Photo The digital society that the Hitachi Group aims to promote by local government DX
Hitachi Group systematizes solutions for local government DX promotion plans of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
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The second is "Responding to improving the efficiency of local government office work by utilizing digital technology."
Hitachi, Hitachi Systems, and Hitachi Social Information Services announced "Local Government Digital ..." released by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in December last year. → Continue reading
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デ ジ タ ル
デ ジ タ ル(English: digital, English pronunciation: [ˈDiʤətl].digital) IsIntegerIt is expressed by a numerical value such as (there are only discrete values).Industrially, it is a method of performing processing (acquisition, storage, processing, transmission, etc.) by quantizing and discretizing the quantity indicating the state.
CountingThere is also a translation of (Keisu).古い学術文献やOld academic literatureMinistry of International Trade and IndustryIt is used in documents such as.語源はEtymologyLatinof"Means (digitus) ”, Which is derived from the meaning of counting with fingers, and has the meaning of (discrete) numbers or numbers.
The "Basic Law for the Formation of a Digital Society", which came into effect in Japan in the third year of Reiwa, stipulates that "Internet and other advanced information and communication networks" and "electromagnetic records" are used for digital in Article XNUMX, which is within the scope shown in this section. It is a narrow object.
データIn quantifyingQuantizationAndIntegerIt is generally expressed as a value (ie digit)..For example, at the ascending position, some steps of the stairs are digital, and the position on the slope is analog.整数で表現するか、桁数を無限にしたExpressed as an integer or with an infinite number of digitsReal numberThere is a difference in whether it is expressed by.デジタルでは、データ量をIn digital, the amount of dataDiscreteValues (discrete quantities), and the intermediate quantity between themerrorIt is expressed by the adjacent discrete quantity including.この誤差は適切な量子化を行うことで実用上影響のない範囲にすることができ、データ量に比例したThis error can be set to a range that has no practical effect by performing appropriate quantization, and is proportional to the amount of data.Analog quantityCan provide processing that is almost equivalent to using.Natural languageEtc. are also discrete information composed of characters,Digital computerWithout usingAncient civilizationIt can be said that digital processing has existed since that time.
Today'sComputerIn digital computers, which are the mainstream of0と1Use onlyBinary systemIs used as a physical expression format (high / low voltage, etc.), so digital has "only two choices, 0 and 1", "choice of 0 or 1", and "2The definition and interpretation of "it can only be divided by" is often made.Therefore, "red, green, or blue" (Three primary colors of light) And "up / down / left / right / front / back" (direction), Etc. (there are three types of "0 or 1", or there are two triplets of the same kind of 0 and the same kind of 1), etc.3The concept divisible by is incompatible with the choice of "0 or 1".
But,5 choice 2 codeAs there are digital computers that directly handle the decimal system using five elements in two states,The explanation that digital is either 0 or 1 is only a part of digital.そのため、デジタルは二択のみではないTherefore, digital is not only two choices. "Binary systemIs a notation for numbers, not numbers themselves. The word "digital" itself does not include the meanings of "expressing numbers in binary", "dividable only by 2", and "two choices" of ○ or ×.The opposite "analogThe word "number"Ternary systemNotated with ""3It does not include meanings such as "divisible by" and "three choices" that have not only ○ or × but also △.Therefore, it is inaccurate to call only two choices, 0 and 1, digital.Idiomatic expressionIs. Also21st centuryOr later,ITWhen usingcasualCalled digital, and othersanalogI call itthe termBoth are misused according to the definition of, but the casual definition is adopted in the "Basic Law for the Formation of a Digital Society".
Generally, it is often written as "digital",Japanese Industrial Standard In (JIS X 0001, JIS X 0005), the notation of "digital" (digital computer, digitizing, digital data, etc.) is used.This is conscious of the spelling "di" of "digital" (similar to disk = disk, display = display, etc.).
Once often written as digital, this was in 1955Ministry of EducationThe influence of "Kokugo Series 27 Foreign Language Notation Material Collection" published by the company was large, and in the same book, the original sound was considered to be di, but if the original sound was still conscious, it was allowed to be written as di. It seems that the collection of materials was positioned as a way to organize the current situation, but the same year's edition of the "Reporter's Handbook" (Kyodo News) The main description was reprinted as it is in the materials referred to by media personnel such as the column of how to write foreign words, and it became a de facto guideline...As the times went down and the pronunciation of foreign languages close to the original sound became widespread, in the 1981th edition of the 4 "Reporter's Handbook", if the convention was decided by the original sound tee, di, tu, du, chi, ji, chu, Although it is written in Ju, digital words have been used by the end of the 1970s...Thereby,Digital nativeThere are also loanwords that match the notation of different times, such as.
In the academic field, the influence of Ministry of Education materials was not so strong, and digital notation was overwhelmingly used in specialized books from the 1960s to the 1970s... In the general newspapers of the 1960s, the state-of-the-art computer was written as digital type and digital computer, and even if there are de facto guidelines, it seems that newspapers also imitated if only one notation could be confirmed..
One of the reasons why the digital notation became widespread was the digital clock in 1.Tokyo Tokei Seizo OfFlip clockIn the newspaper advertisement of Tokyo Digital, in 1968SonyReleased a digital 24 with a flip clock and a radio, and it seems that it has the same notation as the Ministry of Education materials to advertise in the media... In the late 1970s, with the boom of digital watches, the digital word danced in advertisements, and in 1978Casio calculator Momoe YamaguchiThe phrase "Digital is Casio" sung by Yamaguchi in a commercial featuring "Digital is Casio" became popular, and it rapidly solidified in digital terms outside the academic field..KojienThe third edition (1983) and the fourth edition (1991) made digital refer to digital, and the reverse was the fifth edition in 1998..
Since digital data is quantified as discrete values, it has the property of being less likely to deteriorate in the short term than analog data.伝送・記録再生などを行う場合、デジタル量もアナログ量と同様にWhen performing transmission / recording / playback, the digital amount is the same as the analog amount.Voltage-電流Such aselectoronic signalsIt is treated by replacing it with.外乱が生じて信号にDisturbance occurs and the signalnoiseWhen is mixed in, it is difficult to remove the noise mixed in the signal by analog processing unless special processing is performed.
On the other hand, in digital processing, the numerical values are discrete and have no intermediate value, so if the error caused by noise is less than a certain amount, it can be ignored and the numerical data is set to the value before deterioration. It can be restored.This number isHexadecimal number,Decimal numberlike"Prime factorCan also be applied in the "plural" notation, where 1 is 0.8 due to noise when the data is an integer representation(10)(= =4/5) And 0.4(6)(= =2/3) And 1.2 (6 / in decimal)5, Senary 4 /3Even if it changes to), it is recognized as 1.
In actual recording / transmission, the influence of noise cannot be ignored, and data different from the original data may be reproduced.For example, 1 is 0.4(10)(= =2/5) And 0.2(6)(= =1/3), Or 1.6(10)(= 8/5) and 1.4(6)When it changes to (= 5/3), it is played back as a different value 0 or 2.しかし、データを予めBut the data in advanceError correction codeAnd so onRedundancyBy doing so, it is possible to ignore errors, automatically repair even if they deteriorate in the middle, detect the occurrence of errors and request retransmission, etc., and it is possible to provide highly reliable processing. become.
When sending the same information uncompressed, digital requires more bandwidth than analog.However, in the case of digital processing, compression and multiplexing are performed efficiently, so that the required bandwidth is narrower than that of analog in practical use.
Converting analog data to digital data is called "digitizing" or "digitizing".
Application of digital processing
The case of handling digital data as it is (simple linear sampling) will be described.
In actual digital processingBinary number1 digitbitAnd a unit such as 8 bitsoctetorPart-Time JobTreat as, and further treat it as a unitwordIt is often treated as a unit.This is to enable efficient use according to the word length of the processing device or storage device.
In digital data, care must be taken when handling numerical values that exceed the expressable numerical range or are close to the minimum value.
Analog processing media (magnetic tape, supply voltage, electric wires, etc.) are manufactured at a higher limit value than the specifications due to material variations and manufacturing quality control (for example, the variation of all parts tends to be low). However, in the case of a design that meets the specifications, if it swings in a higher direction under the same conditions, the limit value will be higher than the specifications.)In addition, transmission lines such as electric wires also have a limit value that is excessively higher than the specifications when general-purpose products are used.Therefore, when the input exceeds the specification, the effect is small if the input exceeds the specification, and the effect is excessive if the input exceeds the true limit value of the medium.
However, in digital processing, when the defined maximum value is exceededOverflowing digits(Overflow) occurs, and the result of subsequent arithmetic processing is not guaranteed.また、最小値に近い数値ではAlso, with a value close to the minimum valueQuantization errorCannot be ignored and may appear as a deterioration of the S / N ratio.更に、数値計算の際に不用意な処理手順によるFurthermore, due to careless processing procedures during numerical calculationLoss of digitPlease note that this may cause a significant decrease in the number of effective digits.
Coding is the conversion of an object into an integer with an upper limit, and the data is converted into data using appropriate representation formats in various fields.Symbolicare doing.
- In the case of numbers, integers with an upper limit (range) have already been encoded.For numbers that include decimals or lessExponential notationEncode asFloating pointType, any position is the decimal pointFixed pointCan be treated as a type.Numeral systemTreat all numbers with their own names without usingDecimal number,Hex,Hexadecimal numberSuch as "1/3Is divisible "" the first place is3Or if it is 0, it is a multiple of 3 "Numeral systemCan be used.
- The characters are already encoded.必要であればIf necessaryCharacter codeCharacters and codes (any integer that is easy to handle) can be associated with.
- Audio at any time and at that pointPCMIt can be encoded by a method such as.
- Music isMusical scoreThe frequency, time axis, timbre, etc. can be digitized.楽譜を電子化した物としては、機械演奏用のAs an electronic version of the score, it is for machine performance.MIDI,MMLFor electronic publishing and distributionPDFand so on.You can code what you play in the same way as voice.
- For pictures and videos, divide the plane at equal intervals,LightTheRGBな どColorIt is decomposed into the components of, and the brightness of each color is quantified.If the information is continuously recorded at an arbitrary time, it becomes a video (general video has audio, but it is not technically related, and as an applied technology, video and audio are simply played at the same time). ..
- The figure isVector formatby.この形式は、狭義にはThis form is narrowly definedline segmentOf the start and end points ofCoordinateIs recorded numerically.広義には、各種の図形に対して、例えばIn a broad sense, for various figures, for exampleYenThen, record "graphic code = circle, center coordinates, radius".For example, drawing a circle from these data is left to the graphic display software.It can also be encoded in the same way as a picture or video.
Digitization as a national policy
But the Japanese industryProfoundFrom the moldLight, thin, short and smallMigrated to type1983From aroundWord processorAndPersonal computerな どDigital home appliancesWill be in the hands of the common people.
Appeared in the late 1980sMobile phoneBy switching from the early analog system to the digital system with high radio wave utilization efficiency, the price decreased and the penetration rate increased.
21st centuryIs also referred to as the "digital century."
AnalogTelevision broadcastingHowever, it was abolished in 2011 in Japan.digitalizationIs burdensome for consumers (such as the need to replace the TV receiver), but Japanese companiesWesternTo be competitive with companiespolicyIt is also said that.
The "Basic Law for the Formation of a Digital Society" was enforced in the third year of Reiwa.Digital here refers to "Internet and other advanced information and communication networks" and "electromagnetic records."Artificial intelligenceIt is a high-tech thing.