Photo "tax included" or "tax excluded", that's the problem
When I ordered a 1200 yen lunch, I was charged "1320 yen"!Confusion over the total consumption tax display
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"Unlike food and other items that have a best-by date, books are kept in bookstores for a long time.
From April 4st, restaurants and retail stores are required to display the total price, including the consumption tax amount.The business side ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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expiration date(Shomikigen) is the limit of the best-by date, that is, the last date and time of the best-by date..
The "best-by date" is the period during which the manufacturer guarantees that all qualities such as safety, taste, and flavor are maintained in a predetermined situation while the food products whose quality deteriorates relatively slowly are kept in the packaged state.Quality is more important than hygiene, so it can be stored hygienically for a relatively long period of time.manufactured foodEnter the "best-by date" in.
- Best-by date: "The deadline for eating deliciously without changing the quality" The deadline for eating deliciously.
- Expiration date: "Safe to eat" It is better not to eat after the expiration date.
In each case, 1) the bag or container must be left unopened, and 2) the storage method described must be followed.
- The expiration date is the "expirable date".
- It shows the expiration date when it is eaten when stored according to the displayed storage method without opening. Let's eat deliciously before the expiration date. However, it does not mean that you cannot eat even after the deadline. Labeled on preservable foods, those over 3 months are indicated by the year or month, and those within 3 months are indicated by the date.
- Indicates the "delicious time limit". Foods marked with a expiration date are not easily damaged, so you don't have to throw them away immediately after the expiration date.
- Snacks, instant noodles, canned foods, etc.
- Eating before the expiration date is ◎, eating the expiration date is △
- WastefulEven if the expiration date has expired, it does not mean that it will be damaged immediately. Use good storage and cooking methods to reduce waste.
- The deadline label for food is the deadline before opening. Once opened, eat quickly regardless of the deadline. Please follow the preservation method indicated on the food. If the save method is not displayedNormal temperatureYou can save with.
- For processed foodExpiration dateEither the expiration date or the expiration date is displayed. (Excluding some foods)
JapanThe expiration date is the Food Labeling ActFood labeling standards that are Cabinet Office Ordinances based on Article 4, Paragraph 1In Article 2, Paragraph 1, Item 8,It means the date when it is recognized that all expected quality can be sufficiently retained when stored by the prescribed method. However, even if the deadline is exceeded, these qualities may be maintained. Is defined asFoodAs mentioned above, it is the deadline for maintaining the required hygiene safety and functions such as taste and flavor.
Basically, it is displayed by date, butcanning,Retort foodな どLong-term storageIt is also possible to display by the year and month if it is possible (3 months or more). In addition,sugar,saltSuch asseasoning,Chewing gum,ice creamclass・The expiration date can be omitted for items such as ice that can be stored for a long period of time. The expiration date may be displayed, but companies omit it because consumers buy new products.
These are mainly due to food hygiene considerations, but depending on the storage location and condition, the quality may deteriorate to the extent that they are not suitable for eating and drinking even within the same period.On the contrary, there may be no problem in safety even after a longer period.At the discretion of the individual consumer, the product may be used after the expiration date, but it may also be harmful to health.In the event of health damage caused by using food that has expired or expired, we cannot take responsibility if the manufacturer has no fault.In addition, there are no legal penalties for selling products whose expiration date has expired.
Further, this deadline is a deadline in the case of being stored in a prescribed state in a packaged state. So in the following situationsFresh produceSimilarly to the above, it is necessary to store in a state where the quality preservation condition is better (for example, in the refrigerator as opposed to the room) and then quickly consume.
- When opening the packaging
- When placed in a place higher than the prescribed temperature
- When the state of being maintained changes (eg, when frozen foods have once melted)
Background to establishing the expiration date
In the past, Japanese processed foods were required by the Food Sanitation Law and the JAS Law to indicate the packaging date of foods as the date of manufacture for all foods, but foods that can be stored for a long period of time are omitted. It was possible.However, regarding the expiration date,Ministry of AgricultureAccording to the JAS law under its jurisdiction, some foods are required to be listed, and although it is not a legal regulation, it is labeled as ○ days after manufacture by the manufacturer.
またmilkAfter sterilization, it is aseptically filled and can be stored at room temperature (room temperature) for a long timeLong life milkWhen (so-called LL milk) etc. are made,Ministry of Health and WelfareAccording to the Ordinance of the Ministry of Milk, etc. of the relevant Food Sanitation Law, the dairy industry was obliged to display the quality retention period.
However, the date of manufacture display also showed opposition from the consumer side from the following points.
- Foods that are unclear when it should be manufacturedNatto-Kimchi-Yogurt・AgingSomen NoodlesThe presence of)
- Fermented foodIn the case of, since the fermentation progresses even after filling the container and lining up in the store, depending on the product, several dates are attached to the product, such as the filling date, the time to eat, the time when the fermentation proceeds too much and the taste is lost. It was Especially in the case of natto, just at the storeNatto bacteriaIt was shipped back from transportation time so that it would be time to change boiled beans to natto.
- FoodGlobalizationWith the progress of (international food distribution), the description of the expiration date is generally received from various foreign countries.Free tradeThere was external pressure that it was an obstacle to
- While there was a sense of repulsion against external pressure,Food additiveIt is difficult to distinguish between products that are easy to maintain freshness and have a long shelf life due to the use of products, and products that have a short shelf life because they do not contain such food additives. there were.
- The presence of late-night operations, especially for manufacturers such as milk makers
- Day zero (DAY0,D-0) Called a problem.The retailers strongly requested that the production line be operated at midnight when the date changed so that consumers could purchase only the foods manufactured and shipped on the same day.The burden on employees engaged in manufacturing companies is large.
In response to such problems,1995In 7, the expiration date was displayed.
In the first place, the best-by date is based on the Food Sanitation Law unified in 05, but it was changed to the food labeling standard in 2015, but it is up to each food company to decide the best-by date. At present, it is generally decided after performing the following three inspections.
- Microbial examination to check the reproduction of bacteria.
- Physicochemical examination to check for turbidity, stickiness, color and oxidation.
- Evaluate the texture, taste, smell etc. that you actually triedsensory test.
Food loss problems and countermeasures
It has been pointed out that if the shelf life and expiration date are shorter than necessary, they will contribute to the mass disposal of food. According to a survey conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the annual amount of food waste generated in fiscal 2007 was 1,134 million tons.
In the Japanese food industry, there is a business practice called "one-third rule" that divides the period until the expiration date at the distribution stage... According to a research conducted by the Research Institute of Distribution Economics, the amount of merchandise returned from wholesalers to manufacturers amounted to 2010 billion yen in FY1,139..
Until now, there was no clear standard for the expiration date, and it was up to each food manufacturer to decide,Consumer Affairs AgencyDecided to set a unified guideline on how to set the expiration date for each food. In September 2011, Consumer Affairs Agency Food Labeling Division announced that it will launch a study group with food manufacturers and experts... From the end of the same month to the following year, the food labeling unification study meeting was held many times..
2014After reviewing the safety aspect of cup noodles for 5 months → 6 months, bag noodles for 6 months → 8 months, and other beverages, we also saw the movement of each manufacturer to extend the shelf life. To be.
Notation (expiration date, quality retention period)
In expressions similar to "expiration date", "Expiration dateBut this is especiallyFresh produce,BacteriaIt is used for raw processed foods that are easily altered by the action of. This is a delimiter in the sense of whether it is suitable for consumption or not, because after the deadline, the safety as food cannot be secured before the flavor. This difference is expressed by this expiry date for food products that show rapid deterioration in quality within approximately 5 days including the manufacturing date.
Apart from this, according to the Food Sanitation Act,Quality retention period", but the "Act on Standardization of Agricultural and Forest Products and Adequate Quality Labeling" (common nameJAS method) Since the expiration date is almost the same as the expiration date above,Vertically divided administrationAs a harmful effect of, there are 3 kinds of deadlines in food,consumerJurisdiction over JAS lawMinistry of AgricultureAnd the Food Sanitation LawMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareBy the joint ministerial meeting2003(15)May 2, It was decided to abolish the quality retention term notation and integrate it into the expiration date notation. By this decision2005(17)May 7Although the notation of the shelf life is allowed up to the manufactured item, after that, for the fresh foods of less than 5 days in general.Expiration date,Excluding thatQuality retention periodNotationexpiration dateI am rewriting.
Furthermore,Food Labeling LawWith the enactment of, the food labeling standards based on the provisions of Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the Food Labeling Law have been unified. In the food labeling standards, there are provisions for labeling the expiration date and expiration date, but there is no particular provision for the setting method.Consumer Affairs AgencyGuidelinesAbout food labeling standards(Processed foods) (XNUMX) In the expiration date or expiration date, "For the expiration date or expiration date, we will conduct objective tests and inspections after fully considering the characteristics of the food, etc., and scientifically and rationally. To set. "
Change of state after the expiration date of various foods
The following is a state change when the expiration date has passed and the storage is continued in a predetermined state. As mentioned above, the expiration date is as a productFlavorIs a guaranteed deadline, and it does not mean that it will not be suitable for eating immediately after the expiration of this, and it does not mean that the following conditions will occur immediately after the expiration of the best-by date (for example, the best-by date + 1 day).healthIf there is no problem, you may not be able to eat it. This state change is a state change that is constantly progressing to varying degrees depending on the storage condition even within the expiration date. If the expiration date is too large, the following problems will become noticeable, but if the storage condition is poor, the expiration date will be noticeable. It is also a state that can occur within. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesGarbage problemIn connection with this, he said, "Even after the deadline, it does not mean that you will not be able to eat immediately.".
- If it is a liquid, the ingredients areproportionWill be separated by. To give an exampleFruit juiceIn the case of, the fiber content is precipitated andCanned coffeeIn the case ofDairy productsincludeFat percentageFloats and solidifies. For this reason, in canned beverages containing ingredients that easily precipitate or coagulate due to specific gravity, there are some products that clearly state that "shake well before drinking" and that there is no problem in quality even if there is such a change of state. .. In the case of a liquid containing a solid food, the components of the solid (particularly those that determine the taste) dissolve into the liquid and the flavor of the solid is impaired, while the liquid becomes a solid.PenetrationAs a result, the solid matter becomes soggy and the texture is impaired. Furthermore, the metal of the can (tin) Dissolves in the food, and the food has a metallic odor. Also, if the can is punctured by corrosion, the contents may rot.
- Instant noodles-SnacksFood fried in oil, etc.
- The oil remaining in the food is oxidized, and the oily odor peculiar to oxidized fats and oils causes it to oxidize.With nausea and mukaWhen the motivation to eat and drink is diminished, or when eating and drinkingsaturated fatty acidThere is a risk of suffering health problems such as visceral diseases and arteriosclerosis.
- Frozen food
- Predetermined storage temperature (CelsiusEven if it is -18 degrees or less), the water content in the food isSublimationFrozen foods stored after the expiration date are generally stored because they are constantly evaporating due to the phenomenon.freeze dryDepending on the condition, it dries and becomes dry. Also, the package is impermeable to moisturePlasticIn the case of a bag made of varieties, the evaporated water recrystallizes in the package and freezes, and the bag is partially soaked in water to reduce the flavor after thawing. If the storage condition is not good and the food is thawed and then re-frozen, ice particles will be generated in the food. When thawed for consumption, water is removed from it and it becomes uncomfortable. Also, if it rots while it is melting, it will be re-frozen in the rot state.Food poisoningIt also causes.
Other than food
The expiration date is set. It is said that the taste and aroma of cigarettes that have passed the expiration date will change even if they are unopened.
Even things that you can't put in your mouthMetaphorThe word "best-by date" is sometimes used. "Best-by date of photographic film", "Best-by date as a politician", etc.
- ^ Many people confuse "period" with "deadline", but "limit of period (last date and time of period) = deadline".
- ^ Expiration date and expiration date Food education for children, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- ^ Expiration date, expiration date, expiration date? Japan Mottainai Food Center
- ^ Yomiuri Shimbun6 sides
- ^ Food Labeling Law (Law No. 25, June 6, 28) - e-Gov Law Search
- ^ Food Labeling Standards (March 27, 3 Cabinet Office Ordinance No. 20) - e-Gov Law Search
- ^ a b Fuji Television Trivia Dissemination Committee "Trivia Fountain: Hee no Hon 4" Kodansha, 2003.
- ^ January 3, 1rd year of Reiwa We will carry out the Consumer Affairs Agency "Tasty Meyasu" promotion and enlightenment campaign
- ^ Expiration date of instant ramen is extended Will the movement to reduce “food loss” accelerate?｜Consumer Inside｜Diamond Online February 2014, 2
- ^ Will it change? Best-by Date Rule The Earthquake Moves the “Wall of Business Customs” ｜ inside ｜ Diamond Online
- ^ About Food Label Centralization Study Group
- ^ Information on Centralized Food Labeling Study Group-Consumer Affairs Agency
- ^ Yomiuri Shimbun May 2014, 5, page 1 "Extended expiration date spreads"
- ^ Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: Expiration date and best-by date
- Food labeling
- Long-term product safety labeling system
- Long-term product safety inspection system
- Retort food
- Instant Food
- Frozen food
- Emergency food
- Dry bread
- Preserved Foods
- convenience store
- Information on food expiration dates --Consumer Affairs Agency
- Efforts related to food labeling -Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- Deadline display --Japan Frozen Food Association
- Setting the expiration date and expiration date of food --Japan Food Analysis Center