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📊 | Komeri Re-enters Asia Opening Hard & Green in Thailand


Photo Exterior of "Komeri Hard and Green Panom Sarakam Store" (Photo from press release)

Re-entering Komeri Asia Opening Hard & Green in Thailand

 
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In the company's release, "Komeri aims to create a store that protects and nurtures affluent lifestyles by leveraging its business model in Japan and staying close to the lives of customers in the areas where it opens in Thailand.
 

Komeri opens its first store in the Kingdom of Thailand, "Komeri Hard and Green Phanom Sarakham Store" in late June ... → Continue reading

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Kingdom of Thailand

This item includes some computers andBrowsing softwareCharacters that cannot be displayed withタイ 語Etc.) is included(Details.
Kingdom of Thailand
ราช อาณาจักร ไทย
Thailand flagThai national emblem
(National flag(National emblem
National motto: None
National anthem : เพลงชาติไทย(Thai)
Thai National Anthem
Royal song : สรรเสริญพระบาร มี(Thai)
King Hymn
Thailand position
Official terminologyタイ 語
capitalBangkok
Largest cityBangkok
政府
kingRama 10[1]
prime ministerPlayut Chan Ocha
area
Grand total513,120km2(50 bit
Water area rate0.4%
population
Grand total(201668,863,514Man(20 bit
The population density132.1 people/km2
GDP(Display home currency)
total(201715 billion[2]Baht
GDP (MER
total(20174557 billion[2]Dollar (25 bit
Per person$ xxx
GDP (PPPs
total(20171 billion[2]Dollar (20 bit
Per person20,474[2]Dollar
Founding
 --Date
Sukhothai dynastyEstablished
1238(Tradition)
currencyBaht(THB
Time zoneUTC(+ 7) (STD: None)
ISO-3166 1TH / THA
ccTLD.th
International phone number66

Kingdom of Thailand(Thailandタイ 語: ราช อาณาจักร ไทย Ratcha Anachak Thai [râːt.tɕʰā ʔāːnāːtɕàk tʰāj]), popular nameThailand(タイ 語: ประเทศไทย Prathet Thai [prà tʰêːt tʰaj] ( Audio file)) IsSoutheast Asiaに 位置 す るConstitutional monarchyCountry.capital TheBangkok.Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN) Member countries and currenciesBaht, Population 6,891 million (2017, ThailandCensusAccording to).

The land isIndochina PeninsulaWith the central partMalay PeninsulaOccupies the northern half.SouthMalaysia, EastCambodia, NorthLaos, WestMyanmar(Old country nameBurma)When国境To touch.Southeast sideGulf of ThailandFacing.To the west in the central Malay PeninsulaAndaman Seaas well as the Malacca StraitThere are, sandwiching themIndonesia,IndiaAreaAndaman and Nicobar IslandsFacing.

In 2014PlayutGeneralLeadNational army Military coupWith the conventional Constitution (2007 Constitution)ParliamentAfter abolishing and taking control of the real powerMilitary dictatorshipIs continuing[3].

2017May 4A new constitution was promulgated in Japan and came into effect on the same day.[3].

Country

The official name isราช อาณาจักร ไทย(Thai: At Lat Cha Arner Chuck Thailand)ราชIs ""อาณาจักรIs "territory"ThailandMeans "Thailand".The local name isเมือง ไทย(Thai: Muang Thai).

The official English notation isThe Kingdom of Thailand,For short Thailand(English pronunciation: [ˈTaɪlənd] TaEland).People,adjectiveTomo Thai.JapaneseThe notation isKingdom of Thailand, Commonly known asThailand.ThailandOften referred to as.漢字Thai(Thailand) andNotatedSometimes.

The official country name until 1939 was Siam([sàˈjǎːm] Siam,English pronunciation: [saiˈæm] SaiAMu).this Siam The word is old in PonagarChamInscription (1050),Bagan OfBurmeseInscription (1120),Angkor WatIt looks like an inscription (around the 12th century) Syām You can see the prototype in the word.Historian / linguistChit PhumisakIs the book "History of the Thai people"[4] And this word is BurmeseShanShan, indiaAssam,AhomAhom kingdomEtymologyIt is said that it became.WesternIn Siam AndPortuguese Of Sião, Syão It is said to be a word that came from[5]. Also,1592, Is first Siam Is said to have used the word[6]. this Siam Is officialCountry codeIs1855It was when the agreement was signed between Britain and Thailand.[6].

JapanAt onceSoraI wrote. "MingshiIt is said that this is because the country called Sen and the country called Rakoku merged, which appears in Volume XNUMX.In addition, the country called AkiraSukhothai, Lavo is Lavo (Lopburi)Paul PerioAlthough it was an established theory since the research by[7], Because there is a description in "Daitoku Nankai Magazine" that looks like "Various countries"Tatsuro YamamotoWhat is 暹AyutthayaAnnounced the view that it may be[8], This is in 2002Yoneo IshiiBy Thai学会Introduced in and became a new established theory[9]..Regarding the reading of "Sora", "Shoura" published in 1712Japanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society』In this wordShamuro,SheaNarrowIs given the reading.But,MeijiAfter the periodSiamReading has taken root[5]..Also, in the diplomacy of the same era, it was written as Sora Kuni.

In addition, the Burmese language is used as a lineage other than "Siam" and "Sora" to indicate Thailand.Yodaya (ယိုးဒယား) Can be given.This word was originally aside from the word "Shang", which refers to the Thai people in the north of Thailand, whose etymology is Siam.Chao Phraya RiverBasinThai, And the word for the Tai people in southern Thailand, the etymology is believed to be the name of the dynasty that existed in Thailand in the past (Ayutthaya).[10]..However, this word is a derogatory term for Thailand.[11].

Meanwhile, by the first half of the 20th centurySiam/ Siam Was established as a country name, but on June 1939, 6, at the timeprime ministerPhibunIs the country nameThailandChanged to[12]..This is a foreign word that refers to the Thai people in the Chao Phraya River basin, and it is explained that it was appropriate to change it to the self-proclaimed "Thailand" of the Thai people, but on the other hand, other than the Chao Phraya River basin. You can also read Phibun's intention to take in the Thai people of[13]. afterwards,SaneyThe country name was once returned to Siam on September 1945, 9 at the time of the Cabinet, but the country name was returned to Thailand on May 17, 1949 by the returning Phibun.[14]..Time goes downSalitDuring the administration, the parliament debated whether Thailand was suitable for the country name, but in the end it was decided to maintain the country name.[5]..But even now, there are intellectuals who oppose the name Thailand.[15].

History

State establishment

Before the establishment of the Thai nation-stateChugokuSouth ChinaThe Thai people who lived inIndochina PeninsulaTo settle in the current position in Thailand[13]..At that time, in ThailandHmong,KhmerEtc. were indigenous[13].

Sukhothai dynasty

In the early 13th centuryKhmer EmpireAfter the decline of the pagan kingdom, various states prospered there.The Thai territory existed from what is now northeastern India to what is now northern Laos and the Malay Peninsula. During the 13th century, Thais had already settled in core lands.Dvaravati KingdomAnd south of the Lavo KingdomNakhon Si ThammaratWhat.However, there is no record detailing the arrival in Thailand.[16].

Around 1240, the local Thai ruler, Folkon Bankranhao, rallyed people to protest the Khmer.Then in 1238Kingdom of sukhothaiBecame the first king of[17]..Mainstream Thai historians consider Sukhothai to be Thailand's first kingdom.SukhothaiRam KhamhaengDuring his reign (c. 1279-1299), it expanded further.However, it was primarily a network of local lords who pledged allegiance to Sukhothai and was not directly controlled by Sukhothai.Sukhothai under the rule of Mahata Maracha I (1-1347)Theravada BuddhismIt was adopted[18].

Kingdom of Ayutthaya

Ayutthaya dynastyThe origin of Uton (as the first king, according to the most widely accepted theory)Uthong Uthong I) And near beforeLavo KingdomSuvarnabhumiRise from.Ayutthaya was a patchwork of the autonomous Principality and tributaries with loyalty to King Ayutthaya under the Mandala regime.[19]..The first territorial expansion is conquestPolitical marriageIt was due to. By the end of the 15th century AyutthayaKhmer dynastyInvaded 3 times, the capitalEncoreAttacked[20]..After that, Ayutthaya became a regional power instead of the Khmer.Sukhothai dynastyHas become a de facto client state of Ayutthaya due to constant interference and has finally been incorporated into the kingdom.BorommatrailokkanatoBrought about the bureaucratic reform that lasted until the 20th century, and built a social stratification system called Sakudina.[21]..Ayutthaya was interested in the Malay Peninsula, but in ChinaLightSupported by the dynastyMalacca Kingdom OfSultanFailed to conquer[22].

EuropeContact and trade began in the early 16th century in 1511Portugal OfDukeIsAfonso de AlbuquerqueSpecial envoy visits and becomes an ally, and some soldiersUthong Uthong ITransferred to the king[23].. In the 17th century, in PortugalFrance, Netherlands,The United KingdomContinued.Chiang MaiHmongThe competitive relationship over supremacy with AyutthayaBurmaKingdom (Town goo morning)ofThai-Burma WarInvited.This war is of the Toungoo dynastyTabinshwehtiwith KingViceroyBayinnaungIt began in the 1540s during the reign and eventually ended with the occupation of Ayutthaya in 1570.[24]..During the siege of Ayutthaya during the Burmese-Siamese War (1563-64), Bayinnaung of the Toungoo dynastyPhitsanulokAnd made Ayutthaya a client state of Burma.He,Maha ThammarachathatiratTo guarantee the faithfulness of the king, his sonNaresuanThehostageAsBagoRequested to send to.The Kingdom of Ayutthaya was under Burmese control for a short period of time, and thenNaresuan the GreatDeclared a restoration of independence in 1584.

Ayutthaya then sought to improve relations with the great powers of Europe for successive rule.The kingdomNaraiProspered during the reign of Ayutthaya (1656-1688) when Ayutthaya was considered a major power in Asia alongside China and India.[25][26]..However, the growing influence of France in the latter half of his reign led to nationalist opposition and ultimately the Siamese revolution of 1688.[27].

After a fierce struggle of pedigree, Ayutthaya entered an era called the Golden Age.The second quarter of the 18th century, when art, literature and learning flourished, was relatively peaceful. Aside from the conflict with Lord Nguyen to rule Cambodia from around 2, foreign wars were rare.The kingdom faced a pedigree crisis for the last 1715 years. In 50, a total of 1765 powerful Burmese troops invaded from the north and west.[28]..Burma is newAlaungpayaUnder the dynasty, it became a new regional power by 1759. After 14 months of siege, the walls of the capital were breached and the city was burned down in April 1767.

Kingdom of Rattanakosin

During the Rattanakosin era, the capital was established in BangkokChakri Dynasty OfRama 1Begins in 1782 during his reign.Rama I is his predecessorTaksinFounded byThonburiCapital (Thonburi dynasty) Was relocated and the new capital Bangkok was built.In the first few years before the construction of the capital, he oversaw the construction of the palace and the royal chapel.エ メ ラ ル ドBuddhaThe Royal Chapel or Wat Phra Kaew, consecrated by, is on the grounds of his royal palace.With the completion of the new capital, Rama I held a ceremony to name the new capital[29][30].

In the latter half of the 19th century, Southeast Asia depends on Western countriescolonizationThe times have come.Acknowledged the Western threatRama 4The court (1851-1868) contacted the British government to ease tensions.Hong Kong GovernorJohn bowlingThe British delegation led by and many of the Western countriesInequality treatySigned the first bowling treaty.Although this was an unequal treaty, it brought commercial and economic development to Bangkok.Rama IVmalariaSuddenly diedChulalongkornThe prince was crowned[31][32](Rama 5).

Rama 5Alternatively, King Chulalongkorn (reigned 1868-1910) visited Europe and the United States as soon as he took the throne and realized that Thailand was lagging behind, and carried out a number of reforms called the Chakuri reform.At that time, Burma and Malaysia were in England,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWas occupied by France respectively.Siam was also targeted, but Rama V maintained his independence by ceding part of the Malay Peninsula to Britain and Laos and Cambodia to France.Behind this is the fact that it was problematic to overtly occupy Siam, which had been modernized to some extent by King Rama V, and that Siam wasBuffer zoneThere were circumstances in both Britain and France that it was desirable to keep them independent.[33].

At the end of the 19th century, the King of Siam resolved the conflict with France, which was dangerous to Siam.Russian EmpireAimed to establish diplomatic relations with Russia and obtain Russian support[34].

Constitutional monarchy, World War II

Rama 6(Wachira Utt, coronation in 1910-died in November 1925) when he succeeds to the throneAbsolutismCriticism has begun to arise.Criticism from royalty and bureaucrats about the new king's personal qualities, limiting kingshipConstitutionIncluded even criticism of the political system that[35], Early March 1912,Constitutionalism-Republic from the left bankRoyal Thai ArmyyouthOfficerByCoup d'etatThe plan was discovered and more than 100 people were arrested.The youth officers were worried that the construction of the nation would not proceed slowly due to the waste of national resources for the king's private enjoyment, and that it would be invaded by other countries (British and French).The first Constitutional Revolutionary Plan, 1932People's PartybyConstitutional revolutionLed to the success of[35].. IeRama 7(Brother Prachartipok) In 1932, after the coronationPridi Banomyong,Plaek Phibunsson KlamA coup d'etat by the People's Party formed by officials broke out.Absolute monarchyからConstitutional monarchyIt has moved to (Democratic revolution, constitutional revolutionCalled)[36].

At this timeWorld War IIs occurring,AlliesI am participating as.

Second World WarFrance surrenders to Nazi GermanyAfter that, on November 1940, 11, ThailandSouthern French IndochinaInvaded theThai-French Indochina ConflictCaused. May 1941, 5JapanBy the mediation ofTokyo ConventionIn FranceVichy administrationAnd expanded the territory.Pacific WarWhen it breaks outJapanese troops stationed in ThailandShi (Thailand in World War II), Thailand is superficially with JapanJapan-Taiwan Offensive and Defensive AllianceTieAxis powersFought as[37]..Thailand is the Southeast Asian front (Murray Operation,Burmese battle) Is actively cooperating with Japan, helping the local army to advance quickly,Logistics, Responsible for important roles such as replenishment.On the other hand, Ambassador to the United StatesSeni Pramoj,regentPridi BanomyongRagaFree Thai MovementThere were also forces that cooperated with the Allies, such as ", and were in contact with the Allies.[38]..This dual diplomacy allowed Thailand to reconcile between Britain and the United States by returning territories acquired after 1945 and 1940.SurrenderAnd escaped occupation[39]..Because of this backgroundUnited NationsAlso joined as early as December 1946, 12, so-calledEnemy clauseIt is not the target of.King on June 1946, 6, after the end of the warRama 8Was found dead in the royal palace, but the truth was not investigated and his brother'sRama 9Was enthroned.

economic growth

In Asia after World War II,Socialist state OfDemocratic Republic of Vietnam(Since 1945),People's Republic of China(1949-) was established one after another.East and West on the Indochina PeninsulaCold WarNot justFirst Indochina War,Vietnam WarAnd linked to itLao Civil War,Cambodia Civil WarThe war continues, and Thailand alsoCommunismThreatened by[40]..In particular, in the Laotian Civil War, military intervention began in 1970.North Vietnamese ArmyThe impact on Thailand was minimized while causing deaths due to the fierce battle with[41]..In addition, due to the large amount of support from the United States as a "communist breakwater," communism was avoided.[42]..On the other hand, the border with Cambodia is constantly unstable, and in 1977, border guards were shot and injured by the Cambodian army.[43]In the 1990sKhmer RougeThe skirmish continued for a long time until it disappeared.

In addition, gradually against the background of the high education level of the people and the rich landIndustrialized countryIn 1967, he sought a way toAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsJoined (ASEAN) from the time of its formation. In 1989Asia-Pacific Economic CooperationParticipated in (APEC) from the time of its formation.

From around this time, the shift to full-scale industrialization was promoted against the backdrop of the advancement of large companies in Japan and Western countries, and with that as the background.High economic growthStarted, mainly in big cities such as BangkokinfrastructureMaintenance will also proceed rapidly. In 1992May bloodshed revolution(พฤษภาทมิฬ) occurred, butRama 9Settled by (King Bhumibol) arbitration[44].

Now

Started in 1997Asian currency crisisAs a result, the Thai economy temporarily stagnated, but after that it showed a rapid recovery, and the number of Japanese and Chinese companies entering the market increased.Now expensive againeconomic growth rateMaintains[45], Representative in Southeast AsiaIndustrialized countryContinues to maintain its position as[46]..However, from around 2006Thaksin ChinawatPolitical instability between the faction and the anti-Thaksin faction has intensified, and political instability continues, including a coup d'etat.

In 2006Military coupThe civil affairs under the Thai Constitution in 1997 were suspended, and the Thaksin administration collapsed.The coup was slaughtered by the King's intervention and immediately of the Army GeneralSonthi BoonyaragarinA military government was inaugurated with the prime minister.In the same year, a provisional constitution was promulgated.Surayud ChulanonHas become prime minister.

In August 2007, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand was promulgated in 8, and the return to civilian rule began. A former Prime Minister of Thaksin, who was ousted in a coup d'etat after the House of Representatives election was held on December 2007, 2007 and the result of the election in January 12.Samak SundaravejFormer Governor of Bangkok became Prime Minister.However, in September of the same year, the Constitutional Court, which is said to be pro-Takshin, launched a judicial coup d'etat that made Samak unconstitutional in his appearance on commercial TV and dismissed him. In October, he was the brother-in-law of former Prime Minister Thaksin.Somchai Wong SawatWas appointed prime minister, but again the Constitutional Court blamed the ruling party for ostensibly violating the elections from the previous year.People's Power PartyHe issued an order to dismiss the party and also dismissed Prime Minister Somchai.As a result, in December of the same year, the opposition partyDemocratic PartyTook power without going through a general electionAbhisit WeachachiwaBecomes the prime minister.

Since then, from 2009 to 2010, there has been a large-scale demonstration calling for a general election by citizens led by the former Prime Minister Thaksin (commonly known as the "Red Shirts"), but the Abhisit administration thoroughly conducted the demonstration. Hundreds of victims were killed in the crackdown (Dark saturday).

2011 general electionThen, of the former Prime Minister ThaksinThai Contribution PartyWon a big winYinlac ShinawatraBecame prime minister.However, from the end of 2013, it was the first time in about five years by an anti-Thaksin armed demonstrator.Antigovernment demonstrationThere has occurred.Then, in May 2014, the Constitutional Court launched a judicial coup that dismissed Prime Minister Yingluck, unconstitutionalizing the appointment of senior government officials under the Yingluck administration.

On May 2014, 5, the Armed ForcesMilitary coupAnd the former Prime Minister YingluckNiwatthamrong Bunson PaisanHe detained high-ranking government officials such as acting prime minister one after another.Abolishing the Constitution and Parliament and taking control of the army generalPlayut Chan OchaIs the leaderMilitary regimeDeclared the establishment of.

In 2015, the Kingdom of Thailand amended political reforms and related laws to allow foreigners to be sentenced to death if they were involved in corruption, and extended the statute of limitations for prosecutors who fled the country by 10 years20. It was decided to set the year (enforced on July 2015, 7).At this pointThaksinFormer Prime Minister is outside Thailand andIn rackThe former prime minister has been put on hold[47].

Political instability

In ThailandDeveloping countryOften seen inPolitical changePolitical instability caused by military coups and military coups, and the suppression of democratization movements by the military occurred frequently.After the Cold War in 1992, it was temporarily stable and was called the "democratic honor student" in Southeast Asia.[48]..However, in 2006 the military resumed political involvement.2006 Thai Military CoupThere has occurred.Also among the parliamentary factions, the 31st Prime MinisterThaksin ChinawatAbout the treatment ofAnti-dictatorship democratic front(UDD, Red Clothes Corps)People's Alliance for Democratic CitizensTwo political groups (PAD, Yellow Clothes Corps) have been formed and have become sharply opposed, and the situation since 2 has been extremely unstable.

In 2011, a member of the Diet who supports the former Thaksin administration in the general election belongsThai Contribution Party(New Party Puatai) wins, Thaksin's younger sisterYinlac ShinawatraBecame the 36th prime minister, and the confrontation between the parliamentary factions was settled, and the activities of UDD and PAD also subsided.The Yingluck administration considered implementing a large-scale amnesty (national reconciliation law) to both the enemy and the ally in order to liquidate the past, but the ironic consequence is that the conflict will reignite depending on whether or not the former Prime Minister Thaksin is also amnesty. Was born.In addition, he was a big player in the anti-Thaksin faction.Suthep to AxpanFormer Deputy Prime Minister outside parliament away from anti-Thaksin oppositionRiot-Direct actionThe turmoil culminated in inciting the sedition, resulting in an unusual situation in which the general elections held at the end of 2013 could not be officially held (2013 Thai anti-government demonstration).

The military has shown no willingness to intervene in the conflict between Thaksin and anti-Thaksin factions, but while the Yingluck administration has been forced to resign due to the appointment of relatives as ministers, universal suffrage has been abolished.People's AssemblyThe 16th coup d'etat was finally carried out amid deepening turmoil, such as the intensification of anti-Thaksin demands such as the establishment of2014 Thai Military Coup).After the coupThai ArmyIs all over the countryMartial lawIs announced, and at the same time the constitution is suspendedBasic human rightsTemporarily restricting, and the Army General Commander for the governmentPlayut Chan OchaIs chaired byMilitary administrationMigrated to.With the support of the King, the military junta aimed at restoring security was appointed as the 37th Prime Minister after the provisional Prime Minister by the Commander General of the Army Prayut and the Chairman of the Council.

As a means of blocking the anti-government movementFreedom of the pressTotally restricting, taking control of Thai domestic broadcasting stations,BBC World News,NHK World TV,NHK World Premium,CNNSuch as overseas satellite broadcasting news channelsCable TVEstablish a blackout that does not disconnect or distribute the service,Social networking services OfcensorshipEtc. are also being strengthened.In addition, indefinitelyCurfewThe capitalBangkokActivated throughout Thailand (Pattaya,プ ー ケ ッ トSome tourist spots are currently canceled), but if you go out without permission, you will be detainedShooting deadAlso possible[49]..Besides thisBlasphemyDiscussion over the abolition ofBangkok metropolitan areaFrequent declarations of state of emergency for protests in southern ThailandrubberPlantationDissatisfaction with the rubber purchase price,Deep south OfIslamFollowing the conflict against rebel armed groups and MalaysiaSouthern LineDestruction of railroad tracks,World Heritage Sites in CambodiaIsPreah Vihear Temple(Thai name "Pravihan") In the border problem around, due to the glaring between the two armies with CambodiaBorder dispute between Thailand and CambodiaAnd so on.As of June 2020, a curfew has been enforced in Bangkok.[50] But this isNew coronavirus infectionIt is a measure, not due to political instability.

JapanMinistry of Foreign AffairsIt is,BangkokPlease refer to the above-mentioned area (Narathiwat Province,Yala Province,Pattani,Songkhla Province(The above is southern Thailand) andSisaket(Northeast)) "Please consider whether to travel"Danger informationWas out.Embassy of Japan in ThailandIs the image color of both sides to prevent being misunderstood as a member of the Anti-Authoritarian Democratic Front and the People's Alliance for Democracy and getting into trouble.red-黄色 OfclothesDon't wear it. "

After the demise of King Rama IX in October 2016, a new constitution was enacted by the military government, but it was difficult and the new kingRama 10A new constitution with enhanced authority came into force in April 2017[51].

On October 2020, 10, students will follow the flow of military affairs until 14Playut Chan OchaDemonstrations demanding the resignation of the administration started in Bangkok.The demonstration was large, with the addition of groups claiming to reform the taboo royal family. On October 10, the government declared a state of emergency, but the demonstrations expanded to local cities. At the rally on October 15, security officials began spraying water on Bangkok demonstrators and excluding them.[52].

Geography

Thailand is roughly divided into four regions, and each region shows various faces.

NorthHas a relatively cool climate with wide mountainous areas.The highest peak in ThailandDoi Inthanon(2,576 meters) is also in this area.

NortheastIs almost all overKhorat PlateauSpreads.The environment is such that it is difficult for crops to grow due to low rainfall, and it is also a representative of poor areas.

CenterToChao Phraya RiverFormed by Chao PlayadeltaA rich flat land called, one of the best in the worldRice cultivationCreating a zone.

The Chao Phraya RiverNan riverPing riverAt the intersection,Nakhon Sawan ProvinceIt starts with.There is a lot of water in the Ping River.

The province of the Chao Phraya River basin is outside Bangkok,Uthai Thani Province,Chinat province,Sing Buri Province,Ang Thong ProvinceAyutthaya.Chinat provinceIt is divided into the Tachin River and the Chao Phraya River, and after the Tachin River flows parallel to the Chao Phraya River,Samut Sakhon ProvinceFrom the Chao Phraya RiverSamut Prakan ProvinceからGulf of ThailandLeading to.

Southern TheMalay PeninsulaIs also part ofRubber treeIn addition to expanding the fields, until recent yearsTinMining was thriving.It is also famous for having a longer rainy season than the central part.Thai government is the Malay Peninsula in the southcanalplan(KurachikyoCanal development plan) has been proposed, but it is still under consideration.

climate

The climate of ThailandKöppen climate classificationThen.熱 帯Classified by gender,monsoonThe influence of is large. From mid-May to around October, the air is moist and warm.SquallFeatures such as(I.e.Is hit by.In the north and central regions, rainfall is high from August to October, often洪水Is caused (Thai Flood (2011)Such).After that, there is little rain from November to mid-March, and the dry season is relatively cool, with the peak of coldness around December.Even in Bangkok, the minimum temperature may drop below 11 degrees Celsius depending on the year. From March to May, it has a very hot climate called the hot season.[53]..However, the east coast of the peninsula has a lot of rainfall and high temperatures throughout the year.[54].

Royal family

Constitutional monarchy

Until the early 2010sConstitutional monarchyAnd the king in peacetimeSymbolic existencewas.However, there is often direct or indirect intervention by the king in political crises.It occurred in 1992 even in recent yearsMay bloodshed revolutionAt that time, King Bhumibol entered into arbitration, and even during the political crisis of 2006 and 2014, he directly intervened in the issue of the advancement and retreat of the Thaksin Prime Minister, and his influence on the politics and the armed forces is extremely large. In 2017, a new constitution was enacted that greatly strengthened the authority of the king.

Royal reform request

In the democratization movement in Thailand, royal reforms such as the elimination of blasphemy (described later) and the review of royal property management were proposed at the demonstration in August 2020.In response to this, in the same month, an organization called "Thai Pakdi" (Thai Loyalty) was established to oppose the royal reform from the standpoint of respecting the Thai royal family and appeal to the people that the royal family and politics (confusion and corruption) are irrelevant.[55].

King's popularity

Traditionally, the peopleWangjiaIs educated to pay veneration to.The birthday of the king or queenpublic holidayMany people wear the "color of the day of the week" when the king was born.[56](Former KingRama 9In the case of yellow, alsoSiri kitThe color of the former queen (empress dowager) is blue, and the queen's birthday is "Mother's Day", and an event to thank her mother is held).Also, the kingprincessBefore and after his birthday肖像画Is displayed all over the country.Even in daily life, photos of the king, from homes and office buildings of the people to shops and food stalls,カレンダーAnd portraits are displayed.Movie theaterThen, before the main screening, the image of the king is shown along with the "King's Hymn", and during that time, it is customary for the audience to stand up and show respect.In particular, the former king, Rama IX (Pumipon Adunrayadate), was very popular with the people because of his personality and high level of insight.[57].. In 2011, King Rama IX at that time turned 9 years old, from the birth of the king.Zodiac signsCelebrating seven rounds, as of 7, it's unparalleled in the worldRegular heptagonStamp was issued[58].. On November 2016, 10King Bhumibol Adu Bhumibol Date (Pumipon) demise[1].. July 12 of the same yearWachira Long Corn King of thailandToCoronation official[1].

Exchange with the Japanese imperial family

JapaneseRoyal familyAnd Thai successive dynasties (Ayutthaya dynasty,Thonburi dynasty,Chakri Dynasty) Has had an intimate relationship for about 600 years (Japan at that timeMuromachi Period[59], This intimate relationship between the imperial family and the royal family is the basis of the close relationship between the two countries.[60]. Also,Akishinomiya FumihitoIn addition, there are frequent public and private visits to the imperial and royal members of both countries.

Blasphemy

21st centuryEven if you enterBlasphemyIs one of the few sovereign nations that exists, and recently, images and videos that criticize and insult the king have been posted.YouTubeIn some cases, browsing access to is blocked for a long time.[61][62].

Acts deemed to be "profane" can be subject to punishment, regardless of whether they are citizens or foreign residents.The maximum sentence is oneimprisonmentIn 15 yearsFacebookIn some cases, a man who repeatedly criticized the royal family was sentenced to 2017 years in prison in 35. The military government, which was established in the 2014 coup d'etat, has charged more than 98 people with blasphemy, but the detection has stopped since September 2018.This was crowned in 9Rama 10It is presumed to be the intention of (King Wachiralongkorn) and the reason for avoiding criticism of the royal family.Prime Minister Prayut also said in June 2020 that "the mercy of the king" was the reason.Instead, royal rumors and other rumors on the Internet have been arrested and prosecuted under the Computer Crimes Act (CCA) in Thailand.Freedom of speechIs extremely limited[63].

Politics

The de facto supreme leader in Thailand is the chairman of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO).PlayutA general. NCPO announced on May 2014, 5Military coupThe organization was founded by the military government, which took full control of the government, and the chairman also serves as the prime minister.Executive branchAndLegislative officeTaru National Legislative Assembly (abolished in coup d'etat)National AssemblyHas more authority than (established in place of the House of Representatives) and has judicial powerConstitutional courtIt also exerts political influence on.The majority of members of the National Legislative Assembly are military personnel and veterans of the Armed Forces.

Head of state

Political system TheConstitutional monarchyAndKing of thailandIs a nationHead.Chakri Dynasty..Its authority is restricted by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, and it is the NCPO chairman who takes control of it.[Note 1].

Administration

The chief executive officer of national affairsprime minister.Central government agencyIsMinistry of Commerce,Ministry of Interior,Ministry of Agriculture and CooperativesThere are about 20 provinces.

legislation

Royal Thai ArmyGeneral commanderPlayut Chan Ocha 2014ToMilitary coupSince he became prime minister on August 8 of the same year, abolished the constitution and parliament, and took control.Party politicsProhibitMilitary regimeIt is continuing.The legislature after the coup is the "National Legislative Assembly".Chan-o-cha2018He had announced that he would hold a general election in November.[64] However, in January of the same year, the National Assembly passed a law to postpone the enforcement of the election law for 1 days, and it was postponed to February 90.[65].

Currently suspended国会Is up and downBicameral system OfParliamentary democracyIs takingRattasapar (รัฐสภาIs called.Parliament is Supper Putaen Rasadawn (500 seats)สภาผู้แทน ราษฎร) Of the people's electionHouse of RepresentativesUtti Sapper (House of Representatives) and 150 seats (2007 people from one prefecture have been elected since 1, and the rest are appointed)วุฒิสภา) CalledSenateConsists of (Senate).The term of office of the House of Representatives is four years and can be re-elected, and the term of office of the Senate is six years and only one term.The prime minister is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Senate does not have the right to draft laws.

The last election was voted on February 2014, 2, and was held by Prime Minister Takshinketsu.In rackThe Thai Contribution Party led by the Prime Minister won overwhelmingly.However, on March 3, the Constitutional Court, which was allegedly prone to the former Prime Minister of Japan, disapproved of the election results and issued a ruling invalidating the general election, overthrowing the Yingluck administration (judicial coup).

judicial

Judiciary is Sarn Deaker (ศาลฎีกา) Has the Thai Supreme Court.The Supreme CourtjudgeAre all appointed by the king.

Rebels / Discrimination

Three prefectures in the deep southThen someMalay systemResidents have been moving away from each other for some time, but in recent years the situation has deteriorated andPatani Liberation FrontOrganizations such asPattani KingdomThere is a movement to carry out anti-government activities with the reconstruction of the government as the cause.Once to the southern Malay PeninsulaAyutthaya morningInvaded for annexation,LightTied withMalacca KingdomThis attempt was abandoned by.

Eastern ThailandNorthSo once communism by ethnic minoritiesGuerrillaAnti-government activities were active, but in the 1980s these activities have almost subsided.

Discrimination remainsHomosexuality,Women's clothingSuch asCross dressandSex changeTolerant toShemaleIt is also famous for having many.Sex reassignment surgery is also legal and accepts many patients from overseas who wish to have sex reassignment surgery.

But,BuddhismEven in Thailand, the country, discrimination against ethnic minorities is not uncommon.In northeastern ThailandIsan people,LaoHas been discriminated against and prejudiced by people in central Thailand, especiallyStandard languagePeople in northeastern Thailand who cannot speak are subject to discrimination.

In addition, Thailand has historically been regarded as a buffer zone for Britain and France.ColonyIt has never been made, and it is still richer than the surrounding countries of the Indochina Peninsula.Thai TheLao people,CambodianPatriotism may be revealed to.However, this kind of personality and behavior is common among young people today, and not so often among older people.

外交

Cold WarAlthough it was a Western strategy based on an alliance with the United States during the period, it has traditionally developed and maintained flexible omnidirectional diplomacy.ASEANCooperation with countries, Japan and the People's Republic of China,MalaysiaThe basic policy of diplomacy is to cooperate with major neighboring countries.

However, since the military dictatorship was established by the coup d'etat in 2014, Thailand has deepened its ties with China.Japan and Western countries blame the coup and keep a distance from Thailand's military regime, but China supports the current administration[66], Clarifying the stance of strengthening relations with Thailand[67].

During the time of Prime Minister Thaksin, he strengthened relations with neighboring countries in Southeast Asia and with major countries.Free trade agreement(FTA) From July 2008 to December 7, ASEAN's aiming for a core position in the region, such as conducting economic-centered diplomacy to conclude (FTA) and advocating "Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD)" It was decided to serve as the presidency.

A series of summit meetings (ASEAN + 2009) related to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations will be held from April 4 to 9, 12.PattayaIt was scheduled at, but on the 11th, it is a former Prime Minister's group of Thaksin.Anti-dictatorship democratic frontIt was forced to cancel due to the invasion of demonstrators protesting the Apisit administration such as (red shirt group).At one point, a state of emergency was issued throughout the region.

Located on the border with Cambodia in August 2010Preah Vihear Temple(Thai:Pravihan) The conflict intensifies again over the territory near the ruins.It all started at a rally in Bangkok on August 2010, 8 by the anti-Thaksin group Democratic Citizens' Union (PAD) to dispel public dissatisfaction due to political turmoil.Nationalism-nationalismThe country's media reports that Prime Minister Abhisit, who advocated explicit hard-line diplomacy based on the above, said that he would "use both diplomatic and military means."Prime Minister AbhisitWorld Heritage ConventionHe had announced his withdrawal from.

In 2011, it forced an attack on Cambodia and involved residents.Border dispute between Thailand and CambodiaCaused.The conflict killed nearly 30 soldiers and residents on both sides and injured more than 100.[68]..Border disputes continued near the temple ruins, but the Thaksin factionThai Contribution PartyWhen the ruling party became the ruling party, reconciliation with Cambodia progressed.In addition, the withdrawal from the World Heritage Convention was withdrawn.However, even now that the border dispute is coming to an end, Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs continues to provide dangerous information near the Thai-Cambodian border.

Japan

It can be said that Thailand and Japan both have a long relationship at the national leader level, and the relationship between the two peoples is also deep.During the Kingdom of Ayutthaya,Yamada NagamasaVisited Ayutthaya during King Songtham's reign and was appointed governor of Nakhon Si Thammarat, where he later died.[69].

In 1900, King Rama VIndiaDiscovered in the north and transferred to SiamStupaJapan is also selected as a Buddhist country when distributing a part of. (Nitaiji)

During World War II, the Thai government had an alliance with Japan.Japanese troops entered the capital and used several government offices.In addition, the Thai government has allowed Japanese troops to lay railroads in Myanmar and India.[70].

Was signed in 1942,Ken YanagisawaWas to be built in Bangkok by the director, but it was not completed due to the defeat of Japan.[71][72].

Currently, about 5 Thais live in Japan, and it is estimated that about 4 Japanese live in Thailand.

In 2005, 1,196,654 Japanese tourists visited Thailand, accounting for 10.35% of Thai foreign tourists.It is second only to Malaysia.The number of Thai tourists visiting Japan was 2, an increase of 168,456%, which was equivalent to 17.68% of overseas tourists, ranking 5.53th.

Assumption UniversityABAC Pole Research InstituteCarried out bypollaccording to,ThaiMy favorite country is Japan[73].

Occurred in Japan on March 2011, 3Great East Japan EarthquakeAt that time, the Thai government is providing food assistance to Japan.We also planned a support event for Japan, "Thai For Japan".National Assembly4 million in the name ofBahtWas funded[74]..In addition, the Thai government has 1 tons of rice and 5000 million baht.(I.e.Approved the victim support budget.

August 2011, 3,Great East Japan EarthquakeThai people towards the victims ofDonationFor providing support such asEmbassy of Japan in ThailandIs a half-page thank youAdsWas published in a local newspaper[75].Embassy of Japan in ThailandAccording to the newspaper, it was published free of charge in good faith.[75]..The advertisement features the flags of Japan and Thailand,Japanese,タイ 語,English"Thank you for your warm support and support for the Japanese people."[75].Embassy of Japan in ThailandI have a banner with a similar message before,Embassy of Japan in ThailandCreated it by spending about 5 baht, but the vendor says that there is no charge.Embassy of Japan in ThailandSays, "I'm going to pay this."[76].

2018May 3,Foundation"" Announced,America,The United Kingdom,Thailand,Chugoku, South Korea,FranceConducted for about 6 citizens of each of the 1000 countriespollAs a result, Thailand's liking for Japan was the highest among the six countries, at 6%.[77]..Furthermore, the percentage of those who answered that they can trust Japan was also the highest in Thailand at 96.2%.[77].

Policemen

Military

scale

Thai ArmyRegular troops are 30 (army19 people,Navy7,air force4), menConscription systemHas a two-year military service obligation.Which of the land, sea and air will be assigned (or exempted from drafting) will be drawn by lottery (black vote: exemption, exemption)Red vote: Military service), But bribes to escape drafting are still frequent.The Navy is the toughest of these, and some will die just by drawing a Navy lottery.[78]..In addition, the Navy is chronically understaffed, and although a considerable number of prisoners are allocated, the number of crew members on ships is still only about 70%.

otherReserve roleThere are 20 people.The annual military budget was 2003 billion in 19.American dollarWas recorded.

Recent trends

Synchronized with the United States for one year from October 2003(I.e.ToEngineerAnd medical troops were dispatched.Also, in October 2008, there were two small clashes with Cambodia, which has border problems (Preah Vihear Temple #Border issue between Cambodia and Thailand).

Intervention in politics

2006 times, including attempts discovered by 16 after World War IICoup d'etatThe more you plan and execute, the stronger the political orientation of the upper military.It happened in September 2006Royal Thai Army OfSonthi BoonyaragaringeneralLeadBloodless coup by the Army and policeSince then, until the return to civilian rule in 2007, he was a former Army commander appointed by the "Democratic Reform Council" led by the Army and served as a geheimrat.Surayud ChulanonDe facto, led by the Prime MinisterMilitary regimeWas run by the state.

And in 2014Military coupAndPlayutA military dictatorship led by the general was established.

Economy

2015 in ThailandGDPIs about $3,952 billion[80],Southeast AsiaThen.IndonesiaIt is the second largest economy.GDP per capita in the same year was $ 1, which is the same as that of neighboring countries.Cambodia,Laos,MyanmarMuch higher and aboveIndonesiaIt is a higher number than.According to the Thai Statistics Bureau, the average household income in 2009 was 2 baht per month. Average per capita income is THB 903 per month[81].

High economic growth

The high economic growth since the 1980s has been tremendous against the backdrop of economic stability and the active entry of foreign companies, and Thailand recorded an average annual economic growth rate of 1985% for the 1995 years from 10 to 9.But,Asian currency crisis(1997) caused the economy to stagnate.At this time, Thailand is 1DollarIt was fixed at / 25 bahtFixed exchange rate systemAbolished. In January 1998, the price dropped to $ 1 / baht, and the economic scale deteriorated by 1%.

This crisis led to the abolition of family control of Thai conglomerates and the entry of foreign capital.However, as Thailand actively exported to foreign countries, the economic growth rate again recorded the 1999% level in 4 and the 2003% level in 6, which turned into a booming economy.Against the backdrop of this boom, the rise of the middle class is occurring.Coup d'etatIn 2008, it was slightly sluggish at 2.5% due to the influence of the above, and in 2009Lehman shockThere is also -2.3% and negative growth is also high again in 2010 with 7.8%.In this way, economic growth varies from year to year, and is somewhat calm from the tremendous economic growth seen in the late 80s and early 90s.

According to a household survey by the Thai Statistics Bureau, the average income per household is 1 baht per month.The average household income in the Bangkok metropolitan area is 2 baht per month, and the average household income in northeastern Thailand, which is the lowest by region, is 903 baht per month.The national average per capita income is 3 baht per month.The economic disparity of the people is said to be large.

Agriculture:

Of the Kingdom of ThailandAgriculture:Is highly competitive and its exports are highly successful internationally.riceIs the country's most importantAgricultural productsAnd the Kingdom of Thailand is a major player in the global rice marketOutputIt is counted as one of the countries.Also, as another agricultural product that is produced in a relatively large amount,tapioca,Natural rubber,穀物,sugarAnd so on.Northern Thailand is a major producer of Black Ivory Coffee.Besides this,pineappleExports of processed foods are on the rise.Also, in the coastal areasshrimp OfAquacultureEtc. are also carried out, and the processed products are also exported.

The development of agriculture in recent years has continued since the 1960s,Unemployment rateDropped from more than 2000% to less than 60% in the early 10s[82]..Over the same period, food prices have halved and hunger has decreased (from 1988 million households in 255 to 2007 households in 41.8).children `smalnutritionDecreased significantly (from 1987% in 17 to 2006% in 7)[82].. this is,infrastructureInvestment Guarantee and Education, Right to Use Loans,AgribusinessAchieved through a mix of strong and positive roles, such as private sector-led success in the field[82]..This supported the transition of the Kingdom of Thailand to an industrialized economy[82].

Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionIn response to this, in April 2020, the Thai government called for a "national movement to grow home-grown vegetables," including households other than farmers, and as of June, 4% of the population, more than 6 million households, participated.eggplant,Okra,CorianderCultivate such as.The portion that could not be eaten was shared in the neighborhood or sold in the market.Supporting households during the economic crisis,Food self-sufficiencyBy improvementFood securityother thanFormer King BhumibolThere was also the purpose of practicing the "economy that knows enough" that[83].

Tourism industry

Thailand is a rare culture in the world,Mountainous area,amusement park,Shopping mall,world Cultural Heritage,ResortIt has a lot of tourism resources with abundant variations such as.Because it can be enjoyed by men and women of all agesBackpackerNot only that, many families also visit.Suvarnabhumi International AirportIs in Southeast AsiaHub airportIn addition to neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Japan, Europe and the United States,AustraliaMany fromTourismAttracting customerstourismIs one of the major means of earning foreign currency.

The number of tourists to Thailand has been increasing continuously since the 2000s, reaching about 2007 million in 1500.[84]..During this time, the tourism environment was not good.SARS(2002)bird-flu(2003) and so on[84]..But in Thailandworld HeritageSuch as(I.e.,Phuket islandIn addition to being blessed with tourism resources such as rich nature such aspublic facilityAnd commercial facilities are being developed by development in ThailandtourismHas a positive impact on[84].

Behind this favorable tourism is the gentle national character of Thais, which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand has introduced as a characteristic of their own people.RacismIs also in the background[84].

Export base to ASEAN countries

As a result of focusing on education, since the 1980s, the expansion of factories of companies in Japan and Western countries has been conspicuous, focusing on the high level of education, low wages, and the expansion of the domestic market due to the increase in the middle class.In additionTariffIt is used as an export base to ASEAN countries with special benefits.

Relationship with Japan

Japan has the largest amount of trade, investment and aid for ThailandToyota,Honda,Nissan Motor,Isuzu,Hino MotorsSuch asAutomobileMany related companies are expanding.It is also an air conditioning manufacturerDaikinIn addition to supplying to the domestic market, many home appliance manufacturers such as these are also using it as an export base to ASEAN countries with tariff benefits.

As of 2015, more than 1,700 Japanese companies have entered the market, and in November 2007.Japan-Thailand Economic Partnership AgreementIs expected to further strengthen economic relations not only in trade but also in a wide range of fields such as investment and government procurement.

As of 2015, the top foreigners living in Thailand were Americans, followed by Chinese, Australians, British and Japanese, with 5 in fifth place.

National capital company

As a major Thai-owned company, the airlineThai AirwaysAnd Bangkok Airways,Shin BeerBoon Rawd Brewery, famous forBeer churnThere is a famous Thai brewery.In addition, since 2001, Japan has been aiming to promote local industries, inherit traditional culture, and secure income sources for the poor.Oita"One Village One Product Movement(One Tambon One Product / OTOP), which has been very successful.

Business customs

bribeAnd backmargin,rebateBusiness customs such as these will persist even in the 2000s. Performed by a domestic university in 2012Public worksIn the example of the questionnaire survey on orders received, 85% of the respondents answered that they needed a bribe.[85].

Area classification

76 prefectures and capital prefecturesBangkokDivided into cities[86].

North

Uthai Thani Province - Uttaradit Province - Kamphaeng Phet - Sukhothai - Tak province - Chiang Mai Province - Chiang Rai Province - Nan province - Nakhon Sawan Province - Phayao - Phitsanulok Province - Phichit - Phrae - Phetchabun Province - Mae Hong Son - Lampang Province - Lamphun Province

Central part

Ang Thong Province - Ayutthaya - Kanchanaburi Province - Sa Kaeo - Samut Sakhon Province - Samut Songkhram Province - Samut Prakan Province - Saraburi Province - Sing Buri Province - Suphan Buri - Chinat province - Chachoengsao Province - Chanthaburi Province - Chonburi Province - Trat province - Nakhon Nayok Province - Nakhon Pathom Province - Nonthaburi - Pathum Thani Province - Bangkok - Prachinburi Province - Prachuap Khiri Khan Province - Phetchaburi Province - Ratchaburi Province - Rayong Province - Lopburi Province

Northeast

Amnat Charoen - Udon Thani Province - Ubon Ratchathani Province - Kalasin Province - Khon Kaen - Sakon Nakhon Province - Sisaket - Surin Province - Chaiyaphum - Buriram Province - Nakhon Phanom Province - Nakhon Ratchasima Province - Nong Khai Province - Nong Bua Lam Phu Province - Bueng Kan Province - Mahasarakham Province - Mukdahan Province - Yasothon - Loei province - Roi Et

Southern

Krabi Province - Satun - Surat Thani Province - Songkhla Province - Chumphon Province - Trang province - Nakhon Si Thammarat Province - Narathiwat Province - Pattani - Phatthalung Province - Phang Nga Province - Phuket - Yala Province - Ranong Province

reference:Province of Thailand

Major cities

The following cities have a population of over 5 and 3,000 people / km2Urban area with population density ofChiang Mai) Has a county (Amphoe).

The following are areas where autonomy is permitted by special laws for economic development.

Transportation

道路

On the leftIs.Once land transportationTrainIt was central, but a road construction plan was made in 1933, and by 1940, 2,215 kilometers of roads had been built.[87]..After World War II, due to speculation about neighboring Vietnam, road maintenance progressed with the grant aid of the U.S. government and the cooperation of each country.[87].. In 1991, the road length reached 20 kilometers, changing from a railway-centered to a road-centered land transportation system.[87].

Train

State Railway of ThailandRailroad network connects major cities in the country.Also, between neighboring Malaysia and Singapore beyondMurray RailwayIt is connected by.In addition, there is a railway line to the border between Laos and Cambodia.Mekong RiverThere is also a plan to extend to both countries along with the watershed development plan.

Passenger cars that are no longer used in Japan are exported and used.Blue trainIs also in the fieldJRCalled a "class," it was popular for its high comfort despite the extra charge, but retired on November 2016, 11.The vehicle is on hold.

Serious in Bangkok metropolitan areaTraffic jamOn December 1999, 12Bangkok SkytrainElevated railway called (BTS), in 2004Bangkok MetroSubways called (MRT) have opened one after another.Also,Suvarnabhumi International AirportHead toAirport rail linkOpened on August 2010, 8, and will be partially opened in 23Red lineUrban transportation is becoming very convenient.

Taxi

Samlow and tuk-tuk

In Southeast AsiaTaxiThe typical and classic image of is a three-wheeled bicycle.In Thai, it is called (meaning Miwa).In the urban area of ​​Bangkok, entry was prohibited because the development of traffic hindered smooth traffic, but it can be seen that it is active in rural areas.

Another three-wheeled one has an engineSamlow(Tuk-tukThere is also), which was also a specialty of Bangkok, but it can be said that it has stepped down from the leading role from a practical point of view due to the development of transportation.However, even if it is too big to fit in a taxi, it can be loaded with a tuk-tuk, and it can be useful because it can make small turns and pass through traffic jams and narrow roads.Today, it is mainly used as a vehicle for tourists.In rural areas, those with a three-wheeled engine are still used as the main taxi, but the shape is different from the one seen in Bangkok, and many of them have a simpler shape with a loading platform at the front of the motorcycle.

Meter taxi

The leading role of taxis in urban areas such as BangkokAir conditionerIt is a meter taxi with a sticker, and various companies run taxis with colorful coloring.The car model isToyota Corolla Artis,Nissan SunnyMainly Japanese cars such as.Many taxis in Bangkok are relatively clean because they may have to be replaced with new ones after a certain number of years from the viewpoint of safety and exhaust gas regulations.The initial fare is 35 baht, which is generally cheaper than a tuk-tuk.Although it is illegal to refuse to board or use a meter in Bangkok, some drivers still offer a higher fare without using the meter depending on the time of day or when a traveler is boarding.It is advisable to habitually tell the destination before boarding and confirm the use of the meter before boarding.

bus

As a means of transportation connecting domestic cities, public transportation is more important than railroads.busIs more developed.There are also many night buses operating on long-distance sections.Urban transportation is also small in most cities except BangkokTrackBus made by remodelingSong Tae) Is common.

Water transportation

Once in BangkokcanalAnd many waterwaysWater transportationIs developing, "OrientalVeniceIt was once touted, but now many of them have been reclaimed and turned into roads.But even nowChao Phraya RiverThere are many shared boats operating in and some canals, and there is a certain demand as a means of transportation that can avoid chronic road congestion.

In June 2001, the Mekong River, which runs along the northern border of Thailand, traveled with Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, and the People's Republic of China.Lancang River --The Mekong River Merchant Ship Traffic Agreement has been signed and is being used as a trade route between countries in the basin.

aviation

Bangkok, the capitalChiang Mai,プ ー ケ ッ トBetween major cities in the country, such as semi-public and semi-privateThai Airways,Cheap airline OfThai AirAsia,Orient Thai Airlines,Bangkok AirwaysIn addition to being connected by airlines such as, these airlines connect with major cities in other countries.

In particularSuvarnabhumi International Airport TheAsia OfHub airportAs one of them, it is used by airlines all over the world as a relay point for the "Kangaroo Route" that connects Europe and Australia.Used before the opening of Suvarnabhumi International AirportDon Muang AirportWas once a domestic airport,Cheap airlineIt has resumed its function as an international airport.Also,Kuala Lumpur,SingaporeThere are many flights to Bangkok from major cities in Southeast Asia such asChiang Mai,Hat Yai,プ ー ケ ッ トThere are also flights to.

Between Japan and ThailandSapporo,Sendai,Tokyo/Narita,Tokyo/Haneda,Osaka,Nagoya,Hiroshima,FukuokaThere are regular flights between Bangkok and Bangkok.Japan AirlinesANA, Thai Airways and other major airlines operate one to several direct flights a day, as well asHong Kong,Taipei,MacaoYou can also go via.In the past, the United StatesDelta AirlinesAlso connected Narita and Bangkok, but it has been suspended as of 2018.

Due to the liberalization of aviation since the 2000s, new airlines have become crowded.Many of them are unprofitable and go bankrupt or suspend operations, and in just a few years, multiple companies have been established and disappeared.

Major airlines in Thailand

There were many other airlines, but most of them are no longer in service.

electricity

JapaneseSumitomo Corporation,Power developmentBy construction such asThermal power plantIs up and running[88]. AlsoThailand Institute of Nuclear Technology-Thailand Nuclear Peaceful Use SecretariatByNuclear power plantConstruction is being researched and examined[89][90].. On November 2010, 11 (EGAT)Japan Nuclear PowerConcluded a nuclear power generation technical cooperation agreement with.

  • 2010: Unit 1[91]
  • June 2014, 6: No. 1 series[92]
  • December 2014, 12: Non-Sengas Thermal Power Plant No. 1 Series[93]
  • Scheduled for June 2015: Uthai No. 6 series in Ayutthaya prefecture (provisional)
  • Scheduled for June 2015: Uthai No. 12 series in Ayutthaya prefecture (provisional)
  • Scheduled for January 2016: North Bangkok Combined Thermal Power Station Unit 1[91]

communication

Tel

Since 2000 in ThailandMobile phoneThe number of subscribers has increased rapidlyInternational Telecommunication UnionAccording to the (ITU), as of 2005, the ratio of mobile phone subscribers was 100 to 42.98 population.[94]..As a major mobile phone operatorAdvanced Info Service (AIS),Total Access Communication (DTAC)The two companies have a share of over 2% in the mobile phone market.[95]..In addition, True (initially True Move), which entered the business in 2002, is steadily gaining subscribers, and competition for market share among businesses is intensifying.GSMThe method is the mainstream, and the number of prepaid service users is also increasing.

On the other handFixed-line phoneThe situation is not so good.Aside from the capital city of Bangkok, in rural areas it is often the case that a general subscriber telephone is set up for a month or two.In addition, it is difficult to secure a line, and noise and crosstalk frequently occur.This is the background to the spread of mobile phones in Thailand.

It is also a Japanese telecommunications venturea2networkThe company uses a mobile phone written in Japanese to send Japanese emails.SMSCorresponding toBerrymobileMobile phone under the brand nameMVNOThe service is provided mainly to long-term residents of the country.

インターネット

インターネットIn the past, the CAT Telecom (CAT) was offered shares by an Internet service provider.ISPIt effectively monopolized and controlled the market by issuing a license, but in 1997World Trade Organization (WTO) The Thai Internet market was officially liberalized in 2005 based on an agreement in basic telecommunications negotiations.Many businesses are now entering the market.

In BangkokInternet cafeThere are many, many of themJapaneseIt corresponds to.Also in urban areasHotel,空港Then.Public wireless LANIs fulfilling.Besides, in recent yearsBroadbandMaintenance is underway, and in urban areasADSLServices are becoming more widespread, but the lines are often congested and slow.In addition, the development of the Internet connection environment in rural areas has been delayed, and the gap with urban areas, especially the capital Bangkok, is large.

Connection restrictions

Ministry of Information Technology and Communications(MICT) isBlasphemy,TreasonIt may block things that may conflict with, porn sites, etc., and in Thailand on the InternetFreedom of expressionCan be said to be virtually regulated and restricted.Most of them are porn sites[96] However, Thailand's free-speech private agency FACT has pointed out that the number of sites blocked by MICT has increased sharply since the 2006 military coup.[97].. In March 2010WikiLeaksStarted restricting access to.Officially based on a state of emergency, but details are unknown[98].

People

People

Thai75%,Chinese14%, other Malays,Indian,Hmong,KarenAnd so on.

In addition, on March 2018, 8Asahi Shimbun digitalAccording to the report, mainly on ethnic minorities in border areas and mountainous areas.CitizenshipIt is said that there are about 48 inhabitants living without a hometown, and in July 2018Accident in Tam Luang CaveIt was discovered that the three boys and coaches rescued in Japan were stateless, and reportedly granted nationality to four.[99].

言语

As the main language spoken in Thailandタイ 語,Northern Thai,Southern Thai,Isan,Minnan Language(Chaozhou),Khmer language((English edition),JawiThere is.


Person's name

After 1962, the surname law and all laws related to names were abolished.Buddhist calendarThe Personal Name Act was enacted in 2505.When naming it, something similar to the king's name, a ratchatin nanam that has never been given, a meaningless word, 10syllableOther than using words with the above, it is allowed to name freely.Regarding the surname, previously it was obligatory to give the surname of the husband by marriage, but in 2004 in ThailandConstitutional court"The clause to give the husband's surname is unconstitutional," was ruled unconstitutional.After that, Article 2005 of the Personal Name Law was amended in 12, and regarding the surnames of married groups, "give the surname of a man", "give the surname of a woman", "create a new surname", and "give each one's own surname". (Family name by couple) ”Method is accepted.

Religious

Buddhism(SouthernTheravada Buddhism) 95%,Islam4%,キ リ ス ト 教,otherHinduism,Sikhism,Taoismetc.

Most of Thailand, including the royal familyBuddhistIs occupied by.Most of themTheravada BuddhismAnd also HinduismAnimismIt is a unique Buddhism that takes into account.Chronology TheADIs also used together, but it is still in ThailandBuddhist calendar(Buddhist calendar, Thai calendar) is mainly used.Theravada Buddhist boys once in a lifetimePriestIt is supposed to be done.

SouthernAnd Bangkok,Chiang Mai,Chiang RaiIn areas such asMuslimCan also be seen.In particular, almost all Malays in the three provinces of the deep south are Muslim.

Central part OfChanthaburi ProvinceAnd Bangkok, etc.Coach China OfCatholicDue to the ban, in the early 19th centuryVietnam WarSometimes escapedVietnam peopleFocusing on the groupキ リ ス ト 教徒There are also many.

Education

Education level

Illegal industry is one of the major economic problems in Thailand since ancient times (Reference:Illegal industry in Thailand,Thai migrant industry).The cause of this illegal industry was thought to be the wide gap between rich and poor in the entire population, and the Thai government began to focus on "eradicating poverty" from around the 1960s.

In response to this, especially in the field of education, improvements have been made rapidly since the early 1970s.Literacy rateExceeded 1995% as of 95, and Japan has a particularly high literacy rate in Asia.SingaporeAlong with such, it boasts a high standard in the world.

Compulsory education

Thai'sEducation systemIs a 6-year primary school, a 3-year lower secondary school, and a 3-year upper secondary school.In addition, it should be noted.Compulsory educationIs 9 years until the lower secondary school.

Higher education

In recent years against the backdrop of rapid economic growthHigher educationThe rate of enrollment in Southeast Asia is increasing, and in 2003, the rate of enrollment in universities reached 35.8% (statistics of the Board of Education of the Ministry of Education), which is also high in Southeast Asian countries.In addition, it should be noted.Distance learningHigher education is also popular.

Security

It is sometimes called a peaceful country, but according to the Thai National Police's "Thailand Crime Statistics 2010",殺人The number of incidents (including attempts) was 8,932,robbery(injuryAccompanied bytheftIncluding) 758 cases,rapeThe number of incidents is 4,255, which isSex crimeIs the same size as the United States,アイス ランドAnd less than the UK[100].. 2007 to 2010World Peace IndexIs ranked 149th among the 124 countries surveyed, and is considered to be a country with a low degree of peace.[101]..The crime damage situation of tourists is diverse and groupPickpocket, Hugging pickpockets, pickpockets, theft on long-distance buses, sleeping pill robbery, etc.[100].

Medical / health

Receive medical treatment and medical examinations for wealthy people in countries with low medical standards as well as travelMedical tourismIs developing[102].

Western medicineother than,Medicinal herbThere is Thai traditional medicine that uses such as, and it is used for research and medical treatment by specialized institutions.[103].

According to the Thai Ministry of Public Health, there was a report in ThailandAIDSFrom September 1984 to November 9, the total number of patients was 2011, and the death toll was 11.[104].HIVIt is estimated that more than 100 million people are infected.[104]..It is sometimes said that this is a problem that homosexuals do not wear contraceptives.

culture

Rituals and contraindications

Many etiquettes are stipulated by national law.When greetingWaiと 呼 ば れ るGasshodo.In Thailand, the classes are still subdivided (""Thai royal(See also), different types of Wai's manners are required depending on the relationship with the other party in addition to the class.Also,HinduThere are various strong customs and etiquette.

BuddhismTempleWhen entering, clothes with highly exposed skin are denied viewing.Female MonkTo touch the body ofTaboo.

8 times daily, 18am and 2pm, in central BangkokHua Lamphong StationIn public institutions such as BTS and BTSNational flagAt the same time as hoisting and deferringNational anthemIs played from the speaker.While the national anthem is playing, you have to take off your hat on the spot and take an upright and immovable posture.If you don'tBlasphemyAsked by the police officerArrestMay be done.Also,Chakri DynastyThe people's reverence for (Thai royal family) is very high.If you criticize the royal family, you may also be accused of blasphemy (""Thai National Anthem""Thai royal songSee also).

In addition,moviesBefore the screening of the work,Royal hymnWill be screened.Even at this time, if you do not take off your hat and take an upright and immovable posture, you may be charged with blasphemy.

Art and architecture

The art of this country is Buddhist art throughout the first half except for crafts, but its historical development is the establishment of Thai rule (1300Around) It is different before and after.Southeast AsiaLike the countries, the early days青銅Many of the relicsSouth IndiaSystem orGuptaIt is a small Buddha statue that came from the system,6st centuryOnly after that, art by indigenous peoples appeared.Indigenous peopleDvaravati KingdomThat's the art ofLopburiFocused on. In the 8th and 9th centuries, it took the Indian style of Gupta and showed an excellent style in terms of modeling, and a stone statue of Buddha with ethnic characteristics in the expression of eyes and mouth appeared, wearing a thin transparent garment.A little later than thisShree Vijaya KingdomOn the Malay Peninsula under the influence ofJava,SumatraArt in a style very similar to that of the same period was performed in the 9th and 10th centuries.ChaiyaAnd rigor (Nakhon Si Thammarat) A statue has been found in the vicinity, especially the bronze Roqueshvara (Kannon) The statue is Thailand's most proud relic, which has a high modeling philosophy.

Finally, Thai art is at the northern endChiang SaenMainly in rural areas12st centuryAppear from aroundBurmaIncluding the Buddhist sculpture due to the influence of13st centuryIn parallel with the subsequent unification of the whole country by the Thai people, Thai national art is born.

The architecture is mainly temples.A temple or sangharama is called a vat, and its main hall is a vertically long plan with front and back.Gable roofAndGableIt is common to layer (hafu) on top of each other and give an excessive amount of wooden decoration rather than abundance, and the influence of Burma is most noticeable.The tower is indiaStupaThere are two types of cannonball-shaped ones that have their origins in the temple, and there are many other types of buildings in the temple.Chiang MaiIn IndiaBodh GayaThere is a building that imitatesAncient city ayutthayaWas devastated by the Burmese army in the 18th century, but still retains numerous remains of the 14th and 17th centuries, and there are many royal palace temples and other magnificent temples of the early modern period in Bangkok.

literature

In Thai literatureTheravada Buddhismof"WorkThe idea of ​​"" has been the subject for a long time, andBuddha OfPrevious lifeTanPali Canon"JatakaHas been popular since the Middle Ages[105].

Sukhothai dynastyThe literature of the timesRamkhamhaeng Great InscriptionIt is said to start in.This is the King of Sukhothai,Ram KhamhaengWas the first to mobilize scholars to writeThai charactersWas used.

Thonburi dynasty OfTaksinIsRamayanaAlso known as the Thai version of ""Ramakien』To compile.This work is accompanied by the execution of TaksinChakri Dynasty OfRama 1It was inherited and completed by mobilizing scholars.At the time of this work, Thai narratives were also incorporated, and although the story is similar to the Warmiki version of India, it is a literary work with a completely different taste, and it is frequently quoted in modern literature as a typical example of literature, as well as paintings It had a great influence on (drama).Rama 2-Rama 3In this era, this form of long-form epic poetry flourished.

The times are a little different from the above, but the development of prose isRama 1In the times, in BurmaKonbaung dynastyWritten by a translation group headed by the editor-in-chief to boost motivation in preparation for invasion fromSamecock』(Sangokushi performance), "" And other translated works depicting loyalty servants.This was the dawn of modern Thai prose literature.In particular, "Samcok" has become a model for modern Thai written language due to its high style and the simplicity of its style. "Ratchatirat" is prose, but it uses a lot of old words.

Especially for Rama II, he is sometimes said to be one of the best poets in the world.Sunthorn PhuAppeared.Sunthorn Phu is a masterpiece and is said to be the longest poem in the world by one person.Macaronic mixed bodyCreated "".Co-wrote "" with Rama II and III.Rama 2 TheJava"" Etc. are written based on "" of.In addition, he left behind works such as "" and "" that are still taken up as classic masterpieces.

Food culture:

タ イ 料理

Tom yam kung,Pad thaiThai food such as is becoming popular all over the world, especially in developed countries.Its spicy and diverse taste and healthy ingredients have gained high popularity in many countries including Japan and Western countries, especially in North America and Europe in the 1960s, 1970s and 1990s. Researchers have reported that the opening of restaurants has progressed[106]..In addition, the "Kitchen of the World" project was started by former Prime Minister Thaksin, promoting the international expansion of Thai restaurants.[107].

Since the 1990s, when it became a boom in Japan, it has become a staple of popular foreign cuisine, and there are many Thai restaurants mainly in urban areas, as well as "Geuchai", "Jaitai", and "Jaitai".Coca RestaurantAnd many chain storessupermarketThai foodFoodstuffIs on sale.

A stall

There are so many in Thailand, mainly in urban areasA stallThere is.From light meals such as sweets and noodles that can be seen everywhere for about 1 baht per person, and depending on the locationSwallow's nest,Shark finYou can enjoy various flavors such as soup and other high-class dishes.Many repeat tourists to Thailand are looking forward to dining at this stall, but due to the fact that they are open on the street, it is not always hygienic, so people who are not used to itPer mealIt is said that it may cause.

food court

Department storeAlmost alwaysfood court(Meal ticket type self-service dining room) is attached.LuxurybrandThere is also a food court in a very fashionable department store where only boutiques are located.Although it is a little more expensive than the food stalls, you can still eat from around 30 baht, and many stores give the impression that they are more hygienic than the food stalls.

Thai fruit

Thailand, which belongs to the tropical climatefruitThere are many kinds of food, and it is delicious.Especially in April, which is considered to be the hottest time in ThailandDorian,mangoEtc. are on the market.Thais even call this season the "durian season" and the "mango season".

About Japanese food

In ThailandJapanese cuisine boomIt is said that there are more than 600 Japanese restaurants in Japan.Market size is over 50 billion baht[108].

It is said that the background of the boom is related to the good image of Japanese food that "Japanese ingredients = good for the body".[109]..As an ingredientWasabiIs popular.It has been pointed out that for Thais who like spicy foods, wasabi makes Japanese food their favorite taste.[109].

Entertainment

Tata Young,PalmySuch singers are also in JapanCDReleasedOriconIt is a hit, such as being ranked high in.For internationally renowned pop artistsLarisa Manovan(BLACKPINKLisa) and so on.

Made in Thailand in recent yearsmoviesIs often exported to Japan, and the number of Thai films released in Japan from 2000 to 2006 is 25.[110].. 『Attack number half''Mach!!!!!!!!] And other Thai movies were released nationwide and became a hit mainly among young people.Special effects moviesThen.Tsuburaya ProductionCollaboration "Ultra 6 Brothers VS Monster Army''Jumborg A & Giant] Etc. are famous. "Hanuman and the 5 Kamen Riders] Is also a famous work.

Famous martial arts movie: "Mach! XNUMX''Tom yam kung!''Mach! Infinity''Chocolate fighterThai TV drama: "2gether"

world Heritage

In the Kingdom of ThailandUNESCO Ofworld HeritageRegistered in the listcultural heritage3 cases,Natural heritageExists.

Sports

national sport OfMuay ThaiIs not just about winning or losing as a sport賭 けThere is also a high level of interest as.boxingIs also one of the most popular sports.The largest organization in the worldWorld Boxing CouncilDirect line of (WBC)Asian Boxing CouncilThe headquarters of (ABCO) is located in the capital Bangkok.However, in Thailand, "boxing" usually refers to Muay Thai, and the original boxing is called "international style" (Muay Thai).

総 合格 闘 技The boxing of Muay Thai spoiled the image of Muay Thai, and it was banned after March 1999, 2012 as it touched the 3 Boxing Law.[111], ONE Championship: Kingdom of Champions will be held on May 2016, 5 with the support of the Ministry of Tourism and Sports of Thailand[112][113],Dejdamrong Saw Amuai Siri Chalk vs Yoshitaka NaitoAnd vs Kazunori YokotaA mixed martial arts tournament consisting of all nine games including the two title matches of[114].

In addition,MotorizationIs progressing in recent yearsPattayaA full-scale circuit was built in such places, such as racing by car or motorcycle.Motor sportsIs becoming popular.The first Asian in the olden daysF1A driver and world-renownedRacing driverIsPrince VillaIt is also the country of origin of.Currently, ARTO Osaka acts as a bridge, and the number of drivers and teams coming and going between Japan and Thailand is increasing. In Thailand from 2014Super GTOverseas rounds are now being held, from ThailandToyotaTeam Thailand is fully participating in the race, including the Japan round.

In addition, have a Thai motherTiger woodsIn recent years, due to the influence ofPlayad Marksen,(English edition,Jazz Janewattananon, Women'sAriya Jutanugarn,Saranphone Langkulga SetrinFrom ThailandProfessional golferIs also making remarkable achievements overseas[115].

OtherSepak Takraw,サ ッ カ ー(Thai League 1),volleyballIs thriving and formerVentforet Kofu OfNaoaki AoyamaMany J-Leaguers belong to this group.Thailand national football teamWas only for amateurs1956 Melbourne Olympics,1968 Mexico OlympicsHas played in this tournament (home ground isRajamangala Stadium).In the evening park etc.aerobics,badmintonYou can see the citizens who enjoy themselves.

Baseball Thailand National TeamIn the late 1970sHanshin TigersActive as an ace ofMember of the House of CouncilorsExperienced personMengiki EmotoWas appointed,IBAF World CupI also participated in.

Holidays, calendar, calendar

The holidays are as follows.If Saturday or Sunday overlaps with a public holiday, the first weekday after the next dayTransfer holidayBecomes

In addition, ThaiChronology ADWas also used, but was introduced in 6 by King Rama VI.Buddhist era(Buddhist calendar) is mainly used.When it was first introducedLunar calendarHowever, the year was terminated in September in 2483 (1940), the Buddhist calendar.Gregorian calendar(solar calendar) Has been corrected, so there is no date difference with the Christian era now.[116].

DateJapanese notationThai notationRemarks
May 1New Yearวัน ขึ้น ปีใหม่
Full moon in the 3rd month of the lunar calendarManbutsu-bushi(One Mark Bucher)วัน มาฆ บูชาIt will be February 2020th in 2.
May 4Chakri Dynastyanniversaryวัน จักรีOn this day in 1782, Rama I took the throne and founded the Chakri dynasty.
4 month 13-15 daysThai New YearSongkran DayOriginally it was three days after New Year's Day, but now the date is fixed.
Water festivals are held in various places (""SongkranSee).
May 5kingCoronation dayวัน ฉัตรมงคลOfficially crowned on this day of 2019.
King BhumibolMay 5th in the era (because it was officially crowned on this day in 5).
Around June of the lunar calendarSeed cultivationวัน พืชมงคลThe date varies depending on the year.. It will be May 2020th in 5.
Full moon in the 6rd month of the lunar calendarBuddha's Birthdayวัน วิสาข บูชาIt will be February 2020th in 5.
May 6princessbirthdayวัน เฉลิมพระชน มพรรษา
สมเด็จพระนาง เจ้าฯ พระบรมราชินี
It was designated as a national holiday in 2019.
8th month of the lunar calendarfull moonThree treasuresวัน อาสาฬหบูชาIt will be February 2020th in 7.
The day after the three treasuresAngoenterวัน เข้า พรรษาIt will be February 2020th in 7.
However, the paired "Ake Yasui" (Thai: วัน ออกพรรษา, The full moon in November of the lunar calendar (October 11 in 2020) is not a national holiday.
May 7Royal birthdayวัน เฉลิมพระชน มพรรษา
พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัวฯ
It was designated as a national holiday in 2017.
May 8Queen Motherbirthdayวัน เฉลิมพระชน มพรรษา
สมเด็จพระ บรมราชชนนีพัน ปีหลวง
母 の 日(Thai: วัน แม่แห่ง ชาติ).
May 10King Bhumibol Anniversaryวัน คล้ายวัน สวรรคต
Humibol
It was demise on this day in 2016 and was designated as a national holiday in 2017.
May 10Chulalongkorn the Greatanniversaryวัน ปิยมหาราชOn this day in 1910demisedid.
May 12King Bhumibolbirthdayวัน คล้ายวัน พระบรมราชสมภพ
Humibol
Father's Day(Thai: วัน พ่อแห่ง ชาติ)andNational day(Thai: วัน ชาติไทย).
May 12Constitution Memorial Day Holidayวัน รัฐธรรมนูญOn this day in 1932, the first constitution in Thai history came into force.
May 12New Year's Eveวัน สิ้น ปี

Famous people

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ With the principle of "reigning but not governing"Parliamentary Cabinet SystemUnder the king or queen (British monarch) AndEmperorHas no real powerprime minister,Prime MinisterTakes virtually full powerThe United Kingdom,JapanIs similar to.

Source

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  87. ^ a b c Ken Fujikawa, Atsushi Fukuda "Historical transition of road maintenance in Thailand and its socio-economic evaluation"Civil Engineering History Research," Vol. 14, Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 1994, pp. 139-148, two:10.2208 / journalhs1990.14.139, NOT 130004038208. <
  88. ^ "2013 Report Thailand's future power generation situation and business opportunities for Japanese companies have been completed. | APIR Asia Pacific Institute of Research". www.apir.or.jp. 2019/11/14Browse.
  89. ^ "Wise Digital [Information site for people working in Thailand]”(Japanese). Wise Digital [Information site for people working in Thailand]. 2019/11/14Browse.
  90. ^ "Thailand's Nuclear Power Plan-Mekon Watch". www.mekongwatch.org. 2019/11/14Browse.
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  92. ^ Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., J.-POWER. “Regarding the start of commercial operation of the No. 1 series of non-Sengha thermal power plant in Thailand-Our largest IPP power plant in Thailand has started operation, with an equity output of over 530 million kW-". www.jpower.co.jp. J-POWER Power developmentLtd.. 2019/11/14Browse.
  93. ^ "Global News Asia". Global News Asia. 2019/11/14Browse.
  94. ^ "International Telecommunication Union --BDT". www.itu.int. 2019/11/14Browse.
  95. ^ EMC World Cellular Database Q3 / 2005
  96. ^ Freedom Against Censorship Thailand ราย ชื่อเว็บไซต์ที่ถูก ปิดกั้น , As of December 2006, 12, the Thai government has made similar reports such as the Royal Thai Police Cyberpolis (as of December 6, XNUMX)."Archived copy”. As of May 2006, 2オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2006/7/11Browse.).
  97. ^ Freedom Against Censorship Thailand สถิติ การ บล็อค เว็บไซต์ เพิ่ม สูง ขึ้น กว่า 500 เปอร์เซ็นต์ ตั้งแต่ เกิด รัฐประหาร! , January 20th, 2007
  98. ^ "Restricted access to confidential websites Thai government, no reason revealed"Asahi Shimbun" March 2010, 8
  99. ^ “Thai government announces nationality grant to boys rescued from cave”. Asahi Shimbun digital(July 2018, 8). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASL886WSNL88UHBI01P.html 2018/8/12Browse. 
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  101. ^ "2012". 2019/11/14Browse.
  102. ^ "Thailand, where the number of foreign tourists has dropped sharply, the breakthrough is medical tourism"Nikkei Business(April 2020, 8) Viewed June 21, 2021
  103. ^ [UPDATE Knowledge Site] Clinical Research on Medicinal Plants, Apipeube Thai Institute of Traditional Medicine"Nikkei" morning edition May 2021, 3 (university) Viewed May 10, 2021
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  105. ^ "Thailand" "Rapid Literature: The World of Asia, Africa and Latin America" ​​(Shinano Mainichi Shimbun,Nagano city, March 1995, 3, first edition) pp. 15-108.
  106. ^ Sirijit Sunanta (2005)"The Globalization of Thai Cuisine" (PDF) Paper presented at the Canadian Council for Southeast Asian Studies Conference, York University, Toronto, October 14-16]
  107. ^ "kitchen of the world". 2019/11/14Browse.
  108. ^ "Thai Japanese restaurant market, 60 billion baht scale = think tank forecast" newsclip (delivered on April 2007, 4)
  109. ^ a b Hisashi Ogawa "Happy relationship between wasabi and dumplings" Inter-university research institute corporation Human Culture Research Organization National Museum of Ethnology
  110. ^ Embassy of Thailand in Tokyo Thai movie , As of May 2007.
  111. ^ “Thailand bans mixed martial arts”. newsclip.be Breaking News from Thailand. (April 2012, 4). http://www.newsclip.be/news/2012405_034125.html 2012/4/5Browse. 
  112. ^ "Kingdom Of Champions | ONE Championship-Event”(Japanese). ONE Championship. 2020/7/30Browse.
  113. ^ "Thailand, the first landing of mixed martial arts, "does not pose a threat to Muay Thai"”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020/7/30Browse.
  114. ^ "ONE Championship: Kingdom of Champions | MMA Event" (English). Tapology. 2020/7/30Browse.
  115. ^ [Thai golf making a leap forward] Langkulga, Jutanugan, Marksaeng ...World standard course, support system, secret of strength that dominates the world Golf Digest Viewed June 2020, 6
  116. ^ Akagi [1994] p.256

References

Japanese literature

European literature

Thai literature

  • จิตร ภูมิศักดิ์ (2544). ความ เป็น มา ของ คำ สยาม ไทย, ลาว และ ขอ ม และ ลักษณะ ทาง สังคม ของ ชื่อ ชนชาติ ฉบับ สมบูรณ์ เพิ่มเติม ข้อเท็จจริง ว่า ด้วย ชนชาติ ขอ ม (พิมพ์ ครั้งที่ ๕ ed.). กรุงเทพฯ: ศยาม. ISBN 9789747033731 
  • วิชิตวง ศ์ ณ ป้อม เพชร, ดร. (2546). ตำนาน เสรีไทย. เริงไชย พุทธาโร บรรณาธิการ. กรุงเทพฯ: แสนด่าว. ISBN 9789749590652 

Related item

外部 リンク

政府
Kingdom of Thailand Government (Thai)(English)
Embassy of Thailand in Japan (Thai)(English)(Japanese)
Japanese goverment
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan-Thailand (Japanese)
Embassy of Japan in Thailand (Japanese)
Tourism
Tourism Authority of Thailand (Japanese)
Tourism Authority of Thailand (@https://twitter.com/AmazingThaiJP) - Twitter(Japanese)
Tourism Authority of Thailand - Facebook(Japanese)
Tourism Authority of Thailand Instagram (Japanese)
Tourism Authority of Thailand YouTube(Japanese)
Wiki Voyage hasThailandThere is travel information about.
Wiki travelTravel Guide- Kingdom of Thailand (Japanese)
Others
JETRO-Thailand (Japanese)
Japan ASEAN Center-Thailand (Japanese)
"Thailand". The World Factbook (English). Central Intelligence Agency. (English)
Kingdom of Thailand - DMOZ(English) (English)
"Thailand)』- Koto bank
Wikimedia Map of Thailand (English)
Map - Google map
Tanapon, Trilassa Kurchai, "Study of Thai Representation in Japanese Modern and Contemporary LiteratureKyushu University Doctoral Dissertation, 17102 A No. 11751, 2014-03-25,NOT 500000732205

Coordinate: 13°45'N 100°29'E /13.750 degrees north latitude 100.483 degrees east longitude / 13.750; 100.483 (Kingdom of Thailand)


 

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