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leisure

leisure(British: leisure[† 1]) Is "Leisure timeOr "free time", which is necessary to maintain the minimum life.Meal-excretion-SleepEtc., necessary for maintaining the life of the familywork,HouseworkRefers to the time excluding. As usage,HobbiesActive leisure when it is used for consumer activities, and passive leisure when it is used for rest. Speaking of leisure simply in Japan, often refers to the former, but outside Japan often includes both.

English "Leisure"

LinguisticsTypicallyLatinLicēre "forgiven" or "free" is ancientFrenchLeisir,Norman FrenchThrough leisour14st century OfMedieval englishIs used for.

Leisure in English is the time of non-compulsory activities.employment,management, Household chores,EducationBe free from restraint activities such as meals and sleeping. Other than the activities that are essential for living. This is almost synonymous with free time. The boundary between leisure and compulsory activities is not strict, and even compulsory activities may be fun or profitable in the long run.

Occurrence of the concept of leisure (UK)

The concept of modern leisure and leisure time is from the 19th centuryIndustrial revolutionIt is thought that it happened to.machineBecame more efficient, and the average worker was saved by over 20 hours a week. Along with that, non-compulsory diversions, such as non-compulsory off-hours,SportsEventsI started to do theater and the like.

Leisure type

Leisure is said to have active and passive leisure, but there is no clear distinction due to problems such as degree. Whether it is positive or negative depends on the subjective and social views rather than the proficiency and difficulty. Movies, reading books, and games with little exercise amount have different levels of proficiency, but are socially considered to be passive leisure, while tennis, golf, outdoor, etc. are considered active leisure regardless of their proficiency level.

Active leisure (Active leisure)
Hope for yourselfEnergyConsume. As an exampleWalking,yoga,KickboxingSuch. Active leisureレ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ンAnd it overlaps in a considerable part.
Passive leisure (passive leisure)
Recovers the energy consumed. The simple thing is to relax or do nothing. For example, movies and reading,gamblingetc.

Capitalism and socialism in leisure

Active leisure activities are perceived positively in a capitalist society. Many active leisure activities require time and money. For this reason, there are many things that cannot be done with poverty.資本主義The richer the larger in societystatusSeen as Even the passive leisure type of "do nothing" takes time and money if it is an environment of vacation, so it can be regarded positively from the viewpoint of capitalist society.

On the other hand, in a capitalist society, people who "do nothing" at home "do nothing" regardless of their property.怠惰Is considered to be. Even if the rich people lie in the pool and do nothing, it is still considered "lazy" if it is at home. However, the status level evaluation of activities is different from this, and it depends on how much money individuals can spend, "doing nothing in their own pool" has a high status, and "at hometv setIt is generally appreciated that'seeing' is not.

"workaholicWorkaholic』These are people who are bound by other activities that are not in their free time and prefer to work rather than leisure activities. This is often thought to be inevitable for a high position in a company. However, an increasing number of people are conscious of not having too much after being pointed out that the inability to balance work and family has side effects.

In socialist countries, activities that did not contribute to society were seen negatively. But socialism also comes in many forms, and according to Marcus Barhuew of the University of Kent State, some Americans believed in leisure socialism in the 60s and 70s. Believing that we live in a prosperous world, that is, if everyone is happy with a small piece, everyoneneedsIs satisfied. If everyone meets the basic needs, many in societyMysticismYou can use your free time for leisure activities, such as exercise, and various hobbies.

Another free time

In English, another term equivalent to leisure time is spare-time. leisure isFranceOrigin. What came from France came from FranceNormanBrought in英国The dominant class term in, in other words, the term that was popularized in Britain as an official term. this isJapaneseIf you sayChugokuTaken from漢字Reading aloudIt can be said that it is considerable. On the other hand, spare-timeBritain islandLived inCeltic,Germanic systemAnglo people,SaxonLike those who had migrated from the continent before the Normans) are those of the people, and can be said to be the words of those people who became common people in the Norman period. In Japanese orReadingIt can be said that it is considerable. When leisure is leisure time and spare-time is translated as leisure time, both meanings are originally free time, but leisure time is planned to be meaningful, while leisure time is , Even in my spare time, I have a nuance of time that makes me wonder what I should do. This is because the word leisure is often used in the official context, and in the public it is often presented as something constructive and creative. Japanese words in the middle are "rest" and "rest time". In Japanese, "rest" and "rest time" have the same nuance as the original meaning of leisure.

Leisure in Japan

In the first place, this English definition is equivalent to the meaning of leisure, since English leisure is translated as leisure. For more information about leisureLeisure timeSee.

If Britain's leisure was triggered by the Industrial Revolution, it would be a period of high economic growth for Japanese leisure. Plans were devised to foster the leisure activities of the people from the early days of industrial promotion. AndOil shockAfterShowa48 years (1973),

Leisure Development CenterThe leisure definition in "Social Positioning of Industrial Activities in the Leisure Era" is "to refer to all activities supported by discretion among various human daily activities", and is based on daily life activities (eating, eating,HealthLess than half of wearing, living, working), life-creating activities (playing, learning, knowing, getting along), less than half of work-related activities (working), financial living activities (paying, preparing, storing), It is said that less than half of the rentals are leisure activities in a broad sense with discretionary elements.

In addition, in the report “Consumer protection regarding services” of the 4th National Life Council,ServicesAmong them, leisure services are the top choice. (Others are transportation services, financial services, insurance services, medical services, environmental health services)

"If we divide human cousin into living time, we will have physiological required time, working time, and free time," and we are proceeding with the theory that activities in this free time correspond to leisure. (Part 2 Consumer Protection Measures by Industry, Chapter 1 Leisure Services) Leisure has the same definition as leisure in English, but in the preceding stage, a more positive position is presented, and In the field of serviceConsumer protectionIdeal way of measures Chapter 2 In the direction of priority issues and measures in each industry, "Leisure itself is proactive in human life, excluding the conventional thought that it is only the rest of working hours etc. It is necessary to establish a national recognition that it is meaningful free time. On top of that, if policies are not actively developed, for example, expansion of free time, improvement of physical and human environment for leisure, prevention of destruction of leisure environment, establishment of comprehensive coordination mechanism for leisure policy, etc. It won't. ], and expresses the idea that this is the basis of the policy.

In this 1973th year of 4, "leisure has become an important element that regulates the way of life" "leisure has become an important field for the enhancement of national welfare" "leisure in the age of high welfare Has become an indispensable factor for human beings to live a human-like life, not just to fulfill their economic sufficiency but to live a rich life both physically and mentally.” Leisure here can be replaced with "How to use your free time."

In addition, from the viewpoint that consumers can enjoy rich leisure only after providing appropriate leisure services, the consumer protection of leisure services provided by businesses and related public services From the viewpoint of, it is necessary to take the following measures. ]

It is important to note here that the number of people who are focusing on the latter is increasing by dividing it into "distraction leisure" that seeks to ease mental tension and "creative leisure" that seeks to improve oneself. There is.

Looking at the importance of leisure purposes according to a survey conducted by the National Life Center, "resting the body and mind" followed by "obtaining various knowledge and information", "touching unknown things and creating new things to enrich the mind" The item of "improve humanity" is at the top.

In addition to the basic factors, there are two factors that stimulate interest in leisure and increase demand, namely time and income.

Changes in lifestyle values, increased free time, and improved income levels

UrbanizationSudden changes in the social environment due to factors such asMass mediaOf values ​​based on changes in information conditions due to the development of information

However, the commonly used leisure time and leisure time have come to have different meanings from the impressions resulting from the difference in the expression of Kanji and Katakana.

Leisure refers to free time, but leisure has come to mean "something active during leisure time." (See Leisure Types) Typical expressions are "go to leisure" and "do leisure". This transcends the concept of free time, and is used in free time (playing), "traveling", and in some cases more specific terms such as "drive", "camping" and "riding". It is a replacement expression. In addition, the verbs used with leisure often represent actions such as “go” and “do” because it is free time when the leisure is active. It often costs money to do something. In Japan, the term "leisure industry" was promoted by the public and private sectors as a part of industrial promotion, and many people are aware that leisure requires money.

In addition,KatakanaIn some cases, the word leisure itself is used in conjunction with the word "fashionable sound" to mean "performing a popular activity" or "doing something people want to do after they want it". is there.

Waseda UniversityAccording to Dr. Yamaguchi, “The concept of leisure that each person recognizes is not always the same. There are differences in the perception among researchers, experts, and related parties. "Tourism"Or"Resort, Etc. may be used with the same meaning. ].

Boat racing(Boat race) is called leisure, and a copy of "modern leisure sports" is used in the advertisement of the race guide, and a channel dedicated to boat racing isLeisure channelIt is operated under the name.

Mats and sheets laid on the ground, which are used for vacations (such as cherry blossom viewing, camping, and watching fireworks) are sold as "leisure sheets" or "leisure mats."

Leisure, Recreation and Hobbies (Hobby)

Japanese"Leisure time"Includes both meanings as the English meanings above. However, "leisure" used as Japanese is often used to mean English active leisure.

Although English active leisure is almost synonymous with English recreation, recreation used as Japanese isworkplace,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularorク ラ ブ,ClubThe organization to which you belongentertainmentIt often meant activity. In a sense, group recreation that is performed as part of the restraint time (broadly defined restraint time) that is not completely free timeSocialismIt can be said that it has the side of intellectual leisure. However, in recent years, the number of cases where leisure and recreation are treated as having a similar meaning is increasing even in Japanese.

HobbiesAnd "is fun for self-recovery in leisure time. Habits for interest and enjoyment, not monetary rewards." It is a part of leisure time and close to leisure (active leisure), but if it is "habitual", it is a hobby.

Major leisure

In the "Satisfaction Survey Report on Leisure Activities" published by the National Life Center in 1972,TokyoMajor leisure activities are listed as a survey of residents in the 23 wards. Watch TV,News (Chinese)Read, talk with family, read books,Eating out-Shopping,movies・See, etc., enjoy conversation with friends and acquaintances for more than one night,Sea bathingAndradioListen toSports,博物馆-Museum-Animal and botanical gardenGo to,Listening to Music,drive,walk-parkSpend in,Watching sports,Handicraft-Do-it-yourself-Gardening,Go-Shogi-Mahjong-Card games,Musical instrument-A painting-calligraphy-写真,pachinko-Pachislot,tea ceremony-flower arrangement-Western style,Climbing-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Pet,concert,bar-cabaret,gymnastics-Beauty,Catch ball,Qualifications/LicensesFor acquisitionLearning,fishing,gambling,Community service,Traveling,stamp-coinEtc. collection.

Assessment and definition of leisure

There are many opinions about how to spend leisure time, and the definition of leisure and leisure may seem different. This is often defined as a view of the content of leisure with a certain direction vector. It exists as much as the way of life, that is, the definition of life. However, among the various claims, some claim the same direction. This reflects that many of the same ways of life are oriented during the times. First, leisure is the free time of an individual, and each individual determines the contents of that free time. On the other hand, each person's view of life appears, including the utilization of leisure time or not utilizing leisure time. Therefore, leisure categorization (Sort) Also varies depending on the side to be cut out. Below is an example of using leisure in a commonly used context.

  • Leisure facilities Entertainment facilities
  • Travel/Leisure Travel and related activities
  • Leisure Guide Outing Guide
  • Leisure/Sports Sports but sports for fun (mostly with friends, sometimes alone) as a competition
  • Tourism and leisure Tourism and excursions
  • Outdoor/Leisure Outdoor play
  • Hobby and leisure Hobbies and entertainment
  • Hobbies/Leisure Same as above
  • Reading is also a leisure, but generally not used much

Leisure white paperThen, I have compiled an annual survey on the current state of Japanese leisure activities. We consider working hours, household income expenditure, leisure time and leisure expenditure as macroscopic variables. Specifically, we are investigating people's participation and actual activities for 4 types of leisure activities in four categories of “sports”, “hobbies/creatives”, “entertainment”, and “tourism/tourism”. The top 91 activities areEating out(Excluding everyday items),Domestic tourism,drive,karaoke,videoAppreciation,Lottery,computer,movies,Listening to Music,Zoo(IncludingBotanical garden,aquarium,博物馆),Gardening(Gardening),bar(snack,Pub,bar),Bowling,amusement park,gymnastics,picnic(IncludingEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Outdoor walk),ボ ー ド ゲ ー ム-Card games,Video games,jogging-marathon,concertIt has become.

In the white paper, the four typical categories of the leisure industry are given as the recent representative contents of each category.

It can be understood from this that these are almost similar to the survey of consumption trends and that the industry is focusing on free time. Not included here are daily necessities-related and learning-related matters. We are investigating the trends in industry and market.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ British Englishpronunciation:[ˈLeʒə(r)] LesJa,American Englishpronunciation:[ˈLiːʒər] ReCharger

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