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📊 | Final tax return extended until April 4 Salaryman's side business saves tax by final tax return


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Final tax return extended until April 4 Salaryman's side business saves tax by final tax return

 
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Also, if you use your own car for work, you can record part of the purchase cost (depreciation) and maintenance cost (gasoline fee, vehicle inspection, insurance premium, etc.), and you can also record the entire base-up of the Internet environment.
 

According to the results of a side business survey conducted by Persol Research Institute (FY2019), 10.9% of office workers are doing side business ... → Continue reading

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Depreciation

Depreciation(Genkashokyaku,British: depreciation) IsCorporate accountingHow to recognize and calculate purchase costs in.Used for a long timeFixed assetAcquisition (Capital investment) Is a procedure for allocating expenses for the period during which the asset can be used.

EnglishNow, let ’s talk about tangible fixed assets. depreciation, Intangible fixed assets are called amortization.

Overview

RevenueContributed to earningAssetaboutMatching PrincipleByAcquisition costIt is considered desirable in corporate accounting to allocate expenses over the period used to earn profits.However, since it is not easy to grasp the functional and physical depreciation of many tangible fixed assets such as buildings and machinery, the following calculation method should be used to make it as rational as possible. It is costly.

on the other hand,PatentRight,商標RightFishing rights,softwareDepreciation may also be applied to intangible fixed assets with various rights.

Non-depreciable assets

Some fixed assets are not depreciated.Assets that are not depreciated are called non-depreciable assets, and non-depreciable assets do not necessarily decrease in value even with the following time.

Also, stocks, etc.SecuritiesHowever, it is not considered as a depreciable asset.

How to calculate depreciation in Japan

Expenses recorded in each periodDepreciation(British: Depreciation Expense).By allocating the total expenditure (acquisition cost) as the cost of each year, the profit and loss in each yearCash flowWill be different from.

It is difficult to know in advance the actual usable life of the acquired asset, and for some buildings, for example, the time limit for use is not clear.Originally, the useful life in depreciation (British: the Estimated useful life) Should be estimated by some scientific and statistical method, but in practice, the useful life specified for each type of asset is used in the Corporation Tax Law.Legal useful lifeThat.

In accounting for depreciation, it is necessary to reduce fixed assets by the amount equivalent to the depreciation cost for each period.for that reason,Balance sheetIn the "Fixed assets section" of, each asset is the accumulated depreciation amount from the acquisition cost (British: Accumulated Depreciation)DeductionIt is displayed in the form of.

For depreciation, the annual depreciation amount for each asset is calculated using a predetermined depreciation method and useful life.However, in the case of assets acquired (or discontinued) during the accounting period, the annual depreciation amount will be calculated on a monthly basis.

According to the provisions of the Corporation Tax Law, even if the product is used beyond its useful life, it cannot be depreciated in excess of the depreciable limit (in Japan, 95% of the acquisition price for tangible fixed assets).Accounting standardsThere are no special provisions in this regard.

Due to the 19 tax reform, new acquisitions after April 19, 4Note valueIt is possible to depreciate up to 1 yen.In addition, assets acquired before March 19, 3 can be depreciated up to 31 yen from the fiscal year beginning on or after April 19, 4.For intangible fixed assets, the depreciation method is limited to the straight-line method, and depreciation is carried out until the residual value becomes zero.

4 depreciation methods

There are four methods of depreciation: the straight-line method, the declining balance method, the series method (sum of years method), and the output proportional method.

In each method, the depreciation amount required by subtracting the residual value from the acquisition price of the target asset is allocated to the depreciation period at a different ratio for each method.Depreciation is calculated in the month of acquisition of the target asset and is calculated on a monthly basis.

The cost of acquisition (Cost) includes not only the price of the asset, but also all incidental costs such as freight charges, fees, insurance premiums, and registration fees.

Many assets are still available for benefit after being used for their useful life, so the amount expected to be obtained if they are sold after their useful life has been used. It is set as the salvage value.Expenses are allocated throughout the depreciation period only for the depreciation required, which is the acquisition cost minus the residual value.

Theoretical depreciation

"Corporate accounting principlesIn "Note" [Note 20], as a method of depreciation of fixed assets,

  1. Straight-line method Every period during the useful life of fixed assetsEqual amountHow to record depreciation expense
  2. Declining balance method Every period during the useful life of fixed assetsMultiply the unamortized balance at the beginning of the period by a certain rateHow to record depreciation
  3. Series method (total number of years method) Every period during the useful life of fixed assetsA certain amount was gradually reduced in arithmetic progressionHow to record depreciation
  4. Output proportional method Every period during the useful life of fixed assetsProportional to the degree of production or service provision by the assetHow to record depreciation

Is illustrated.The former three are depreciation based on time, while the output proportional method is a method of depreciation based on activity.The declining balance method and the series method are accelerated depreciation methods.In Japan, only the straight-line method is allowed for depreciation of intangible fixed assets.

4 Depreciation methods.PNG

Below, the acquisition amountA0 , Service lifeu , Residual valueAu , Depreciation rater And

Straight-line method

Straight-line method, SL) Is a depreciation method that amortizes a certain amount every year.While it has the characteristic of being able to level depreciation costs each year, it has the disadvantage that if maintenance and repair costs gradually increase due to use, the cost burden will increase in the latter half of the useful life.Annual depreciation is the acquisition costResidual valueThe difference withservice lifeDivide by.

Depreciation rater In principle,Au = (1-XNUMX-ur )A0 Than,

Is sought after.Residual value in JapanAu The statutory depreciation rate for each useful life is set as = 0.

Declining balance method

The declining balance method is a depreciation method that depreciates a certain rate on the unamortized balance at the beginning of the period every year, and is one of the accelerated depreciation methods.Although it is possible to recover the invested capital at an early stage, it is irrational in terms of the period allocation of acquisition costs.The annual depreciation cost is calculated by multiplying the difference between the acquisition cost and the accumulated depreciation amount by the depreciation rate.

Depreciation rater In principle,Au = (1- r )u A0 From

Is sought after.Residual valueAu When = 0, the declining balance method cannot be applied.

The declining balance method is the Double-Declining Balance method, DDB).It has the characteristic that profits can be reduced by making a large depreciation at an early stage of the depreciation period.This is a method that uses twice the depreciation rate of the straight-line method as the depreciation rate of the straight-line method without using the above formula.In Japan by the above formulaAu = A0×10%として各耐用年数における法定償却率が定められていたが、平成19年(2007年)4月1日より250%定率法が採用され、平成24年(2012年)4月1日より200%定率法が採用された。

Series method (total number of years method)

Sum of the Years' Digits method, SYD) Is the useful life minus the elapsed yearsRemaining useful lifeIs the numerator, and the total remaining useful lives up to that period (the first term is 1, the number of terms and the last term are the remaining useful lives)Arithmetic sequenceThis is a depreciation method that calculates the depreciation cost for the period by multiplying the value with the denominator as the denominator by the depreciation amount required by subtracting the salvage value from the acquisition cost (Cost). It is one of the depreciation methods.

It has the characteristic that profits can be reduced by making a large depreciation at an early stage of the depreciation period.The annual depreciation cost is calculated by multiplying the difference between the acquisition cost and the accumulated depreciation amount by the depreciation rate.

Elapsed yearsn If so, the depreciation cost can be calculated by the following formula.

Depreciation =

Output proportional method

The Productive output method is a method of calculating depreciation cost according to the ratio of the activity amount in the period to the expected total activity amount when performing production activities using assets. ..The depreciation cost for the period is calculated by multiplying the value obtained by using the expected total activity as the denominator and the activity as the numerator for the current period by the depreciation amount required by subtracting the salvage value from the acquisition cost (Cost). calculate.The correspondence between income and expenses is rational, but the applicable assets are limited to mining equipment, aircraft, automobiles, etc.

Depreciation is calculated by the following formula.

Depreciation = (Activity for the current period / Expected total activity) x (Acquisition cost-Residual value)

Depreciation under tax law in Japan

In Japan, the acquisition date is different from before March 19, 19 and after April 3, 31 because the system was revised in the 19 tax reform.Therefore, there are six types of depreciation methods under tax law.

  • Depreciation method for depreciable assets acquired before March 19, 3
    • Old straight-line method
    • Old declining balance method
    • Old output proportional method
  • Depreciation method for depreciable assets acquired after April 19, 4
    • Straight-line method
    • Declining balance method (250% declining balance method)
    • Output proportional method

As for the depreciation method of buildings under the Corporation Tax Law, it is no longer permitted to use the old declining balance method and declining balance method for new construction and extension from April 10.

Depreciation method

Old straight-line method (before March 19, 3)

1. The depreciation limit is the amount calculated by the following formula.

Depreciation limit = (acquisition price-residual value) x depreciation rate of the old straight-line method

Here, about the residual value

Residual value = Acquisition price x Depreciable asset's useful life, etc.[3]

Use the amount calculated by the above formula, and use the value specified in Appendix XNUMX of the Ordinance of the Ministry of Use for the amortization rate of the old straight-line method.[4].

2. The depreciation limit for the fiscal year in which the accumulated depreciation reaches 95% of the acquisition price shall be the amount after deducting the portion exceeding 95% of the acquisition price.

3. From the year following the business year of 2., the amount calculated by the following formula can be used as the depreciation limit and the remaining book value can be depreciated up to 1 yen.

Depreciation limit = (acquisition price-95% of acquisition price-1 yen) x number of months in each business year / 60

Old declining balance method (before March 19, 3)

1. The depreciation limit is the amount calculated by the following formula.

Depreciation limit = opening book value x depreciation rate of the old declining balance method

Here, the depreciation rate of the old declining balance method uses the value specified in Appendix XNUMX of the Ordinance of the Ministry of Use.[4].

2. The depreciation limit for the fiscal year in which the accumulated depreciation reaches 95% of the acquisition price shall be the amount after deducting the portion exceeding 95% of the acquisition price.

3. From the year following the business year of 2., the amount calculated by the following formula can be used as the depreciation limit and the remaining book value can be depreciated up to 1 yen.

Depreciation limit = (acquisition price-95% of acquisition price-1 yen) x number of months in each business year / 60

Old production proportional method (before March 19, 3)

1. The depreciation limit is the amount calculated by the following formula.

Depreciation limit = {(Acquisition price of depreciable assets for mining-residual value) / Expected mining quantity of the mining area to which the asset belongs within the useful life (Note) of the asset} × Mining of the mining area in the business year Quantity (Note) If the planned mining period of the mining area to which the asset belongs is shorter than the useful life of the asset, the planned mining period.

Here, about the residual value

Residual value = Acquisition price x useful life Residual ratio specified in Appendix XNUMX of the Ministry Ordinance[3]

Use the amount calculated by the above formula.

2. The depreciation limit for the fiscal year in which the accumulated depreciation reaches 95% of the acquisition price shall be the amount after deducting the portion exceeding 95% of the acquisition price.

3. From the year following the business year of 2., the amount calculated by the following formula can be used as the depreciation limit and the remaining book value can be depreciated up to 1 yen.

Depreciation limit = (acquisition price-95% of acquisition price-1 yen) x number of months in each business year / 60

Straight-line method (after April 19, 4)

The amount calculated by the following formula is set as the depreciation limit, and depreciation is performed until the residual value reaches 1 yen.

Depreciation limit = acquisition price x straight-line depreciation rate

Here, the depreciation rate of the straight-line method uses the value specified in Appendix XNUMX of the Ordinance of the Ministry of useful life.[5].

Declining balance method (after April 19, 4)

1. First, calculate the pre-adjustment depreciation amount and the guaranteed depreciation amount using the following two formulas.

Pre-adjustment depreciation amount = opening book value x declining balance method depreciation guarantee amount = acquisition price x guarantee rate according to useful life

Here, the depreciation rate of the declining balance method and the guarantee rate according to the useful life use the values ​​specified in Appendix XNUMX of the Ordinance of the Ministry of useful life, respectively.[5].

2. Compare the amount of depreciation before adjustment and the amount of guaranteed depreciation to find the depreciation limit for the current period.

(1) When pre-adjustment depreciation amount ≥ guaranteed depreciation amount
Depreciation limit = Depreciation before adjustment
(2) Pre-adjustment depreciation amount <guaranteed depreciation amount
Depreciation limit = revised acquisition price x revised depreciation rate

Here, the beginning book value is used for the revised acquisition price, and the value specified in Appendix XNUMX of the Ordinance of the Ministry of Useful Life is used for the revised depreciation rate.[5]..In addition, the remaining book value can be amortized up to 1 yen.

Output proportional method (after April 19, 4)

The depreciation limit is the amount calculated by the following formula.

Depreciation limit = (Acquisition price of depreciable assets for mining / Expected mining quantity of the mining area to which the asset belongs within the useful life of the asset (Note)) x Mining quantity of the mining area in the business year (Note) If the planned mining period of the mining area to which the asset belongs is shorter than the useful life of the asset, the planned mining period.

Depreciation and depreciation

"Depreciation" means allocating the cost of an asset to future costs.In accounting terms, depreciation of Tangible assets is called "Depreciation", and depreciation of Intangible assets is simply called "Amortization". Separated.
on the other hand,Bad debt lossIs sometimes called "depreciation of bad debts", and it should be noted that there is also "amortization" in a broad sense including depreciation, amortization, and bad debt amortization.

Depreciation XNUMX aspects and immediate depreciation

Cost allocation

If the purchase cost of purchasing an asset such as expensive equipment with a useful life of several years or more is recorded as an expense in a single year, the cost of the first year acquired will increase and the profit will decrease, and the asset will decrease from the next year onward. Is operating and creating value, but it is not recorded as an expense at all and profits increase.It is based on the rational idea of ​​gradually recording expenses according to the useful life.

Asset valuation

Even after the year following the purchase of the asset, it remains as an asset, and as long as it remains as an asset, it is necessary to convert the asset size into monetary value and evaluate it.It is assumed that the value of an asset gradually decreases immediately after purchase, the value of the asset decreases by the amount of depreciation expense recorded each year, and the value disappears at the end of the useful life. ..

Fund collection

Profit is the result of subtracting costs from sales, which naturally includes depreciation costs.As long as we provide the value created by operating equipment and receive sales as consideration, the cost of the asset that contributes to the provision of that value is the asset acquisition price as one element of the cost that constitutes the selling price. It is necessary to include the cost and collect it.The purpose is to ensure that the cost is recorded as a cost by gradually recording the cost according to the useful life without recording the cost in a single year, and to recover the cost for the purchase funds.

Immediate depreciation (and other accelerated (special) depreciation) * Notes

Productivity improvement Capital investment promotion Under the tax system, if a private company is encouraged to invest and an asset that meets certain conditions is acquired for the purpose of revitalizing the economy, it is possible to amortize the entire acquisition price in that single year for a limited period of time. It is a policy that has been set.If this is applied, the cost of the purchase funds will be recorded as a full cost in the first year, and will not be recorded as a cost in the following years.This will reduce profits in the first year and increase profits in the following years.From the viewpoint of tax saving, profits can be reduced in the first year, so it is effective only for a single year, but it is not recorded as an expense after the next year, so "accounting" profits increase, and eventually taxes are applied after the next year. Will be paid.From the perspective of the company, it is important to note that although assets that have been immediately depreciated continue to generate value from the next fiscal year onward, the costs for those assets will not be recorded from the next fiscal year onward. Inconsistencies will occur in terms of cost management and cost recovery unless a subject that handles depreciation expenses that would have been recorded if immediate depreciation was not set up and managed separately from the subject.If inconsistencies occur and cannot be recognized, products and services worth more than the price will be on the market, material procurement costs and product prices will fall, and distribution will be temporary because it will be easier to purchase. However, the company cannot recover the cost of the inconsistency, and as a result, the company swallows it.In addition, since the market may induce a decline in consideration for value, it is important to carefully consider the application and manage it after implementation.

Addendum: Various types of accelerated depreciation can largely dispose of profits in the acquisition year and are highly effective as tax measures in a single year, so they are easy for companies to adopt.

   Unlike subsidies, the government can expect a certain effect without withdrawal, so it is considered easy to use as a promotion material.

   In any case, regarding the adoption of accelerated depreciation, it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to the above precautions, and it is necessary to consider the risk that it will be difficult to grasp the financial situation due to heavy use.

Social impact

Depreciation is a rational method for a company,Macro economyHas an unexpected effect on.

As mentioned above, it is assumed that a building of 10 billion yen has been constructed.The profit of the company that ordered the construction of the building will be 1 million yen instead of 3 million yen.In addition, the company that ordered the construction will amortize 10 million yen each year using the 1-year straight-line method.

The company that ordered the construction made a construction investment of 10 billion yen in the year when the building was constructed, and the profit was 3 million yen, so the deducted cash will exceed 7 million yen this year.However, in accounting, only 1 million yen is recorded as an expense, so the accounting profit is 3-1 = 2 million yen.In addition, the 10 billion yen spent by the ordering company goes into the construction company and household budget.Multiplier effectBring.Of this 10 billion yen, only 1 million yen is an expense, so the economy as a whole is 9 million yen.Accounting profitIs brought.

However, assuming that the building will not be built anymore the following year, the company that ordered the construction will record depreciation of 3 million yen for the profit of 1 million yen.Since depreciation is an accounting expense, the accounting profit is 3 million yen even though the actual amount is over 2 million yen.Since the profit of this company is 3 million yen, other companies and households will record a total of 3 million yen in expenses corresponding to the profit.As a result, the economy as a whole is 2-3 = -1 million yen.Accounting lossIs brought.

The reason for this distortion is that for the investor, all the investment costs for a single year are not expenses, while for the side that receives the investment, all the profits for the single year are profits. ..

Keynesian economicsThen, based on thisCapital investmentExplains the impact ofDuring periods of active capital investment, accounting profits increase, creating the illusion that society as a whole is profitable.BoomWill be.On the contrary, when capital investment is low, accounting expenses increase, creating the illusion that society as a whole is losing money.RecessionBecomes

注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Co-authored by Noriyuki Abe and Yasunao Matsushima, "A Book That Understands the Practice of Depreciation" Chukei Publishing April 2008 First Edition ISBN 9784806129325
  2. ^ As of 2009, the market value has actually decreased, but it is not considered a depreciable asset under tax law.
  3. ^ a b "Ministry Ordinance on the useful life of depreciable assets, etc. Appendix XNUMX”. E-Gov. 2020th of February 1Browse.
  4. ^ a b "Ministry Ordinance on the useful life of depreciable assets, etc. Appendix XNUMX”. E-Gov. 2020th of February 1Browse.
  5. ^ a b c "Ministry Ordinance on the useful life of depreciable assets, etc. Appendix XNUMX”. E-Gov. 2020th of February 1Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク

Private car

Automobile > Cars in Japan > Private car

Private car(Jikayoujisha) carries passengers and freight, receives charges, and acts commercially.For transportation business(Green number, business number)AutomobileOn the other hand, all other vehicles used for general purposes are called as follows. According to the Road Transport Law, it is defined as a "vehicle (vehicle under the Road Transport Vehicle Law)" that is not a "business vehicle."Private car(Youka)Private car[1][2](My car,Japanglish). In English, a private car is generally called an owner-driver car, and when referring to your own car, it is called My own car.

In this articleJapanI will describe the private car in.

Distinguishing by license plate

Usually, it refers to an automobile that the user himself uses for his own purpose (self-use). It doesn't matter if you drive yourself or not,Car leaseCar orCar rentalIs also for private use.License plateIs green on a white backgroundWhite number,Light carIs called yellow number because it is black with yellow letters.

For non-private vehicles,Commercial vehicle(SalesCar). There is a charge for the definition for salespassenger,cargoIn the vehicle for the transportation, the number is white letters in the reverse green color for private use, so it is called the green number (or the blue number, the light business vehicle is the black number).

Incidentally,SDF,Overseas missionCar owned byRoad Transport Vehicle ActThe license plate is unique because it does not apply and is different from the general one.

Use

Owned by an individual at homePassenger carNot only those used by companies such as transportation of employees and collection and delivery of products, public vehicles of government offices,Business vehicles/company vehicles(Instead of commercial transportation, many are used for corporate route sales and internal business purposes), etc. are also treated as private cars. These vehicles are prohibited from paid transportation, and the transportation itself is not commercial.First-class driver's licenseYou can drive at. But,Emergency carSome of the vehicles that have the qualifications for (official vehicles (fire, emergency, police, etc.) of the public office during emergency dispatch.Fire truck,ambulance,Patrol carFor example, when driving in an emergency, certain conditions must be met.

In addition, the so-called white number such as transportation of companies and schools, transportation of hotels and large public dining halls, transportation of customers dedicated to entertainment facilities, buses owned by government offices (prefectures, municipalities), etc.Private busThere are some people who misunderstand that a large type XNUMX license is necessary even in the case of, but in this case, in the sense of carrying a large number of personnelShared bus,Charter BusAnd their modes of transport are very similar, but in these casesFareBecause of the lack of receipt ofCommercialTarget (SalesAct), and an unspecified number ofpassengerSince it is not intended for the car and it is still a private car, you can drive with a first-class license.

Private cars, with some exceptions, are not allowed to be paid in any form. In the case of family members, friends, etc., it is not a problem to share the expenses required for operation among passengers in relation to relatives, but when calling for passengers to ride in their own cars to many unspecified people who are red strangers Even if the amount of money to be collected is within the range of expenses required for operation, it is required as consideration for the transportation, so if you do not follow the Road Transport Act, you will be in conflict with the law. Becomes In addition, even if the use of a private car is limited to school students, company employees, facility users, etc., those who are not relatives or friends are red strangers, so it is profitable It will be a fee-based transportation including cost sharing that is not a prerequisite. Therefore, as a general rule, transportation by private car is free, and if you collect expenses from the transportation user, you will be authorized as a taxi hire with permission based on the Road Transport Act or you can entrust it to a local taxi company. Is desirable.

In addition, when another person who is not in the family is on board,Copyright lawDue to the equipment in the carkaraokeOr playing music software,Video softwareIt is also forbidden to screenTV broadcast,Radio broadcast, And portable audio equipment that passengers bring in personally).

Bus operators and taxi operators use vehiclesOperation withdrawalIn some cases, the registration may be changed from business registration to private registration and used for the purpose of obtaining a second-class license or in-house training.

Japan Private Car Management Association

Japan Private Car Management Association[3] TheNational Police Agency,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismEstablished with permission from the three ministriesPublic interest corporation.

In 37, former private car management companies established an association to improve the quality of the industry and contribute to society. In 61, a car management liaison meeting was established. From these, the Japan Automobile Management Association, an independent organization, was established in 4. In XNUMX, the National Police Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry at the time, and the Ministry of Transport jointly received approval as a corporation.

Private driver's school

Private driver's school[4]Opened in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo with the aim of developing specialized driving service personnel.Certified vocational trainingbyVocational development schoolIs. The purpose is to conduct lectures, on-the-job training, and aptitude tests for driving service technicians, improve the driving skills of driving technicians and improve their etiquette, and develop excellent drivers who can practice good service. ..

The installation training course is a driving service course and has two courses: a passenger car course and a bus course. Opened in 2. In 12, it became a certified vocational training facility after being certified by the Governor of Tokyo. From 13, people other than the member companies of the association will be able to attend. Since 15Road transport lawAs a result of the amendment, the requirements for a driver who has a license for paid transportation operated by municipalities and paid transportation for depopulated areas will be a person who has completed the driving service department of a private driver's school.

footnote

  1. ^ The word "car" is said to have spread by Yoshiro Hoshino's book "Cars: The Way to See Good Cars" published in 1961. CARGRAPHIC October 2012 Issue 10, "THIS MONTH'S TOPIC"
  2. ^ About Yomiuri Shimbun News Clip "My Car"[Broken link]
  3. ^ "Foundation of the association”. Japan Private Automobile Management Association. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  4. ^ "Driver specialized school". 2020th of February 5Browse.

References

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