF). 2019 Overseas Situation Report Chapter 6 Overview and Recent Trends of Health, Labor and Welfare Measures in South Asia Section 1 India (1) Labor Measures (Report). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/wp/hakusyo/kaigai/20/dl/t6-01.pdf#page=9 2021/3/6Browse.. 
  89. ^ KOMAL CHAWLA (December 2020, 12). “New Wage Rules: Employee Take-Home Salary Might Reduce” (English). RAZOR PAY. https://razorpay.com/learn/new-wage-rules-employee-salary-wage-code-2019/ 2021/3/6Browse. 
  90. ^ Subodh Varma (July 2019, 7). "New Starvation-Level Wage Announced by Labor Minister" (English). Newsclick. https://www.newsclick.in/new-starvation-level-wage-announced-labour-minister 2021/1/1Browse. 
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h "Minimum Wages India – Current Minimum Wage Rate India”. Wage Indicator Foundation. 2021/2/28Browse.
  92. ^ Yusuke Taguchi, Tonwanicchanoppakun Nichapattara (December 2019, 12). “Daily minimum wage in 2020, 5-6 baht increase nationwide (Thailand)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/12/12Browse.
  93. ^ Hiromitsu Sho (November 2019, 11). “Proposed minimum wage in 2020, average rate of increase is 5.5% (Vietnam)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/11/21Browse.
  94. ^ "Số: 90/2019/NĐ-CP QUY ĐỊ NH MỨ C LƯƠ NG TỐ I THIỂU VÙNG ĐỐI VỚI NGƯỜI LAO ĐỘNG LĀ M VIỆC THEO HỢP Ő”. THƯ VIỆN PHÁP LUẬT (Law Library). 2019/11/20Browse.
  95. ^ "Vietnam Labor Law Overview”. NAC Global.net. 2018/7/5Browse.
  96. ^ Department of Labor and Employment. “Current Nominal Minimum Wage". 2019/11/20Browse.
  97. ^ Kazuto Sakata (January 2020, 1). “The minimum wages of Central Visayas including Cebu Island will be raised, and Metro Manila will soon (Philippines)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2020/1/27Browse.
  98. ^ Ko Ozaki (December 2020, 12). “Minimum wages for major cities and prefectures in 2021 will come out (Indonesia)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/12/17Browse.
  99. ^ Kunturein. “4,800% increase in daily minimum wage to Kyat 33 (Myanmar)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2018/8/24Browse.
  100. ^ "ပြ ညထ် ော ငစ် ု သမ္ တ မ ပမ္ နမ္် ော န င ုင် ံ ထ တော် အစိုး ု ရ အ န ညိုး ် ဆုံိုး အ ခ ထ ကိုး ထ င သွေ တမ္် ှ တထ် ရိုး ဆ င ုရ် ော အမ္ ိုး သောိုး ထ ကောမ္် တီ (အမ္ န ထ့ ် ် ကော် ပ ငော စော အမ္ တှ, ် XNUMX/XNUMX) XNUMX ခ နု ှ စ, ် ကဆုန်လ ပြ ည က့ ် ် က ် XNUMX ရက် (XNUMX ခု နစှ, ် ကေ လ XNUMX ရက်)”. Myanmar National Commission. 2018/8/24Browse.
  101. ^ Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia (2020-01-10) (PDF). 2020 Minimum Wage Ordinance (Report). http://www.federalgazette.agc.gov.my/outputp/pua_20200110_P.U.%20(A)%205.pdf 2020/3/10Browse.. 
  102. ^ Mari Tanaka (January 2020, 1). “2020 Minimum Wage Ordinance issued, some cities to raise from February 2 (Malaysia)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2020/3/10Browse.
  103. ^ Mari Tanaka (January 2019, 12). “Raised minimum wage in urban areas and implemented from January 1 (Malaysia)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/12/28Browse.
  104. ^ Chiharu Isobe (September 2019, 9). “Minimum wage for sewing and shoemaking workers in 2020 will be $190/month (Cambodia)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/9/30Browse.
  105. ^ Takahisa Wakisaka (September 2020, 9). “The minimum wage for 2021 is set at $ 192 per month (Cambodia)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2020/9/16Browse.
  106. ^ a b Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (August 2006). “Research Results> Overseas Labor Information> Labor Topics by Country> 2006> August> EU> 8-fold difference in legal minimum wages in EU countries". 2018/7/22Browse.
  107. ^ a b EU Statistical Office (October 2009, 7). “Minimum Wages in January 2009". 2018/7/22Browse.
  108. ^ EU Statistical Office (October 2020, 2). “Monthly minimum wages-bi-annual data". 2020/3/29Browse.
  109. ^ a b Thorsten Schulten; Malte Lübker (2020-2). “WSI-MINDESTLOHNBERICHT 2020 Europäische Mindestlohninitiative vor dem Durchbruch? (WSI Minimum Wage Report 2020 European minimum wage plan before breaking through)” (German). WSI Report (WSI (German Institute for Economic and Social Studies)) 55: 4,6. ISSN 2366-7079. https://www.boeckler.de/pdf/p_wsi_report_55_2020.pdf 2019/3/25Browse.. 
  110. ^ OECD. “Real minimum wages". 2020/7/23Browse.
  111. ^ Daisuke Shiga (January 2020, 12). “January 2021 minimum wage increased by 1%, industry groups warn (Mexico)”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2020/12/27Browse.
  112. ^ Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (August 2018). “HP> Research Results> Overseas Labor Information> Focus> 2018> December: Mexico> 12 Minimum Wage Announced-National 2019% Increase, Northern Border Region Doubled". 2019/5/13Browse.
  113. ^ Osamu Iwata (January 2019, 1). “Business brief> Increased general minimum wage by 1% from January, doubling US border”. Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). 2019/5/13Browse.
  114. ^ OECD. “Minimum relative to average wages of full-time workers (ratio of minimum wage to average wage of full-time workers)". 2020/4/30Browse.
  115. ^ Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) (January 2020). “Investment cost comparison Selected cities: Bogota (Colombia) Medellin (Colombia)". 2020/4/30Browse.
  116. ^ Oxfam International (October 2018, 10). “The Commitment to Reducing Inequality Index 2018 Data file Figure2018". 2018/10/12Browse.
  117. ^ United States Department of State (March 2019, 3). “2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices:Central African Republic". 2019/6/1Browse.
  118. ^ United States Department of State (March 2019, 3). “2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices:Burundi (Burundi 2018 Country Human Rights Report)". 2019/6/1Browse.

Reference document

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close