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💴 | A woman with an annual household income of 500 million yen “A car is essential because it is in the countryside.


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A woman with an annual household income of 500 million yen "A car is essential because it is in the countryside. This year's car inspection will be a big blow to the household budget."

 
If you write the contents roughly
Different age groups and family structures naturally face different problems.
 

Annual household income of 500 million yen.Even if you say so in a bite, the contents are various.A man in his twenties in Aichi Prefecture is a full-time employee with an annual household income of 20 million yen ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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家族

家族(Family,German: a family,French: family,English: family) Is婚姻Connected byHusband and wife, And the coupleBlood relationshipFormed a unity of related peopleGroupThat is.Marital relationships created by marriage, kinship relationships between parents and children created by "giving birth, being born", kinship relationships that are directly and indirectly connected by blood relationships, etc.Adopted childSmall scale based on human relationships created by adoption etc.communityBut is a family. Moreover, not only blood relations and marital relations but also emotional connections are regarded as the most important due to the current family diversity.

However, even if we say "family" or "family" in a nutshell, there are cases where living together is a requirement of the family, and there are cases where it is not (that is, living together is not a requirement).

Functions of the family are said to include sexuality, reproduction, support, economic production, protection, education, religion, entertainment and social status.[1]. However, these have been weakened and changed significantly with changes in society.[1].

Definition

The words "family" and "family" have several meanings.

The following is an introduction from dictionaries.

Oxford Dictionaries gives three main meanings for the English word "family".

1 lidparentAnd itsChildThose who live together as a unit (one unit)
1.1 People related by blood or marriage
2 commonancestorAll people with
3 Relevant things

In Kojien, the commentary of "family" isMarital statusAnd parents / children / brothersBlood relationshipIt is defined as a small group that is formed on the basis of kinship that is formed by relationships.

At Daijisen,Husband and wifeAnd their blood-related people are the main group, which is a unit of communal living."

Functions of family

Family functions and changes[1]
MessageSocial Outsource,
Current changes
Sexual functionBased on the marriage system, an orderly function that is tolerated within the partner but prohibits sexuality outside itCohabiting, unmarried mother, married
Reproductive functionLeave offspringThe choice of not having children
Dependent functionAbility to care for the elderly and take care of childrenNursing careFacility,Nursery
Economic and productive functionsEconomic production as a common unit such as agriculture and self-employmentEconomical production outside the company or factory
Protection functionProtect members from foreign enemies (especially women, infants, sick people)Police, hospital, etc.
Educational functionRaise children and build a personality adapted to societyKindergarten,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularな ど
Religious functionSuccession of religion, culture and traditionReligion is neglected
Entertainment functionEnjoy entertainment at homeAmusement park, movies, etc.
Social status-giving functionTake over the occupation and status of parentsWeakened hereditary heritage

life cycle

For familylife cycleAnd should be achieved according to the stageDevelopmental taskThere is.

Family life cycle [2]
Developmental stageDevelopmental task
1Young adults who do not belong to any family
  • Separate yourself from your family and establish yourself
  • Have intimate same age and fellowship
  • Professionally establish self
2Birth of a family by marriage
  • Forming a marital relationship
  • Rebuild each other's parents' home, friendships and relationships
3Family with young children
  • For children, the couple creates a psycho-physical space
  • Act as a parent
  • Build an extended family that includes grandparents and grandchildren
4Family with adolescent children
  • Accept children's freedom to enter and leave the home
  • Middle-aged couples overcome marital relationships and life-related challenges
  • Consider the aged generation
5Escape and departure of children
  • Rebuild marital relations
  • Growing children and parents interact with each other as adults
  • Rebuild an extended family that includes children and grandchildren
  • Parents deal with physical and mental disorders and death of grandparents
6Family who live the last years of life
  • Rebuild marital relations in response to social and physical decline
  • Hand over the central role to the middle-aged generation
  • Being a good grandparent to grandchildren by utilizing the wisdom and experience as an elder
  • Respond to the death of a spouse, compatriot, or peer of the same generation

Family type

Classification by form

The family isNuclear FamilyAnd extended family. A nuclear family is a family composed of a married couple alone or their unmarried children.[3].. This includes those who have only one of the couple and the unmarried child. On the other hand, a family consisting of more members is called an extended family, such as a direct family whose parents live together with the family of a child who has a family lineage such as the eldest son, or a complex family where parents and multiple children live together. Is included. This division is limited to monogamy,PolygamyIf it is carried out, it will be classified as a double-married family.

This family form varies according to the times and cultures, and although there are general models within one culture, not all families have the same style. In Japan, the direct family was assumed as a basic family model until before the war, but after World War II, the family moved to the nuclear family. However, not all are nuclear families, and there are direct families and large families.[4].. However, the size of the family tends to shrink as society develops globally, including in Japan.In most countries, the average number of people in a single household was around five in the 19th century, but at the end of the 1th century it advanced. In the country it decreased to around 5[5].. On the other hand, many developing countries have large families even at the end of the 20th century.[6].

Origin group

Families have often been included in groups of similar origin. Depending on whether this parent group emphasizes parents,Paternity,Maternal systemAndDual systemIt is divided into three. In the case of a paternal system, the family belongs to a paternal group and inherits the paternal surname, status, and property. On the other hand, the maternal system traces the origin of the maternal and inheritance is also maternal.[7].. In a maternal society, the power of the father in the family is generally weak and the mother often holds the actual power, but it should be noted that even in the maternal society, women do not hold the actual power of society. is there. In maternal societies, maternal uncle and other maternal men have strong power. It is understood that the maternal society where maternal women hold social power is a fictional concept because the existence of such a thing was once imagined, but the reality was not confirmed.[8].. While the patriarchal system and maternal system belong to either parent's parental source group, the bilateral system allows the family to belong to either group, so in most cases, either group will be selected.[9].

Richter's morbid family

Germany'sPsychiatristHorst Everhard Richter(de: Horst-Eberhard Richter) Is his book “Afflicted Family: Cases and Treatment of Neurosis Related to Family” (Yukakusha) 1976), the patient's family was typified as follows.

  • Theater family-a family who plays a good family like a play
  • Fortress family-A family that sees all but their own as enemies and confirms their bond by opposition
  • Sanatorium family-families licking each other's wounds

Family by Keigo Kokonoki

PsychiatristKeigo KokonokiFocuses on the psychological problems of the family and categorizes them as follows ("The Familyless Family Age" Chikuma Bunko) 1992).

  • Container family-a family with a large capacity that accepts and heals social stress and dissatisfaction even if it is brought back
  • Hotel Family-A family where everyone wants to be serviced and does not want to sweat for others

Other family classification concepts

  • Family of procreation-a family of human choices (of spouse and children)
  • Family of orientation-Family concept focusing on the aspect of sending children to society

Family in Western Europe

キ リ ス ト 教With the establishment and spread of(I.e.IntervenedmarriageAnd symbolized by the statue of the Virgin MaryParentingEtc. became the core of the teaching.

"Emphasis on family bonds," "as opposed to men working outsideHousewifeWas at the center of their lives. "

Even in today's Western culture, "family" is the most important theme in civic life.

The so-called "modern family" was created after the late 18th century.Industrial revolutionIs believed to have been produced in Europe. This is a nuclear family system centered on couples, with a focus on children, has no aspect of production, and is characterized by the division of labor between men and women.With the progress of the industrial revolution, this model spread to the world.[10].

イタリア
In general,イタリアIn this family, Mamma (= “mother”, mother) is located in the center of the family and is considered to be the most important person in the family.kitchenYaha Mamma'scityI never let the guys cook the food (even if the guys want it) (they chew themselves into the kitchen or laundry in the castle of Mamma). It is something that should not be done, and I think so, since I was taught by my mother and father since I was a child.) In Italy, the family gathers as regularly as possible, surrounds the table and enjoys Mamma's signature dishes (tomato flavors).pasta,Gnocchi And so on, and the whole family praises that "the taste of Mamma is the best in the world".
Mamma is absolute, and men (both husband and son) have no head in Mamma. For example, it is often said that even the terrifying Mafia man, even the police man, who is feared by the general public, is afraid of Mamma only and cannot resist Mamma alone. There is. By learning the taste of Mamma (cooking method, seasoning of dishes), the bride will establish a relationship between her mother-in-law and her wife, and will reign as the next-generation Mamma at her son's family.
France
FrenchIs a part of family relationships Marital relations are the top priorityTend to think. Even if you become a couple and a family, the relationship between men and women, especially loveIt is the most important thing to have a relationship between men and women. The French do not put their children at the heart of their families. Couples are the most important, and children are under that priority. From the time of the baby, the child sleeps in a room separate from the couple and never sleeps in the room where the couple is sleeping. I think that children should be accustomed to being alone from the time they are babies, and that this makes them happier, and I hope to establish a solid personality as an individual, that is, an individual.[Note 1]. When it comes to family culinary, in 18th and 19th centuries, it was taken for granted by women in France, but in recent years in France (unlike typical Italian couples), the husband stands in the kitchen. There are some couples who participate in cooking by taking part in cooking, or whose husband takes the initiative in cooking.
Academic conflicts over typology
M. Anderson said, “Today’sSociologyThen, for example, "PatriarchyIn order to explain the concept of "," it is easy to accumulate "trivial facts" and categorize them. However, there is no single family system in reality, and there is no family typology in any region or at any point in history."[11].
Emmanuel Todd TheFrederick Le PlayWhile acknowledging that the family typology found by is a bricolage, it is neither impossible nor useless to a priori define a perfectly consistent typology, with other variables. The typology is meaningful as long as it can be described in a form that can be placed in the correspondence of[12].

Japan

in JapanMeiji-TaishoDuring the period, the couple had many children (a lot of children) and lived with their parents, and the proportion of large families was high.ShowaIt consists of a couple and their childrenNuclear Family, The proportion of small families has increased (that is, the proportion of couples who do not live with their husbands and wives' parents, or the proportion of couples who do not live with their grandchildren has increased).After that, various harmful effects of such a form of family came to be recognized, and more and more people lived while maintaining delicate "closeness" and "distance" by dividing into the first and second floors of one house. Diversification and blurring of family lines are progressing.

Family and family
In Kojien, it is explained as "to gather and have a good time". Together with familyMealIt is to have a good time and enjoy chatting and chatting. As you can see, "softly"quarrelIt is not a "family friendship" in the state of being active or in a harsh atmosphere. For example, in winter, I went to a kotatsu together andpotThere is an image of poking with a family.
In Japan, the number of nuclear families and singles increased during the Showa period and the Heisei period, and the lifestyle rhythms of each and every one of them became different,Solitary foodIt also progressed, and the family friendship was lost.New Year,Cluster amaryllisIt has been said that after returning home, for a few days (usually not usual), consciously trying to create a "family friendship."
Family trip
Since the prewar days, family trips have been carried out by relatively wealthy citizens, but after the warHigh growth periodThe base spreads,Common peopleTraveling as a family has become well-established in my family. According to statistics released by the Japan Travel Agency, "20 times or more before becoming an adult, that is, at least once a year on average.Family tripThose who went to have a strong tendency to be good at communicating and being attentive, such as being patient, caring, cooperative, and sociable."[13].

Media coverage about family

Some familiesDysfunctionWith the spread of awareness thatDomestic violence,Child abuseIt is becoming commonplace for such events to entice mass media. These problems have existed at all times, and the number of cases has decreased in the present age, but the coverage has increased. In recent years, domestic violence tends to be regarded as a social issue as a human rights issue. Increasing elderly population and at homeElderly nursingIn addition, the social issues surrounding the family are reported.

According to media reports about the family, it seems that the number of modern divorces is increasing more than before, and that the history of divorce in the Meiji period was 1.5 times the number of modern times, and “the end of the family”. May have discourse that is not appropriate for[14][15]. However, the divorce rate began to rise gradually in 1960 and continued to increase until 2000. Still, globally, the divorce rate in Japan is still low as of 2006.[16].

Changes in Japanese family structure from the viewpoint of feminism

In particularfeminismInPatriarchyThe history of the family can be traced through this concept.Lisa Tuttle(U.S., 1952) "Encyclopedia of Feminism" (Akashi bookstore), “Family is about patriarchy and womensuppressionMajor to survivesystemIt is adopted.”

History and transformation from prewar to the end of the war
PrewarJapanese family ofFamily systemBased on the foundation, it formed "yes" that connects not only to the local community but also to the nation. The "house system" was established in the 16th century[17], "House" and "PatriarchyThe two were the major factors. Emphasizing the unity and continuous development of the “yes” relative group, he regarded the family members as being subordinate to “yes”. It was the inheritance of the patriarchal right (inheritance of the family), the hierarchy of the head family and the branch family, and the spirit and system to regard them as a unit to the outside world. A house is also a management entity, and its maintenance and continuity were of utmost importance. For this reason, the eldest son, mainly the eldest son, stayed at home and became the heir to the spouse, and became the head of the family when his predecessor died. As you can see from the idea of ​​"succeeding the house" in this era, the house was a single inheritance of inheritance, and the property belonged to the house itself, not to the patriarch.[18].. In rural areas, boys and girls other than the eldest son, such as the second son and the third son, were sometimes split by the wealthy households as part of their households to form a family in the village. And often left the village due to marriage[19].. These homes were the basic building blocks of community groups and communities, and they existed in close relation to their surroundings.[20].. On the other hand, divorce is relatively free, and this tendency continued even in the Meiji era. In 1883, the average divorce rate per 1000 people was 3.39, probably the highest divorce rate in the world, which continued until the civil law was enacted in 1896 and the divorce was suppressed and drastically reduced.[21].

Meiji EraIn 1896, the Civil Code was enacted, of which the fourth volume "Relatives" and the fifth volume "Inheritance" (so-calledFamily law) Strengthened and fixed the home system and sovereignty[22].. However, in principle, although the direct family was the main one, there were many independent families below the second son and the life span of parents was short, so in Japan it was a relatively small scale from before the war.Nuclear FamilyIs the most common family form, with a majority of households becoming nuclear families in 1920[23].. In the prewar villageLarge familyThe recognition that the system was mainstream (except in some areas) is false.

From the end of the war to the 1950s
Pacific WarThe House System was abolished by the revision of the Civil Code after the end of the war[24].. With the economic recovery and the increase of salary workers, the aspect of households as a place of domestic labor diminishes, and the educational role of families is emphasized. The nuclear family was the main family idea instead of the direct family, but the old family concept also remained.[25].
modern
1950 eraThe two most prominent changes in the family during the high economic growth period are the decrease in the number of relatives living together and the change in the family base due to the decline in the power of the community. .. Large numbers of people have moved from rural areas to cities and the number of siblings has declined. Children who grew up in post-war society have already reached middle age to old age, and the number of people who are isolated from society in a recession has increased rapidly.Unrelated societyWas born.
Since the 1980sWorking togetherThe number of male single-sided households and dual-income households has become equal since 1991, and the double-income households have completely exceeded since 1997.[26].. TherebyParenting,Child-rearingIs a nursery schoolSchool club, Local baseball and soccer,swimming schoolSuch asSports Club,Cram schoolIncreasingly being outsourced toGender role division of laborIs being reviewed. Also,Aging societyOf the old parentsSupportThe problem of[27].
Also, with the advancement of women in society, women are increasingly using their maiden names as common names, andFamily name by coupleThere is also a growing demand for the introduction of systems.

Current status of Japanese families

As of 2010, Japan's family composition was 56.4% for nuclear families, 10.2% for direct families, and 32.4% for single households.Data from the 1960s showed that the nuclear family had risen until the 1980s, and then tended to decline slightly. , Extended families are consistently decreasing, single-family households are almost consistently increasing[28].. However, while there is one single household, the number of nuclear and direct family members is two or more, so 1% of the total population is based on the 2 population.[29].. The average number of people belonging to one household was1920From around 1955 to around 1, the number of people per household did not move to about 5 people, but after that, it decreased sharply, and in 2005 it was almost halved to 1 people per household.[30]..Regionally, as of 2005, the number of nuclear family households was the highest in all prefectures, but in urban areas, single-person households also accounted for a considerable number.TokyoWhile more than 4% are single households, the proportion of direct families and large families is relatively high, mainly in rural prefectures on the Sea of ​​Japan side.YamagataIs over 3%[31].

In some developed countries, the proportion of children born out of wedlock is almost the same as that of children of married couples, but in Japan, the proportion of children born out of wedlock is only 2008% in 2.1. Not too much, most of them are children of married couples. However, the number of births has declined due to late marriage and demarcation, and a declining birthrate is occurring[32].

Animal family

Create a family-like groupAnimalThere is also. When an animal forms the following group, it is sometimes called a family.

  1. The mating pair is maintained for a certain period or longer.
  2. This group takes care of their children to some extent.

There are cases where a mating pair is maintained for a long time, but it is not the only family member. Also, an example in which a single parent raises a child is not called a family. Of course, there are still examples of using the word family in more literary terms.

The animals that make up the family within the above rangebirdsThere are many examples[33].. In some birds, chicks from the previous year remain in their nests to help raise children. thishelperSay.mammalianThen.Raccoon dog,FoxThere are some examples.ApeIngorillaHas a polygamous family of one male and multiple females, and both parents take care of their children, but when the father dies this family collapses.[34].. Gorilla families are separated from each other to avoid contact, do not form a local group, and are closer to humansChimpanzeeAre different from the human family system and the social system because they do not form a family due to the marriage system within the local group.[35].

ArthropodThere are quite a few examples. So-calledSocial insectIs actually composed of one or a set of reproductive individuals and their offspring, and is a very large family group. HoweverBeeとア リIn the case of, the female makes a nest by itself, which deviates from the above definition.TermiteThis is treated as a family because he and his wife nest together. Others form family groups and parent-child groups, which are進化Also noticed in connection with.

Family-themed work

movies

There are many works depicting families. Among them, there are the following four works as masterpieces and problematic works that remain in movie history.

TitleYear of productionMessage
Tokyo Story1953Loss of bond between an independent child and his parent
Godfather1972The third son of a strong father and his family
Kramer, Kramer1979Divorced men and women and their only son
American beauty1999Unfaithful father who falls in love with his daughter's friend
Japan

TV drama

Japan

Comic

Relationship with multiple languages

Since the end of the Edo period, Japanese-made idioms (Japanese-made Chinese), which were translated and devised by the Japanese in Western languages, have been widely adopted in Korean, which lacked modern vocabulary around the Meiji era. It was introduced into Korean, where there was no word corresponding to "family", which is a Japanese compound word, and it is now being pronounced and used as a family (kajok) in South Korea. Similarly in Chinese, Japanese idioms supplemented the lack of modern vocabulary in Chinese. Like many Japanese idioms, "family" is also used as Chinese.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In France, French people do not have the concept that parents and children sleep in the shape of a river, as in Japan. I was very surprised when the French people had the opportunity to hear about the fact that parents and children were sleeping in a room in the shape of "a river" in Japan, and I was very surprised, saying, "It's definitely not good ( Seriously, I strongly oppose it.

Source

  1. ^ a b c Kazuya Yoshimatsu; Noriaki Koizumi; Masashi Kawano "Psychiatric Nursing I" (6th edition) Nouvelle Hirokawa, 2010, p. 143.ISBN 978-4-86174-064-0. 
  2. ^ Kazuya Yoshimatsu; Noriaki Koizumi; Masashi Kawano "Psychiatric Nursing I" (6th edition) Nouvelle Hirokawa, 2010, p. 149.ISBN 978-4-86174-064-0. 
  3. ^ "Keywords for Cultural Anthropology" p138 Shinji Yamashita, Takeo Funabiki Ed. Hihikaku September 1997, 9 First edition, first edition
  4. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p79-80 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st edition
  5. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p17 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  6. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p17 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  7. ^ "Keywords for Cultural Anthropology" p140-141 Shinji Yamashita, Takeo Funabiki Ed. Hihikaku September 1997, 9 First edition, first edition
  8. ^ "Keywords for Cultural Anthropology" p142-143 Shinji Yamashita, Takeo Funabiki Ed. Hihikaku September 1997, 9 First edition, first edition
  9. ^ "Keywords for Cultural Anthropology" p140-141 Shinji Yamashita, Takeo Funabiki Ed. Hihikaku September 1997, 9 First edition, first edition
  10. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p63-64 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st edition
  11. ^ M. Anderson, "Family Structure/Function/Emotions"
  12. ^ Origin of Family System (2016) [I Eurasia], Fujiwara Shoten, 108, p.XNUMX
  13. ^ "Parent-Child Bonds and Travel" Questionnaire Results / Japan Travel Agency Association
  14. ^ [1][Broken link]
  15. ^ Yuzawa Yasuhiko, "Meiji Marriage, Meiji Divorce: The Origin of Domestic Gender"
  16. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p203 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  17. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p73 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st printing
  18. ^ "The Edo Period of the Farmers" p13-14 Takashi Watanabe Chikuma Primer New Book June 2009, 6 First edition, first edition
  19. ^ "Edo period at a glance" p36-37 Makoto Takeuchi, edited by Hiroaki Ichikawa Shogakukan May 2004, 5 First edition, first edition
  20. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p73-75 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st edition
  21. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p202 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  22. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p75-78 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st edition
  23. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p18 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  24. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p79 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st printing
  25. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p79-80 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st edition
  26. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p114-115 Yasuzawa Yuhiko and Miyamoto Michiko NHK Books November 2008, 11 First issue
  27. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p154 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st printing
  28. ^ "Life course and family read in gender 3rd edition" p138 Pearl Iwakami Yuhikaku December 2013, 12 15rd edition 3st printing
  29. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p14 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  30. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p16 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  31. ^ "Family problems read with new edition data" p22 Yasuzawa Yuzawa and Michiko Miyamoto NHK Books First issue on November 2008, 11
  32. ^ "Sociology of modern people: An introduction to the world of life in the age of globalization" p60-61 Kazuhisa Nishihara and Kiyomitsu Yui Yuhikaku December 2010, 12 First edition, first edition
  33. ^ "The Meaning of Life: The Biology of Culture as Seen from Evolutionary Ecology" p126 Tetsuo Kuwamura Shokabo Issued March 2008, 3, 20th edition
  34. ^ "The Meaning of Life: The Biology of Culture as Seen from Evolutionary Ecology" p146-147 Tetsuo Kuwamura Shokabo Issued March 2008, 3, 20th edition
  35. ^ "The Meaning of Life: The Biology of Culture as Seen from Evolutionary Ecology" p153-154 Tetsuo Kuwamura Shokabo Issued March 2008, 3, 20th edition

Related literature

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Terms and concepts related to family

Regulations, legal concept
Concepts such as sociology and gender theory

Family events

Family economy, income
children
Old man
Annual event

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