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💴 | What kind of allowances and subsidies are available for single-parent households?


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What kind of allowances and subsidies are available for single-parent households?

 
If you write the contents roughly
As with the children's allowance, this must also meet the requirements of the recipient.
 

National support system The national support system for single-parent households is as follows. ■ Children's allowance Children's allowance is ... → Continue reading

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Children's allowance

Children's allowance(For the destination)ChildrenMainly for parents raisingAdministrationAllowance provided by Has been implemented in several countries,Tax creditSometimes takes the form of.

In Japan, since 1972, the "Child Allowance" or "Child allowanceWe carry out with the name.

History

A system in which the government provides allowances in the form of money for the existence of dependent children and families loses about 2% of the population due to participation in the First World War, and the declining birthrate due to the effects of the Great Depression. Was worriedNew Zealandで1926Begins with the Child Allowance System[1]. Also, among the advanced European countries, the beginning of the modern child allowance system was Germany under the Nazi administration.National socialism public welfareIt is (Das Deutsche Institut für Jugendhilfe eV) by (Nazi Welfare Bureau), and "(Kinderbeihilfe)" had a purpose from that time. At the time, in advanced European countries other than Germany, labor movements and feminists were often against the child allowance system designed based on the contributions of employers, capitalists, and were behind in introducing the system.[2]. Since the 1950s, the declining birthrate and aging of the population have become more prominent in developed countries, and financial support for the upbringing of children helps stabilize the lives of families with children, encourages childbirth and raising children, and Child allowance systems have been put in place in each country with the aim of promoting the healthy growth of the child. As a result, European countries have established allowance systems for families raising children.The United States of AmericaThen the introduction did not proceed.

On the other hand, Japan has been encouraged to proliferate in order to strengthen its national power since prewar days, and although workers also responded to the idea of ​​collecting principal contributions from employees themselves, regarding child allowances from corporate contributions to other countries. Did not have the vigilance of the union[3]However, the Child Allowance Act was enacted on May 1971, 5 due to the fact that it was under strong influence of the United States, which was not introduced, and due to financial constraints. However, when interest in population growth policies diminished in Japan after the rapid economic growth, the institution was shrunk, and it was argued that the idea of ​​the social burden of child support in Japan is not familiar. There are many seniority-type wages that include family allowances in employees' wages, tax deductions for dependents, and corporate contributions for employees, whereas non-employees are fully covered by public funds. Since it is hard to say that it is fair and appropriate, the Financial System Council and the Ministry of Finance began demanding a review including the abolition of the child allowance system and strengthening of income restrictions in 27, just four years after its introduction.[4]. At the time of the Cabinet decision on "Promotion of administrative reform" in 1977, Japan once decided to reduce or abolish the child allowance, and in 1978, the deferment of income restrictions was left unchanged and the cumulative increase in the amount of government bonds became a problem. In December 1979, the Second Special Committee of the Financial System Council proposed a fundamental review of the child allowance system in the “Report on rationalization of expenditure”.[5]

As an extension of this flow2001May 11Although newspapers reported that the government plans to abolish the child allowance system three years later, the plan to abolish it was announced, but gradually the industrial shrinkage due to the rapid progress of the declining birthrate and aging population became apparent, and half a century later. When the revival of the previous policy of promoting prolific birth began to be screamed, it was decided to maintain the system after the system was abolished. From 3 to 2010, due to time-limited legislationChild allowance systemHas included this allowance, but since 2012 it has been paid again under the name of child allowance. From 2015Child, child care support methodIt has come to be positioned as a cash benefit for children based on.

System of each country

アイルランド
It is paid monthly to all children under the age of 16, and if the child under the age of 18 is receiving full-time education or full-time training, or if he / she has a disability and cannot work. Will be provided.140 euros per person (tax exempt), 1.5 times more for twins and 2 times more for multiple births[6].
Number of childrenMonthly (2021)
1€ 140
2€ 280
3€ 420
4€ 560
5€ 700
6€ 840
7€ 980
8€ 1120
America
There is no child allowance system,Child tax deductionTakes the form of tax credits.A $ 17 tax credit will be awarded per eligible child (children under the age of 1 and other requirements).
The United Kingdom
For children under 16 years old, paid up to 20 years old during education and vocational training[7]..If a person with an income of more than £ 50,000 receives a children's allowance, the child allowance tax will be effectively reduced, and if the income exceeds £ 60,000, the actual amount will be reduced to zero.[8]..Also, apart from the children's allowanceChild tax deductionAnd is now integrated with other tax credits and benefits schemes(English edition)Is in the process of transitioning to.
Number of childrenWeekly (2021)
First child£21.05
After 2 child£13.95
Australia
$ 5,294 under the name Baby Bonus when a child is born[Source required].
カナダ
児童手当は17歳以下の子どもが対象であり、6歳未満の子ども1人当たり563.75カナダドル(月額)、6~17歳の子ども1人当たり475.66カナダドル(月額)が支給される(2021年1月現在)。所得が31,711カナダドルを上回る場合、減額される。減額率は子どもの数によって異なる[9][10]..Separately, the state government may have a tax credit system with benefits.
Number of childrenReduction rate according to household income (January 2021)
Less than $ 31,711 Canadian dollarsMore than $ 31,711 CAD 68,708 Less than CADOver 68,708 Canadian dollars
1Under 6 years old $ 6,765 CAD
6-17 years old C $ 5,708
(Per capita / annual amount)
7% reduction in excess3.2% reduction in excess
213.5% reduction in excess5.7% reduction in excess
319% reduction in excess8% reduction in excess
South Korea
Children's allowance is for children under 7 years old and is paid 10 won per month.[11][12].
スウェーデン
Children's allowance is for children under 16 years of age. Children over the age of 16 will also receive an extended children's allowance up to the age of 18 if they attend a school equivalent to compulsory education.Multi-child addition is applied when the number of children increases[13].
Number of childrenChildren's allowanceMulti-child addition amounttotal amount
11,250 SEK0 SEK1,250 SEK
22,500 SEK150 SEK2,650 SEK
33,750 SEK730 SEK4,480 SEK
44,000 SEK1740 SEK6,740 SEK
Germany
For children under the age of 18, if they are under the age of 25 during education and vocational training, under the age of 21 if they are unemployed, or if they have difficulty working by the time they are under the age of 25. Will be indefinite.You can receive a cash benefit as a child allowance or a tax credit as a child allowance (if the child allowance is more advantageous than the child allowance, the child allowance will take precedence and the child allowance will be settled).In case of low income, it will be increased by the child addition system[14].
Number of childrenMonthly (2021)[15]
First child€ 219
First child€ 219
First child€ 225
After 4 child€ 250
ノルウェー
It is provided to children under the age of 18.For single-parent families, there is an additional system[16][17].
Child ageMonthly (September 2020)
Less than 6 age1,354 NOK
Over 6 years of age less than 18 age1,054 NOK
フィンランド
It is paid monthly to children under the age of 17 in Japan (tax exempt).In addition, for single-parent families, an additional € 1 per child[18].
Number of childrenMonthly (2021)
First child€ 94.88
First child€ 104.84
First child€ 133.79
First child€ 163.24
After 5 child€ 182.69
France
Family allowances are paid to households that support two or more children under the age of 20 (in principle, they are not paid if there is one child. However, the system is different from the family allowance, "Infant acceptance". "Allowance" and "New grade allowance" are paid even for one child). Payment will be added to children over 2 years old. For children over 1 years old, a fixed amount up to 1 years old (full amount 14 euros as of January 20)[19]) Will be provided. Income restrictions have been set since July 2015, and if you exceed a certain income, the amount of benefits will be halved or quadrupled.[20].
Number of childrenMonthly (September 2020)
Annual income of € 69,309 or lessAnnual income over € 69,309 and under € 92,381Annual income over € 92,381
2€ 131.55€ 65.78€ 32.89
3€ 300.10€ 150.05€ 75.03
4€ 468.66€ 234.33€ 117.16
Addition to children over 14 years old€ 65.78€ 32.89€ 16.45


Japanese system

Child allowance in JapanMeans testbyPublic assistanceClassified intoChild Allowance Act(昭和46年法律第73号)が制定され、1972年度以降支給されている。額の改定や対象となる児童の年齢については数年ごとに改正され、子ども手当制度を経て、2012年からは、中学生(15歳になって最初の3月31日までの者)以下を対象に月1万5千円又は1万円が支給されている。Three-party agreementFrom fiscal 3, due to the enactment of three laws related to children and child-rearing based onChild, child care support methodIt came to be positioned as a cash benefit for children based on the above, and provisions such as financial resources were transferred to the Child and Child-rearing Support Law.

  • Regarding the Child Allowance Law, only the number of articles will be described below.

Purpose/Definition

The Child Allowance Act isChild, child care support method(24 Law No. 65) Article 7 paragraph 1Appropriate implementation of child/child care supportIn order toBasic recognition that parents and other parents have the primary responsibility for raising childrenBelow, by paying a child allowance to those who are raising children,Stability of life at homeAnd contribute to the next generation of societyHealthy growth of childrenThe purpose is to contribute to (Article 1). A person who receives the child allowance must consider the purpose of the child allowance to achieve this purpose and use it in accordance with that purpose (Article 2).

"Child" in the Child Allowance Act18 æ­³Who are between the first 3st March after the date of reachingThose with an address in JapanOr, those who do not have an address in Japan due to study abroad or other reasons specified by Cabinet Office Ordinance (Article 3). In addition, with "facility entrance child",Child Welfare Act(22 Law No. 164)Small-scale residential childcare businessThose who performFoster parentsChildren entrusted to (excluding those entrusted with short-term (within 2 months)),Facilities for the handicapped children,Infant clinicetc,Support facilities for persons with disabilities,Nozomi Garden,First aid facility,Rehabilitation facilityOrWomen's shelter(Hereafter referred to as "facility for the disabled, etc.")

Who receives benefits

Child allowance is paid to the person who corresponds to any of the following (Article 4).Not paid to the children themselves.

  1. Children listed in any of the following (hereinafter referred to as "payment requirement children")CustodyAnd that makes a living with thisFather or mother(This payment requirement relates to childrenMinor guardianIf there is, it will be the guardian of the minor. Hereinafter referred to as "parents". ), andIn JapanAddress(The guardian of the minorCorporationIn this case, it will be the location of the main office. ) Having
    • During the first 15st March after the age of 3Children (excluding those who are admitted to facilities, etc.; hereinafter referred to as "children before the completion of junior high school")
    • Two or more children, including children who have not completed junior high school (excludes children who are admitted to facilities)
  2. Parents who do not have a domicile in Japan live with a child with a payment requirement who maintains their livelihood, and are in custody with the same living income as that of a child (it is difficult to live with the child with a payment requirement). In the case where it is recognized that there is a child, the parent who maintains the livelihood of the child requiring payment shall be designated among those who care for the child requiring payment and make a living with it.) Who have an address in Japan (excluding the parents, etc. of the child subject to the payment requirement. Hereinafter referred to as "parent-designated person")
  3. Persons who are not covered by parents, etc. or designated by parents, or who do not have the same livelihood as those who care for and maintain their livelihood, and who have an address in Japan
  4. A small-scale residential child-rearing business in which facility entrance children (hereinafter referred to as "children before the completion of junior high school") until the first March 15 after the day of reaching the age of 3 are entrusted Performer or foster parent or facility entrance before junior high school completion Children with disabilities who are admitted or hospitalized

Usually, the parents of the child will receive the allowance, but if the parents do not care for the child, the allowance will be paid to the guardian of the minor or those who care for the child on their behalf. If the beneficiary needs to live in Japan and both parents are living abroad due to circumstances such as studying abroad, it is necessary to live together regarding which of the parents is to receive the child allowance. If there is a person who has the same living preference, the person who has a high degree of maintaining the livelihood of the child will be the recipient, if not decided.

Child welfare facilityFor children enrolled in or entrusted to a foster parent, the director of the facility or the foster parent will receive medical treatment. In this case, there are no income restrictions.

If the person receiving the child allowance dies before receiving the child allowance, the child himself/herself can receive the allowance (Article 12).

Amount of allowance

The amount of child allowance is determined by the number of children and the age of each recipient (Article 6). Children¥3/month if you are under 15,000 years old,10,000 yen for junior high school students, 3 years old and younger than elementary school age, 3 yen per month will be paid for the 15,000rd child and above, and 1 yen for the 2st and 10,000nd child. For children admitted to the facility, regardless of the number of children, the monthly fee is 3 yen for children under the age of 15,000, and 3 yen for children over the age of 10,000. In the calculation, children who have passed the first day of March 15 after the age of 3 will be counted as 31 yen.

Example (when paid to parents, etc.)
Child ageOrderAllowance (monthly)Remarks
2 æ­³first person15,000 YenLess than 3 age
Total15,000 Yen
Child ageOrderAllowance (monthly)Remarks
10 æ­³first person10,000 Yen3 years old or older and elementary school student or younger
Total10,000 Yen
Child ageOrderAllowance (monthly)Remarks
8 æ­³first person10,000 Yen3 years old or older and elementary school student or younger
1 æ­³Second person15,000 YenLess than 3 age
Total25,000 Yen
Child ageOrderAllowance (monthly)Remarks
16 æ­³first person0 YenThe first 15st March after the date of reaching the age of 3
14 æ­³Second person10,000 YenMiddle school students
7 æ­³Trio15,000 Yen3 yen because it is the third person and later
Total25,000 Yen
Child ageOrderAllowance (monthly)Remarks
17 æ­³first person0 YenThe first 15st March after the date of reaching the age of 3
16 æ­³Second person0 YenThe first 15st March after the date of reaching the age of 3
14 æ­³Trio10,000 YenIt is the third person, but since it is a junior high school student 3 yen
10 æ­³Quadruple15,000 Yen3 yen because it is the third person and later
Total25,000 Yen
Child ageOrderAllowance (monthly)Remarks
19 æ­³-0 YenSince the end of the 18-year-old has passed, it is not a "child"
16 æ­³first person0 YenThe first 15st March after the date of reaching the age of 3
8 æ­³Second person10,000 Yen
4 æ­³Trio15,000 Yen3 yen because it is the third person and later
Total25,000 Yen

Exceptional benefits

For the time being, 1 yen will be paid per child before the end of junior high school for those who are not paid child allowances due to the provisions of income restrictions (see below) (Article 5,000 of the Supplementary Provisions).

Payment of allowance

The child allowance is provided from the month following the request by the person who intends to receive the allowance, and the payment is started from the month following the request (Article 7). Children may live in different municipalities.Birth registration,Transference notification such asResident card,Family registerIt is not paid only by the above procedure, and it is necessary to perform separate procedures for child allowance. Those who are going to receive a child allowanceCivil servantIn the case of, each invoices to the affiliation (Article 17).

When the payment is decided as a result of the request, the mayor pays the amount calculated by the above-mentioned method for each of the four months up to the previous month in February, June, and October each year (Article 2). Payment is generally designated by the recipientFinancial institutionHowever, depending on the municipality, it will be handed over directly at the window. In addition to notification when the number of children has increased or decreased, once a year (usually June) to check the child's childcare status and previous year's incomeStatus reportMust be submitted (Article 26). If you do not submit a notification of the current status without a valid reason, you can suspend payment of child allowance (Article 11).

finance

As a general rule, the cost of the benefit will be borne by the country: prefecture: municipality = 4:1:1 and the contribution from the general employer will be added. Whether it is an employee ・The classification of civil servants depends on the classification as of June 6 every year (Article 1, paragraph 18).

Benefit rate share (Article 18)
CountryPrefectures市町村Business owner contribution
  • The person is an employee and the child is under 3 years old
16/454/454/457/15
  • The person is not the employee
  • The person is an employee and the child is 3 years old or older
  • Exceptional benefits for persons who are not civil servants[21]
2/31/61/6N/A
  • Civil servants (including special benefits)
Each affiliation bears full cost
  • The national treasury isbudgetWithin the scope of, the expenses required for the execution of office work related to the child allowance (excluding the costs necessary for processing the office work for the child allowance provided by the mayor) shall be borne (Article 18, paragraph 5).
  • The government will issue the amount specified in the above table to the municipalities out of the expenses required to pay the child allowance provided by the mayor (Article 19).
  • In addition, the government must pay the child allowance for employees (Limited to the portion related to the amount of child allowance for children under 3 years old.. ), Operating expenses for daycare centers that provide childcare for children under 3 years old,Local child / child-rearing support projectOf which extended childcare business,After-school child healthy upbringing business,Sick child childcare businessFrom general business owners to cover the costs required for work / child-rearing balance support business (company-led childcare business, company-led babysitter user support business)Contribution(Child / Child-rearing Contribution, Former Child Allowance Contribution) will be collected (Article 69 of the Child / Child-rearing Support Law).Requesting the employer's burden on children's allowances, etc. is based on the idea that the cost of raising children will be borne by society as a whole under the Child and Child-rearing Support Law.

Income restriction

Maximum income limit (Unit: 2012 yen since June 6)[22]
Number of dependents, etc.Income amountAmount of income
0622833.3
1660875.6
2698917.8
3736960.0
47741002.1
58121042.1

The amount of income is the sum of income and deductions such as salary income. The actual application is based on the income amount, not the income amount.

Eligibility restrictions based on the recipient's income (Means test), and theIncome tax lawIf the income on December 40 of the previous year (Act No. 33 of 12) is above a certain amount, child allowance will not be paid (Article 31). However, if the beneficiary is a juvenile guardian, income restrictions are not imposed.

Income limits are determined by the income of one recipient (usually a father or mother) and do not add up the income of two parents. If parents with high income are subject to income restrictions, those with high income are treated as recipients and special benefits are paid.

According to the tax law, the number of dependents, etc.Spousal deductionWith the target personExemption for dependentsThe number of eligible persons (excluding dependent relatives, children such as those who are institutional facilities, only 16 years old or older), and the number of children who are not dependent relatives, etc. who have maintained their livelihood on December 12 of the previous year. If the number of dependents, etc. is 31 or more, the maximum amount based on the amount of income is 6 yen per person (1 yen when the dependents are spouses or elderly dependents eligible for deduction for the elderly) The amount you did.

For the calculation of income, the following items shall be added in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of the Child Allowance Law and Article 3 of the Enforcement Ordinance of the Child Allowance Law.

  • Total income amount (interest income, dividend income, real estate income, business income, salary income, transfer income, miscellaneous income, temporary income (all of which are taxable))
  • Retirement income amount (those who filed a final tax return)
  • Forest income amount
  • Business income, etc. pertaining to land, etc. (Local Tax Act Supplementary Provisions Article 33-3 paragraph 5)
  • Long-term transfer income (local tax law supplementary provision Article 34 paragraph 4)
  • Short-term transfer income (local tax law supplementary clause 35, paragraph 5)
  • Miscellaneous income related to futures trading (Local Tax Law Supplementary Provision 35-4, Paragraph 4)
  • Treaty applicable interests, treaty applicable dividends etc.

The transfer income of shares is not listed in Article 3 of the Child Allowance Law Enforcement Ordinance, so the purpose of the legislation is unknown, but even if you file a tax return, it is not included in the income calculation.

Amount deductible from income

When calculating the income limit limit, the following amounts can be deducted from the income amount under the Local Tax Law.

  • Uniform deduction (equivalent amount of social insurance, etc.) 80,000 yen
  • Ordinary disability deduction 270,000 yen
  • Widow (husband) deduction 270,000 yen
  • Labor student deduction 270,000 yen
  • Special disabled person deduction 400,000 yen
  • Widow special deduction 350,000 yen
  • Miscellaneous losses, medical expenses, small business mutual aid deductions, etc. Actual amount equivalent to each deduction amount

Collection of school meal expenses, etc. by the application of eligible persons

The mayor of the municipality must pay the child allowance in whole or in part before the child allowance is paid.School lunchIf, in addition to the expenses specified by the Cabinet Office Ordinance, the amount to be paid for the pre-middle school child of the eligible person concerned is paid, the amount of the child allowance shall be included in the applicable amount. This part is related to the costReceivableCan be paid to those who have (Article 21 paragraph 2). When this payment is received, it is considered that the child allowance (limited to the part related to the application in the same paragraph) has been paid to the eligible person (Article 21, paragraph 3).

Changes in Japan

With the establishment and development of child allowance systems in foreign countries,社会 保障In building the systempension,Health insuranceThe claim that a child allowance system should be established in the same way as in 30s has been made since 1961. In June 6, the government launched the Child Allowance Subcommittee as a special subcommittee of the Central Child Welfare Council. announced. Among these, the child allowance system was proposed as "a social insurance system," "from the first child," "until the end of compulsory education or until the age of 1964," and "to maintain the minimum living costs of children." After that, after the report of the “Children's Allowance Roundtable” by the Minister of Health and Welfare (1) and the interim report (18) of the Council on Children's Allowance by the Minister of Health and Welfare (1968), the Child Allowance Act was enacted in 1970. , The system will be started from January 1971 of the following year (Okinawa Prefecture has returned to Japan on May 1 of the same year). Initially, when there were three or more children, the third and subsequent children under the age of 1 were paid 5 yen per person per month.

Major revisions to the child allowance system
Revision dateTarget age (UnderlineIs commonly known)Monthly paymentRemarks
19723rd child and younger than 5 years old3,000 YenClarifying that age will be raised in stages
19733rd child and younger than 10 years old3,000 Yen
1974After the third child Before completing compulsory education4,000 Yen
19755,000 Yen
19785,000 yen (6,000 yen)Exceptions to low-income earners (municipal tax income tax exemptors) in parentheses of monthly payment
19795,000 yen (6,500 yen)
19815,000 yen (7,000 yen)
1986Second child-under 2 years old Third child-before compulsory education2,500 yen / 5,000 yenSpecial abolition of income tax exempt persons. Monthly payment is for second child / third child and later
1987Second child-under 2 years Third child-under 4 years
1988From the second child up to 2 yearsPreschool
1991Second child-under 1 years Third child-under 1 years5,000 yen / 10,000 yenMonthly payment is for 1st child, 2nd child / 3rd child and later
1992Second child-under 1 years Third child-under 2 years
19931rd child and younger than 3 years old
2000From the first child up to 1 years old (Preschool)
2004From the first child up to 1 years old (Before completing the third grade of elementary school)
2006From the first child up to 1 years old (Before the completion of elementary school)
20073 yen for first and second children under 1 years old
2010From the first child up to 1 years old (Before completing junior high school)13,000 YenChild allowance, no income restrictions
201215,000 yen / 10,000 yenThere are income restrictions. Monthly payment is under 3 years old or after the third childBefore the completion of elementary school / other than that

At the same time as this transition, the amount of income restrictions for those seeking to receive benefits is also changing. Since the beginning of the system, the limit on income has risen along with the increase in average income, but the limit was lowered due to the 1982 Act on Special Reform for Administrative Reforms. After that, the income limit gradually increased with the rise in prices, and was greatly increased in 2001. In addition, as a measure to reduce the declining birthrate, the income limit was further relaxed from April 90 in order to raise the number of people eligible for payment to about 2006% of the total, and after 4 (child allowance) the income limit was removed. However, from 2010, income limits were set again.

Problems of Japanese Child Allowance System

  • If you exceed the income limit by 1 yen, the child allowance will not be paid at all, so even if you have less income than those who have exceeded the income limit a little, you will get more income if you add the child allowance.Income reversal phenomenonIs happening. Furthermore, if the deductions for dependents described below are taken into consideration, those with a high income (people with a high income tax rate) will be more benefited than those who have slightly exceeded the income limit, and those who have just exceeded the income limit will be the most beneficial. It is a system that you can't take part in.
  • It has been pointed out that the child allowance system in Japan is insufficient compared to other countries. for that reason,Democratic PartyWill pay the children until the end of junior high school, and raise the amount of payment to a level that can cover the food and clothing costs of children, and the monthly fee will be 26,000 yen.Child allowanceWas insisted on the founding of[23].
  • As financial support for the existence of childrenExemption for dependentsIt is also pointed out that the relationship with The child allowance and the dependent deduction both have the same purpose in that they provide financial support to families with a family, but the child allowance does not benefit high-income earners (beyond the income limit) Is less beneficial for low-income people (such as tax exemptors). From the standpoint of support for low-income earners, child allowances should be expanded rather than dependent deductions.Spousal deductionAgainst the tax increase due to the abolition, the abolition of many support budgets and emergency measures such as employment, medical care, and nursing care that were abolished in the supplementary budget for fiscal 2009, and the increase of government bonds and the burden on local governments. Is also bigOECDPointed out that childcare facilities should be improved rather than child allowances. One of the challenges of the government's declining birthrate is how to distribute these to provide support to families raising children.
  • It was not paid to children without parents living in an orphanage,[24], The child allowance was also taken over, and the 2011 amendment made it possible to provide and fund the benefits.

Payment to children of foreign residents in Japan

  • Payments are also permitted to foreign children living in Japan. For example, a foreigner forges a birth certificate overseas and applies for the child of another person as a real child and illegally receives it, or a Japanese child of a foreign man and woman makes a child acquire Japanese nationality, There is a technique such as leaving the child abroad to receive a child allowance in order to escape the.
  • Payment to children who are not Japanese nationals left by foreigners residing in Japan[25], Children's allowance was still the problem, but it was not paid due to the legal revision in 2011.

The following is an example of an illegal fraud received by a foreigner.

  • In June 2006, a Chinese woman with an unspecified address suspected that she applied for a child of an acquaintance of Chinese nationality as a real child to Kobe City and received a childbirth and child care lump sum of 6 yen and a child allowance of 30 yen for 11 months. Was arrested.[26]
  • In 2010, a Japanese man and a Chinese woman were arrested for reporting a Chinese male and female child as an illegitimate child with a Japanese with false recognition, exploiting a childbirth and child care lump sum of 35 yen and a child allowance of 6 yen per year. It was The child had left China.[27]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Child Allowance System", Central Child Welfare Council, Child Allowance Section Interim Report, 1964
  2. ^ http://oohara.mt.tama.hosei.ac.jp/oz/524/524-2.pdf
  3. ^ http://oohara.mt.tama.hosei.ac.jp/oz/524/524-2.pdf
  4. ^ [Special Feature] Social Security in Japan: Trends and Present (2) Development and Transformation of Japan's Child Allowance System (524) Restricted Development, Akemi Kita, Ohara Institute of Social Problems No.2002.7/XNUMX
  5. ^ Ministry of Health and Welfare, Children's and Family Bureau, "1978 Years of Child Welfare," Published by Japan Children's Research Committee, XNUMX
  6. ^ Child Benefit-Citizens Information
  7. ^ Claim Child Benefit: Eligibility --GOV.UK
  8. ^ Claim Child Benefit: What you'll get --GOV.UK
  9. ^ 2018 Overseas Situation Report Chapter 2 Section 1 Canada (2) Social Security Measures
  10. ^ How much can you get --Canada child benefit (CCB) --Canada.ca
  11. ^ Natsuto Fujiwara "[Korea] Enactment of Child Allowance Law" "Foreign Legislation" No.276-2 (August 2018.8)
  12. ^ 아동수당 | 정책 위키-한눈 에 보는 정책 | 기획 & 특집 | 대한 민국 정책 브리핑
  13. ^ 2019 Overseas Situation Report Chapter 3 Section 3 Kingdom of Sweden (2) Social Security Measures
  14. ^ 2019 Overseas Situation Report Chapter 3 Section 2 Federal Republic of Germany (2) Social Security Measures
  15. ^ Kindergeld: Anspruch, Höhe, Dauer --Bundesagentur für Arbeit
  16. ^ Child benefit --nav.no
  17. ^ Barnetrygd --nav.no
  18. ^ Amount and payment of the child benefit --Kela
  19. ^ Les allocations familiales (Af) --caf.fr
  20. ^ 2019 Overseas Situation Report Chapter 3 Section 1 France (2) Social Security Measures
  21. ^ Supplementary Provisions Article 2 Paragraph 3
  22. ^ Child allowance income limit limit table Cabinet Office (PDF)
  23. ^ Democratic Party Policy Collection INDEX2009 Children and Gender Equality
  24. ^ "One question one answer about child allowance" (Press Release), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, https://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kodomo/osirase/100407-1.html 
  25. ^ "One question one answer about child allowance" (Press Release), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, https://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kodomo/osirase/100407-1.html 
  26. ^ Falsification of childbirth fraudulently sent Chinese woman to prosecution Kobe Kobe newspaper 8/28 14:59
  27. ^ "Disguised Birth" Tip of the Iceberg Most Chinese are Children Departing Tokyo Shimbun February 2012, 2 Evening

References

  • Children's Allowance System Study Group, "Commentary on the Third Edition Child Allowance Act," published by Chuo Law, 2004 (ISBN-4 8058-4557-0)
  • Children's Allowance System Study Group "All revisions to the Children's Allowance Law-Explanation of the Child Allowance Law Amendment Articles / Old and New Control Articles", Central Law Publishing, 2000 (ISBN-4 8058-4276-8)

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