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▽ About XP-PEN
XP-PEN is an internationally renowned brand specializing in the manufacture, R & D and sales of pen tablets, pen displays and stylus pens.
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
In the old days,Digitizer (digitizer) is the prototype of this pen tablet.Digitizer is dedicatedpointing deviceIt is a general term for devices that input figures, etc. by combining (not limited to pen type) and plate-shaped devices.The digitizer is a device for inputting high-precision coordinates such as figures, and the pen tablet was initially released as a low-precision, low-priced version that facilitated operation.
To a similar pointing deviceLight penHowever, this is different from digitizers, pen tablets, etc. in principle because the position is detected using the light (bright spot) on the display screen.
There are other pen-shaped devices for inputting 3D information (Phantom). etc.A kind of).
Operate your computer with a pen-shaped device (Pen computing), An old-fashioned idea, Stylator (stylus translator) by Tom Dimond in the late 1950s.  Is mentioned.Then, in the 1960sWas produced.
after thatPersonal computer (PC) orWork stationFrom the 1970s to the 1980s, Summagraphics' "BitPad" was entering the era ofCADWidely used in.thisAppleAdopted by the company on an OEM basisApple IIReleased in 1979 as "Apple Graphics Tablet" for.This will be the earliest consumer pen tablet.And the world's first pen tablet color that came with thisGraphic softwareThe author of "Utopia Graphics System" is a musicianTodd Rundgren.
The Koala Pad released in 1980 was widely used as a consumer pen tablet in the early 1983s.Initially released for the Apple II, it was later released for other PCs.There are several other competing products,AtariThe company also sells genuine pen tablets.
In 1983Electromagnetic inductionAs a company researching method pen tabletsWacomThe company was established in Japan, and in 1984, the world's first cordless pen tablet "WT series" was released as the first product.Previous pen tablets required a cord to supply power to the pen, but Wacom's pen tablet adopted an electromagnetic induction method, and the pen did not require a cord. In the mid-1980s, it expanded globally, mainly in Europe, and gained a large share of the world.As of 2013, the global market share is 80% and the domestic market share is 92.3%.[Source required]Since then, it has almost monopolized the pen tablet market for decades.Due to the fact that related patents have been applied for the electromagnetic induction method even in the 2010s, it is unlikely that competing products will appear in the future.
The pen tablet is a plate-shaped main body that positions the position of a dedicated electronic pen or other pen-shaped object.TabletIt is a device that reads information from a sensor built into the computer and sends information on its position or movement to the computer itself.
Usually as a user interface devicepointing deviceClassified as computerdisplayupperPointerUsed to operate.Usually, by mapping the coordinates on the tablet to the coordinates on the display, the absolute coordinates on the screen can be directly input.
The ancestor of the pen tablet is the digitizer (Now[When?] The British: graphics tablet (It is called), which is a device for absolute coordinate input mainly used for CAD (note that a pen tablet is also included in the graphics tablet).
former[which one?]Compared to the latter, it is difficult to detect the position of the pen, and it is only necessary to recognize it by the size of the square in which the characters are written.[which one?]Compared to the above, the required position accuracy differs by more than an order of magnitude, which was an issue for realizing each pen tablet.The difference is that pen-touch keyboards usually emulate the keyboard on the peripheral device side.
Besides the pen, it for CAD[which one?]There are also products that can be used with devices for high-precision coordinate input similar to the above, mouse-shaped devices, and erasers (described later).
Comparison with mouse
It is a general pointing devicemouseCompared to, you can operate the pointer intuitively, which is close to hand-drawing, so you can use it on your computer.イ ラ ス ト-A paintingUsed for production.Also, depending on the productペ ン型Input deviceIt has a built-in mechanism that can detect the pen pressure and the tilt of the pen, and can express a delicate and delicate touch in painting production like an actual writing instrument.However, the information detected by the hardwaresoftwareSince it is necessary to process and reflect on the side, the pen pressure and inclination may not be expressed depending on the software used. Corel Painter,Adobe Photoshop,CLIP STUDIO PAINTTypical paint software such as, etc. supports processing of pen pressure information and the like.
Now[When?], Mouse resolution for PC,About 0.006 mm for general products[Source required]However, in reality, the accuracy often drops depending on the angle, etc., and because it is moved with the arm and palm instead of the fingertips, it is difficult to make very detailed movements.Sensory resolution is less than 0.1 mm[Source required]..In that respect, if it is a pen tablet, the pen tip is about 0.1-0.005 mm (resolution varies depending on the product, butrecent years[When?]Then, even an inexpensive product for the masses can be operated in a sensitive manner to the movement of about 0.01 mm).
There are several types of pen-type input devices for pen tablets.There is also an eraser for strange things, and if the software supports it, it will automatically switch to the erasing process.Design andPhoto correctionThere are also handpiece type sprayers used in the above, those equipped with multiple buttons that can set different function calls for each, and products specialized for professional users such as rubber grips.
Some use mouse-like devices that allow the tablet to be used like a normal mouse pad.Not only the position, but also the ability to sense the angle of the mouse and moreボ タ ン,ホ イ ー ルThere are also products equipped with, and products of various sizes and shapes are sold depending on the application.Since the original purpose was to place a piece of paper such as drafting on a large tablet and enter the absolute coordinates of the points, some have a transparent panel with a cross engraved on it.
With pen tabletLiquid crystal displayIntegratedLCD pen tabletThere is also.Since this can be operated as if drawing directly on the display, more intuitive input is possible. 110th receiving stand terminalElectronic medical record, Terminals for presenters such as conferences, terminals for video conferencing systems, terminals for respondents such as quiz programs, etc.
Some are sold separately as additional functions, and some can be easily removed from the stand or fixed at any angle.
In addition to the liquid crystal, it has a plate shape.displayThere are many technologies, and some products combine them with pen tablets (eg).Organic EL-equipped pen tablet), These are not called liquid crystal pen tablets.
Conceptually, with a liquid crystal pen tablet, etc.ComputerIntegrated to make it smaller and more portableTablet computer(Slate PC) Can also be said.further, [When?]The mainstream of tablet computers is that they can be operated with a finger using a capacitive touch panel instead of a pen (operation with a dedicated pen is also possible).
- ^ http://www.geomagic.com/en/products/phantom-premium/overview
- ^ Devices for reading handwritten characters https://doi.org/10.1145/1457720.1457765
Research and Development
Research and Development(Kenkyu,English: Research and development,R & D) Is an activity to obtain a technological advantage by investigating a specific object, researching basic academic fields, searching for applied research according to the purpose, and testing technologies that will develop in the future. ..
in English20st centuryIt is a word that has been used since the beginning of, and there are many organizations, departments, and group names that use the abbreviation of R & D.
Research and development can be broadly divided into pure basic research to know the basic principles and properties, purpose basic research conducted for specific practical purposes, applied research to respond to specific requests, and to introduce new products. Divided into studies. (→#Classification）
In recent years, industry, educational institutions, and public institutions have cooperatedIndustry-academia-government collaborationIs also being held. (→# Industry-academia-government collaboration）
Many of the governmental organizations in Japan, which have research institutes, carry out research and development, play a pilot role in various industries, and collect and transmit information via the Internet.
Research and development can be broadly divided into "pure basic research" for understanding basic principles and properties, "purpose basic research" conducted for specific practical purposes, "applied research" for answering specific requests, It is said that they will be divided into research to introduce new products.
There are also three types of "basic research," "applied research," and "development research."In this case, "basic research" aims at accumulating technology as intellectual assets, and "applied research" aims at business promotion. "Development research" is defined as research that combines technologies developed in applied research..
Since ancient times科学 OfknowledgeTo use as a toolAncient civilizationAlthough it has been recognized since the times, they were not systematic research and development.18st centuryToFrance OfRevolutionary governmentConfrontNational defenseEmbark on R&D as required abovecartridge,Flag signaltelegramHowever, this was not continued. this isModernFor up toEurope,AmericaMany inscientistIt is related to the fact that it was the mainstream for engineers to pursue their own research individually. HoweverGermany OfSiemens,Krupp,ZeissCompanygraduate SchoolAnd employ a large number of researchers for research and development,1870The National Institute of Science and Technology isWeights and measures OfstandardizationPrepared for Research and developmentWorld War IChanges a lot withGermanyFollowed by1915ToThe United KingdomAt Science and Industry Research Agency,1916ToAmericaThe National Research Council was established in.World War IAfter almost allDeveloped country Oflarge companyIs uniquegraduate SchoolAs a result of managing research and development by installingAutomobile,airplane,radioThe technology has developed epoch-making in such fields. AlsoSecond World WarLater, it will be seen that the distinction between the military field and the civil field, which had been the main one until then, becomes ambiguous.Cold WarDuring the period戦 争As a result of conducting research and development, thinking that it is an important matter that can influence the victory or defeat ofMilitary,aviation,Computer,SpaceIn the field of, the technical strength of American industry was greatly improved.
In the 1980sJapanAt the same time, the industry's industrial competitiveness has become conspicuous, and at the same time criticism that "basic research is free ride"JapanWas turned to.. Then in Japan1986Has experienced a reversal phenomenon in which R&D expenses exceed capital investment.Also be treated. (However, when considering both domestic and overseas, the R&D cost/capital investment has not actually reversed and is approaching 1:1.Also be treated. It is also considered that R&D expenses increased in Japan, many basic research institutes were established, and at the same time, self-sufficiency of research increased, inward thinking and closedness became stronger, and technical cooperation decreased.The existence of "NIH syndrome" (Not Invented Here, the tendency not to consider things not found by us) has also been pointed out..
R & D is especially important in the manufacturing industryIt is said that in modern times, companies can avoid price competition and set favorable prices by developing their own technologies and new products through R & D. R & D contributes to sales and profits, and it is said that R & D can give companies growth potential. "Source of growth potential" and "Engine of corporate growth"May be described as.
Each company (especially the manufacturing industry) regards R & D as an important business that is directly linked to the future of the company, and invests in people and equipment with a view to the next few years (more than 10 years depending on the company / field). It is also called.Nowadays, with the development of the Internet, there is an appearance of searching for new research and development centered on Internet companies, and Yahoo !, Rakuten, etc. are establishing research institutes one after another..
In companies, the R & D department is often called by names such as "laboratory," "research center," "development center," and "product development department.".
Since the duties of R&D are atypical, the organizational structure of R&D is a flexible “organic organizational structure”, that is, an organizational structure in which decentralization of authority is progressing without setting strict business rules. Is facingIt is said that bureaucratic organizations are not suitable.
It is said that the result of research and development in a company is usually recognized only when the product is put on the market and the money more than the invested money can be recovered..
Therefore, in research and development in a company, requirements such as "product commercialization", "market acceptance", "product superior to other companies", etc. are required.Also be treated. In other words, if these requirements are not met, we will not be able to commercialize or sell, and we will not be able to recover the investment.It is.
At the R&D stage, the result does not exist as a tangible product and is often in an intangible state, so each company does not imitate other companies by registering patents for discoveries and ideas obtained through R&D. Sometimes protect.
R&D in administration is conducted individually for each administrative department,Local industryThere are examples of subsidizing capital investment for new technological developments that companies and organizations that are operating are trying.
Of an independent administrative agencyNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO) is highly likely to lead to industrializationBasic researchWe are seeking subsidizers to support the project, and NEDO has about 60 research and development items.NEDO open call for participants summary
In the field of educationMinistry of educationIs supervised byR&D schoolWe have set up a new experimental education, changing lifestyles, efforts in cooperation with the actual conditions of the surrounding area, and analyzing and researching information obtained from the research and development school.Learning materials,Education methodIs under development.
In the construction fieldMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs supervised byArchitectural Institute,as well asCivil Engineering Research InstituteThe research institutes, including the ones, research, develop and develop matters that are difficult for private companies, and publicize and provide information on the accumulated results.
To specifically support open innovation,Technical research associationThere is a system in place. The technical research union can enter the research and research expenses of the union as the research and research expenses of the members, and can utilize the R&D promotion tax system, so it is established as a particularly advantageous system for corporate finance. A drastic major amendment was made in the ordinary Diet session in 2009 for the first time in 48 years. In addition to being able to be established by two or more persons (three or more persons so far), a general meeting was no longer necessary, and the organization could be changed to a joint-stock company or a joint-stock company.
Companies are about to marketKnow-howHowever, it is often financially difficult to continue investing in R&D over a long period of time.Educational institution(UniversityEtc.) can carry out research over a long period of time without considering profitability, but they often lack the know-how for marketization and commercialization. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, public institutions will start matching (matching) between companies and educational institutions.CooperationHas become popular..
According to the "Fundamental Survey on University Ventures in 17" by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the number of university-originated venture companies is 1503, and 7% of the companies that supply these venture products and services are companies... As for the breakdown of supply destinations, 57% are large companies and 16% are small and medium-sized venture companies..
R&D as a occupation
In companies, occupations and positions named "R & D" or "R & D" may be set, and R & D is established as one profession.
However, in reality, the R&D department may be expected to have short-term profits, and thus the original meaning cannot always be retained.
- ^ a b c d , "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration"Hidekazu system, February 2006.ISBN 978-4798013978. p.202
- ^ Kiyonori Sakakibara and Masaharu Tsujimoto, June 2003 “Why the R&D Efficiency of Japanese Companies Decreases?” (Cabinet Office, Economic and Social Research Institute Discussion Paper Series) p.6
- ^ Fumio Kodama, Paradigm of High-Tech Technology: System of Macro Technology Chuo-Koronsha, 1991, p.43
- ^ “Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?” p.2.
- ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.4
- ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.13
- ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.16
- ^ Morbey, Reithner 1990, etc.
- ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.6
- ^ http://japan.cnet.com/news/media/story/0,2000056023,20345869-2,00.htm
- ^ http://japan.cnet.com/news/media/story/0,2000056023,20345950,00.htm
- ^ a b "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.204
- ^ a b c d "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.207
- ^ "US and Japan to accelerate economic growth, South Korea to slow"".2018th of February 8Browse.
- ^ "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.208
- ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Survey Report on Growth Support for University-initiated Ventures"
- Technology strategy
- intellectual property
- Death Valley (R&D)
- Research Administrator(RA, URA)
- Technical research association
- Innovation and Institute(Nikkei BP)