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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
- the way
- There are various types.
- The widely used method isBlowerCreates negative pressure (negative pressure) bydust,dust,garbageAspirateair filterWith dust, dust and dirt空 気This is a type that separates and collects only the dust in the container. The type that uses negative pressure is called "vacuum cleaner" in English, and because of that, it is sometimes called "vacuum cleaner" in Japanese. It is a negative pressure, not a vacuum, but as in JIS Z 8126 (vacuum term), in engineering, "a state of a space filled with a gas at a pressure lower than the normal atmospheric pressure" may be called a vacuum. is there.
- In recent years, mainlyWhirlpool(Centrifugal force) Is used to separate air and dust/dust, and the number of cyclone type products is increasing. →#method
- The first (non-electric) vacuum cleaner was invented in 1868 by Ives Maguffy in the United States, and the first electric vacuum cleaner was invented in 1901 by Hubert Cecil Booth in England. →#history
- General used in vacuum cleanersmotorHas a large starting torque and is capable of high-speed rotationAC commutator motor(Or DCCommutator motor), And most of them use a carbon brush as a commutator.When the carbon brush is worn out, the motor will not rotate, but with a household vacuum cleaner,motorThe life of the motor is designed to be long enough to be considered equal to the life of the product. You can use it even longer if you replace the carbon brush. Also, do not use carbon brushes, etc.Brushless motorAlthough there is a system vacuum cleaner, considering the cost performance, it is a system suitable for more specialized business such as home use.
- Generally, the vacuum cleaner motor is smallpower consumptionBecause it is large, it generates a lot of heat and most of it uses a large amount of sucked air for cooling by guiding it to a motor. For this reason,liquidIf you draw in or conductive dust, a part of it may reach the motor and cause a malfunction.cooling methodThere is also a vacuum cleaner that absorbs liquid and conductive dust by devising the above.
- Treatment according to Japanese quality labeling regulations
- It is called "Vacuum cleaner" in the Japanese Electrical Machinery and Equipment Quality Regulations,Household goods quality labeling methodIs subject to.
Early inventions and improvements
The world's first vacuum cleaner1868ToChicagoWas invented by Ives W. McGaffey. The principle was simple: the lever was pulled by hand to create a negative pressure, and the force was used to suck dust from the nozzle and store it in a container. He1869This on June 6PatentTo getDuffel BagSucceeded in marketing to a carpet cleaning company located in. The world's first vacuum cleaner that was born in this way was released in Chicago and Boston, but at that time it was expensive as much as $25, and it is troublesome to pull the lever by hand while hitting the nozzle with dust. , Then disappeared from the market.
1876 years,ミ シ ガ ン 州Grand RapidsMelville Bissell made a vacuum cleaner for his wife to clean the sawdust on the carpet. Soon after, it was commercialized as Bissell Carpet Sweepers. When Melville died in 1889, his wife Anna became president and became the strongest business woman at the time. 1899,electric motorJohn Thurman invented a drive cleaner.BissellThe company still exists as a manufacturer of cleaning products including vacuum cleaners.
The first electric vacuum cleaner1901It was invented by Hubert Cecil Booth of England and equipped with a cloth filter. He saw a demonstration of a device that blows dust away from train seats and thought it would be more useful to suck it up. To try the idea, he spread a handkerchief on a restaurant chair, sucked it in his mouth, and then inhaled dust. Seeing dust collecting on the underside of the handkerchief, he was convinced that the idea would work. Booth made a big device called Puffing Billy. Used oilInternal combustion engineWas used as a power source, but laterelectric motorCame to use. It was said that he drove to the front of the building to be cleaned. Booth founded the British Vacuum Cleaner Company and improved the invention for decades. In the household vacuum cleaner market, we lost to Hoover's products, which we will discuss later, but we have found a way out in the industrial market and have created commercial models for use in factories and warehouses. Booth companyPneumatic tubeAs a division of Quirepace Ltd.[Source required].
1905 years,England OfBirminghamThe Walter Griffiths Manufacturer in United States has patented a manual vacuum cleaner. It is easy to carry and store and can beBagIt is a method of operating a device like this and sucking up dust through a flexible pipe that can be detached using it as power. Nozzles of various shapes can be attached to the tip of the pipe. The shape is very similar to modern household vacuum cleaners.
New JerseyInventor of David T. Kenney Acquired nine patents between 1903 and 1913, laying the foundation for the vacuum cleaner industry in the United States. Booth applied for an American patent for his invention because he was unable to claim a patent in the United States after Kenney's competing patent was granted. The membership of the Vacuum Cleaner Manufacturers' Association, founded in 9, was that it was licensed for Kenney's patent.
The first household vacuum cleaner1905, Chapman & Skinner, Inc., USA. Although it was portable, it weighed 92 pounds.
And in 1907,OhioでSchool janitorJames Murray Spangler, who was working as an inventor, invented a vacuum cleaner using a fan, a box and a pillow cover. This is the prototype of the upright type vacuum cleaner. The Spangler's design was equipped with a rotating brush that not only sucked in, but also collected large pieces of debris. Spangler sold his patent on a rotating brush, acquired on June 1908, 6, to his cousin WH Hoover, because he had no money to commercialize the invention himself. Hoover runs a company called Hoover Harness and Leather Goods, which sells leather goods, and was looking for new products other than leather goods, whose sales are declining due to the invention of the automobile. Hoover changed its name to Electric Suction Sweeper Company, and in 2 launched the first model'Model O'for $1908. This was the first commercial model. In Europe and AmericaHooverThe company still exists as a manufacturer of household cleaning products, including vacuum cleaners, and in the UK the use of vacuum cleaners is sometimes described by the verb "hoover".
In 1910, PA Fisker patented a vacuum cleaner named Nilfisk. It is the first vacuum cleaner in Europe. The Fisker vacuum weighed 17.5 kg and could be used by one person. The company is stillNilfiskIt is operated as.
After World War II
For the time being, the vacuum cleaner was a luxury item. HoweverSecond World Warrear,Middle classBut it's becoming more common. It was first generalized especially in the western world where rugs are heavily used. Trees in other parts of the worldtile,tatamiFloor is common, even without using a vacuum cleanerBroom,Rag,mopBecause I was able to clean it enough.
in Japan,TroopsFamily Complex "Washington HeightsElectrical equipment maintenance work inSpecial Procurement Agency (SPB)I was under contract from TokyoTaihei KogyoBut refer to US products1949In-house developed, and started selling in Akihabara. However, most Japanese houses at that time were tatami mats and wooden floors, and as mentioned above, it was not necessary to purchase an expensive vacuum cleaner.SwatterVacuum cleaners rarely became popular because it was easier and faster to sweep the trash out of the house with a "or broom." But in the 1960sHousing complex(Public housing complex) When a boom occurred, it was difficult to sweep the garbage out of the house due to the inconvenience of the neighborhood, and the convenience of the broom was halved, so the vacuum cleaner was first accepted in the housing complex. In addition, Western-style rooms have been introduced into the housing complex and the new house (although it is not a shoe)carpetIt became difficult to clean with a broom because of the popularity ofChiselWas often generated in large numbers. For this reason, the superiority of vacuum cleaners has increased, and they have begun to spread to general households.
Early vacuum cleaners used cloth filters that were not disposable, so a lot of dust was thrown away when throwing away the dust, and the suction power would not recover unless the filter was washed with water. Many people shunned it. However, a paper pack type vacuum cleaner1980When it was released early in the year, disposable paper pack filters solved these problems all at once, and it became popular in most households.
In the 1990sCycloneThe number of type vacuum cleaners has increased. The principle has been known for a long time, and some companies have been manufacturing cyclone type vacuum cleaners since 1928. The recent cyclone vacuum cleaner was designed by a British designer in 1985.James DysonFor industrialPowder separatorIt was inspired by. I was impressed with this ideaSilver delicate workInitially acquired a license and started manufacturing and selling, etc.JapanHighly rated in 1993The United KingdomThe first DC1 is 01lbWas released in. I thought it wouldn't sell because it was twice the price of an ordinary vacuum cleaner,DysonIs now the best-selling vacuum cleaner brand in Britain.
In 1997Minolta Mech robotReleased "Robosanitan," a vacuum cleaner. Although it was not commercialized, it was reported in the media and received a response from cleaning companies etc... And in the 2000s,rumbaCommercialized robot vacuum cleaners for household use, such as, have come to the market. In addition, the exhaust is cleaner than before due to the increasing health consciousness,Air cleanerAlternative vacuum cleaners and vacuum cleaners whose body floats in the air due to wind pressure have also appeared.
The features when compared with other cleaning tools such as brooms are as follows.
- You can remove dust and dirt that got inside the carpet and futon.
- There is no need to throw away garbage every time.
- Little dust rises.
- There is no need to directly touch or approach the garbage.
- pollenFor example, it is possible to clean trash that is difficult to see.
- Less trash and dust than when using a broom or dustpan.
- Expensive compared to other cleaning tools that are simple tools.
- Need electricity.
- Noise is generated.
- Odor may be generated from the exhaust due to the generation of bacteria in the dust inside.
- If the model is inferior in filter performance, or if the set is not correct, dust may be blown up by the exhaust gas.
- It is relatively heavy. There are wheels, but it is difficult to move up and down.
- The main body is large and easy to take place.
- You cannot clean where the vacuum cleaner body or nozzles cannot enter.
- Needs maintenance.
Dust pickup rate
What is the dust pickup rate?IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) is an index that mainly indicates the cleaning ability of carpets, and was established as a standard.carpetSpray a standard amount of standard dust on the surface with an instrument.rollerAfter being spread by, it is the percentage of the weight of standard dust that can be collected by aspirating with a vacuum cleaner at a constant speed, operation, and number of times. However, vacuum cleaners with high dust pickup ratestatami,FlooringTherefore, it does not necessarily show high cleaning ability. Therefore, the dust pickup rate isJISThen "Dust removal capacityIt is translated and is also specified, but it is not used in the general market because there is no obligation to display performance according to JIS.
In addition, there are the following notes in "C.9108 Pretreatment of carpet for test" of JIS C 1.3.2.
- A vacuum cleaner with a high dust removal capability is one in which the floor suction tool has a brush that is rotated by a motor, and a suction power of 500 W or more is desirable.
Suction work rate
SuctionWork rateIs the maximum value of aerodynamic power, that is, the ability of a vacuum cleaner to suck in air, and is generally calledAttractiveThat is. If you compare it to a carhorsepowerHit However, since the cleaning ability of the vacuum cleaner greatly depends on the structure of the nozzle, the cleaning ability is not always proportional to the suction work rate. For this reason, manufacturers of vacuum cleaners are eager to develop floor nozzles with high cleaning ability, as well as research to improve suction work rate. Generally, a vacuum cleaner with a high suction work rate can easily handle different types and sizes of dust and different floors with a single nozzle.
For suction work, connect the measuring device to the suction pipe of the main body of the vacuum cleaner,valveOperate theDegree of vacuumThe value that maximizes the air volume x vacuum is obtained by changingWatt) (For details, see JIS C 9108 “Appendix A (normative) Measurement method of suction work rate”). The suction power is calculated by the following formula.
- (Suction work rate = 0.01666 x air volume (m3/min) x vacuum degree (Pa))
The suction work rate is required to be indicated by JIS.
noiseWhat is a value?Anechoic chamberShows the volume at a distance of 1 m from the main body of the vacuum cleaner operating at the maximum air volume.It is measured with the nozzle floating 10 cm above the floor and fixed, and with the rotating brush stopped.The unit is dB. (Decibel) (For details, see "Appendix B (normative) noise measurement method" of JIS C 9801).
In addition, JIS stipulates that the noise of a household vacuum cleaner must be less than or equal to the following values.
|Type (alias)||Rated power consumption W||Noise level dB|
|Floor moving type (canister type)|
Broom type (upright type)
|700 or less||65 or less|
|Over 700 and under 1000||70 or less|
|Over 1000 and under 1500||76 or less|
|Portable type (Handy type)||1000 or less||65 or less|
|Over 1000 and under 1500||71 or less|
For reference, a list of environments that can be used as an index of noise value is shown.
|Noise level dB||Corresponding environment|
|80||Inside the subway|
The noise level is an easy-to-understand and useful index for users, but since JIS does not require performance labeling, it may not be announced in products with high noise levels.
- Household vacuum cleaners: Vacuum cleaners used in general households and small shops, etc. Most of them are made of light plastic, so they are easy to handle.
- Vacuum cleaner for business use: A vacuum cleaner used by a cleaning company, which is necessary for registration as a contractor. The main body is often made of metal, and the motor and other parts have a long lifespan. Most of the main body is a trash container because it absorbs a large amount of trash after continuous use for a long time.
- Industrial vacuum cleaner: There are vacuum cleaners for special purposes such as clean room, explosion proof, dust proof, and toner.
- Commercial power supply: It can maintain strong suction power for a long time to clean, but except the outdoor exhaust type, the power cord is a little troublesome to handle.
- Rechargeable:Storage batterySince it is charged and used, it is possible to start cleaning immediately without having to pull out or store the power cord, or to clean a place without a power supply. The rechargeable type is often carried by one hand, but there are also vertical and floor-moving products. However, due to the capacity of the storage battery, the suction work rate is generally weak and the continuous use time is short in many cases. If the storage battery deteriorates after repeated use, it is necessary to replace the storage battery with a new one.
- Engine: Used in some self-propelled commercial vacuum cleaners.
- Floor movement type (canister type)
- A vacuum cleaner with a horizontally long body that moves by pulling a hose is suitable for cleaning Japanese-style rooms with many short furniture. Because he is short,closetIt is most popular for domestic use in Japan, as it can be conveniently stored in, etc.
- Cylindrical floor moving type (canister type)
- A vertical cylindrical body that moves by pulling a hose, which is often seen in Japanese business.
- Vertical type (upright type)
- There is a floor suction port on the bottom of the vertically long body, and it is an integrated type that can be operated with the handle attached to the top of the body, and it is stored upright. Mostly in North America. (JIS Equivalent to a broom)
- Broom type (stick type)
- A vertical lightweight product.
- One-handed carrying type (Handy type)
- A small format that can be carried and used with one hand.ChargingMany of the expressions (cordless) are seen.
- Shoulder type
- You can use it on your shoulder. Suitable for use in buildings and high places.
- Backpack type (rucksackType/hip back type)
- aircraft,Railway car(Passenger car),busSuch asVehicleUsed in.
- Outdoor exhaust type (central cleaner type)
- A dust collector was installed outdoors, and from there, it was installed in the holes for piping in each room.hoseA method of inserting and sucking. Although there is an advantage that the room does not get dirty due to exhaust air, the equipment and construction cost are expensive, and carrying a long hose is a bit troublesome.
- Box type self-propelled
- Also called a sweeperWhat humans push and walkControlSome are self-propelled. Self-propelledelectric motor,Internal combustion engineThePrime moverThe dust collection, cleaning, and running are performed with that power. In addition to the dry type, there is a wet type using detergent and water, which is used in large-scale buildings and outdoors.
- Mech robot型
- Clean independently. Many were for business,2000 eraEntering the market, household items are now on the market.
Depending on the manufacturernozzle,head,brushIt is also called. Most floor-moving household vacuum cleaners come standard with a floor intake, a shelf intake, and a clearance intake.
- Floor intake
- This is the most commonly used suction port, because a quick airflow is generated in the clearance of the suction port to suck dust and dirt, and those equipped with a rotating brush have the effect of sweeping, wiping, scraping, tapping, etc. , More efficientlyDust,hairCan be sucked. The rotary brush has a motor drive system and a drive system in which an air flow is guided to a small wind turbine to rotate it. Vacuum cleaners with a low suction work rate are often designed to have a narrow suction opening, which makes it difficult to suck in large dust.
- Suction port for shelves
- Since there is a soft brush around the suction port, you can clean it like dust on a shelf or furniture.
- Suction inlet for clearance
- It is a narrow suction port with a narrow tip that fits into the gap, and the fastest airflow creates a strong suction of dust.
- Futon suction port
- It has a mechanism that does not stick to the futon,Futon,blanketCan be cleaned efficiently. Some have a mechanism to hit the futon.
Dust collection method
Filter the suctioned dust and store the dust in the dust box in front of the filter. This is the basic structure of a vacuum suction type vacuum cleaner.
It is necessary to frequently dispose of garbage because it reduces suction power and produces an offensive odor when exhausted. For this reason, there are not a few commercial vacuum cleaners that intentionally use this method.重力There is also a product in which suction dust can be collected in a commercially available dust bag by separating the dust with.
Since the filter gets clogged with dust, frequent maintenance is required here as well, but there are also products that use the energy to pull out the cord from the cord reel or use a special electric motor to automate dust removal.
As of 2020, the main models used are Panasonic's tank tops (MC-G200P / MC-G100P) and Toshiba's tough boys (VC-S960).
Paper pack method
A method in which aspirated dust is filtered out with a bag-shaped paper pack. In English this袋The dust bag But in JapanpackIs called. Since the paper pack doubles as a dust bag and a filter, there is no need for troublesome filter cleaning, and it is easy and clean to throw away the waste together with the paper pack. Further, since the dust is naturally compressed in the paper pack, there is an advantage that the number of times the dust is discarded can be reduced.
As a demerit, it has been pointed out that when dust collects, the suction force decreases due to the fine particles adhering to the inner surface. However, there are products that can remove the dust by automatically hitting the paper pack and maintain the suction force until it is almost full. Paper packs must be purchased because they are disposable, and this running cost and the life of the product is affected by the supply of special products with a special mounting structure. There is If you do not use a genuine paper pack, it is often out of the manufacturer's warranty. This is because the performance of inexpensive general-purpose paper packs compatible with various manufacturers and models is not constant.
In recent years without purchasing a dedicated paper packTissue paperThere is also a type that can be substituted with.
Cloth back system
Its properties are almost the same as the paper pack type, but it is not easily damaged by inhaling liquid or cuttings, so it is used in commercial vacuum cleaners. Since the structure is almost the same as a paper pack, most of the models that can use a cloth bag also have a paper pack.
Actually, this method was developed before the paper pack, but the cloth bag is not disposable and requires frequent maintenance.
Originally, a cyclone1886Invented by American MorsePowder separationThis is a word that refers to a method. The principle is to rotate air in a cone-shaped tube and separate air and powder by centrifugal force. This method1983To the British inventorJames DysonApplied to a vacuum cleaner. Since then, due to the commercial success of Dyson vacuum cleaners, the cyclone method is often referred to first as Dyson vacuum cleaners. Dyson's vacuum cleaner is said to be able to separate dust almost completely by centrifugal separation and discharge clean air. Dyson argues that the mechanism for removing slightly spilled dust with a filter in the subsequent stage removes the suction force due to clogging of the filter more slowly than the paper pack method. Japan in 2006National Life Centerのテストでは、ダイソンのサイクロン掃除機はダイソン社の主張通り紙パック式（50gのごみを吸わせた後で13%低下）よりも吸引力の低下は緩慢(50gのごみを吸わせた後で7％低下：約180W →約167W)だが、ダイソン以外のサイクロン掃除機は「掃除を重ねて行くと吸込力が紙パックと比べて低下しやすい（50gのごみを吸わせた後で約21%～33%低下：438~504W→338W~382W）」とのテスト結果が出ている.. Dyson claims that the filters can be washed with water once a month when used in the Western environment and approximately once every six months when used in the Japanese environment.
It has been said that the drawback of this type of vacuum cleaner is inefficiency, and the suction power is about one-third that of a paper pack vacuum cleaner. However, in August 1PanasonicOf the same powder separation method as Dyson MC-SR530G / MC-SR33G Throw in. Suction power of the same level as conventional Japanese paper pack vacuum cleaners (200W, but 1000W has been the standard in Japan.power consumptionHas been reduced to 720W). With the release of these two models, the monopoly of Dyson's powder separation method has ended. Panasonic also sets the exhaust filter cleaning interval to half a year to one year.
In general, a cyclone vacuum cleaner is economical in that it does not require a paper pack, but it has a drawback in that it frequently throws away dust and dust flies when throwing away dust. Further, regular cleaning of the filter with water has a drawback that it is necessary to wait until it is completely dried, and cleaning cannot be performed during that time.
Cyclone method without using cyclone powder separation method
On the other hand, even with vacuum cleaners that do not use Morse's cyclone powder separation method, the model that separates large dust and sand by centrifugal force by rotating the sucked air is often called the cyclone method. However, since this exhaust gas still contains a large amount of fine dust, it is necessary to separately filter it. Depending on the model, most of the separation of air and powder depends on the filter, so the distinction from the vacuum cleaner is ambiguous.
ManybellowsThe dust collection efficiency is increased by using a filter that has become a dent or a chrysanthemum-shaped filter that has radial folds, and the suction work rate is almost the same as the paper pack method.
The disadvantage is the reduction of suction power due to clogging of the filter. Therefore, compared to the method using the cyclone powder separation method, very frequent filter cleaning is required. However, many models have a mechanism that automatically knocks off dust from the filter. If the filter is frequently washed with water, the suction work rate can be prevented from lowering. Some products are recommended to use tissue paper as an aid. In that case, while the filtration area is reduced and the suction force is somewhat reduced, it also has some of the advantages of the paper pack type, such as easier dust disposal and cleaner than when not using tissue paper..
Exhaust circulation method
A method in which the exhaust gas is returned to the suction port and discharged from the nozzle so that dust is efficiently lifted and sucked again. For this reason, the hose has a double structure, with intake air flowing inside and exhaust air flowing outside. Since the exhaust gas circulates through the main body and the suction port, there is an advantage that the total exhaust amount is very small and dust is not soared by the exhaust gas. In addition, since the motor room has a structure close to a closed structure, the operating noise is quiet. However, the motorcoolingThere is a slight exhaust for. Because the motor cooling performance is inferiorpower consumption(Heating value) needs to be suppressed, and as a resultSuction work rateIs small.1999(11)SanyoWas released for the first time in the world. As of May 2009, no product in the company's lineup uses this method..
Water absorption vacuum cleaner
The water-absorption cleaner is a vacuum cleaner that allows suction of articles containing water. It is possible to efficiently collect water and liquids,Aspiration of flammable liquidIs extremely dangerous as it may catch fire from the motor.
Water filter vacuum cleaner
There are also vacuum cleaners that pass several liters of water in a container.detergentEtc.SurfactantBy passing through a water filter mixed withpollenEtc.Fine particlesCan be removed. It is popular outside Japan, where the humidity is low in the inland area, but the(I.e.In Japan where the humidity is high(I.e.Depending on the case, it may not be suitable for use. In addition, since fine dust floating in bubbles passes through water, a filter separate from water is required to completely remove dust.
There are red and yellow marks on the power cord.JISThe distance between the red and yellow marks is 800 mm. Although the reasons for each company are different, the yellow mark is a mark to "use this line sufficiently.".
Robot type vacuum cleaner (autonomous vacuum cleaner)
1985 yearsScience ExpoAt the Fuyo Robot Theater, a cleaner shark equipped with an internal combustion engine that uses methyl alcohol as fuel was exhibited.For home use in November 2001ElectroluxCompanyTrilobyte(Released in Japan on September 2002, 9), September 5iRobotCompanyrumba(Released in Japan in 2004) has been released.
In Japanese companies in December 2007BandaiIs a subsidiary ofCPCThe company started selling "SO-Zi Premium", and in September 2011, the improved version of "Lacleet" was released as an alternative model. In November 9, the company started selling the robot cleaner "AIM-ROBO2009". Although it was not commercializedPanasonicMarch 2002,日立Announced a prototype of a household robot vacuum cleaner in May 2003.
For commercial useMinoltaAnnounced "Robosanitan" in 1997, but commercialization was postponed. However, the technology was taken over by Figra and was commercialized as "Efro Boclean" in 2009.Fuji Heavy IndustriesとSumitomo CorporationIn 2001, it put into practical use a "robot building cleaning system", and in 2006, it was awarded the "Robot of the Year 2006 Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Award" for its cleaning performance, safety, and cost advantages.
Both the cyclone method and the paper pack method are high-end modelsHEPA filter,ULPA filterProducts that have a clean exhaustIncreasing[Source required].. In addition, quietness is also an appealing point, and some models have almost no operating noise of the motor.is increasing[Source required].. The cyclone method is popular with users who are willing to dispose of dust and maintain filters, while the paper pack method is popular with users who want easy cleaning. Generally, the cyclone method is set at a higher price than the paper pack method of the same class.Many[Source required]. Current[When?]Indicates that the cyclone method and the paper pack method coexist.
Major vacuum cleaner manufacturers
- Hitachi Global Life Solutions
- Toshiba lifestyle
- Mitsubishi Electric
- Iris Oyama
- Shark Ninja.
- Black and decker
- ^ "Electric machinery and equipment quality indication regulations”. Consumer Affairs Agency. 2013/5/23Browse.
- ^ 1997 Minolta announces hospital cleaning robot "Robosanitan".. The technology was inherited by Figra in 2005Aichi ExpoExhibited at and commercialized as Efro Boclean in 2009.
- ^ Sweeper is an English word for vacuum cleaners in general, but it is used especially in Japan for ride-on cleaners. Specialized in road cleaningRoad sweeperIs called Road Sweeper.
- ^ Cyclone type vacuum cleaner (full text) National Life Center Refer to "5. Test Results" on page 6 Broken link July 2020Archives by the National Diet Library
- ^ 外部 リンク.
- ^ Exhaust gas circulation cleaner Discontinued products list -Panasonic (2017 Edition / Viewed August 2017, 8)
- ^ Vacuum cleaner code, the true meaning of the yellow mark Is it a mistake to say "it's almost over"?
- ^ "Dyson killer" landing US shark Ninja, vacuum cleaner released in August Stick type offensive with offensive Nihon Keizai Shimbun January 2018, 6
- ^ "Vacuum cleaner brand "Shark" first landed in Japan with cumulative sales of over 5000 million units”(May 2018, 6). 2018/7/8Browse.
- White goods
- Three kinds of sacred devices (electrical appliances)
- rumba(Robot vacuum cleaner)