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🎗 | Okayama Prefecture Amusement Industry Cooperative Donated "Useful for Corona Response"


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Donated by Okayama Prefectural Amusement Industry Cooperative "Useful for Corona Response"

 
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The amusement industry cooperative gives donations to the Japanese Red Cross Society every year to support medical activities.
 

The Okayama Prefectural Amusement Industry Cooperative has donated money to Okayama City and organizations engaged in social welfare activities.Among them, Japanese red ... → Continue reading

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Cooperative

Cooperative(Kyodo Kumiai) is for a common purposeIndividualOrSmall businessA non-profit mutual aid organization that gathers together, establishes a business entity as a union member, jointly owns it, and carries out democratic management and operation.Solidarity economyIs the main bearer of.

Cooperative history

1498, The world's first co-operativeThe Shore Porters Society Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfAberdeenWas established in[1].

JapanThen.Edo PeriodLateTempo(1830-1844), of the rural leadersOhara YugakuWith the idea ofShimosaKatori-gunOsabe Village (currentlyChibaAsahiA rural relief system was created in (Chief).

1844, The first modern co-op and consumer co-opRochdale Pioneer Cooperative The United Kingdom OfManchesterEstablished in the suburbs of[2].

1895,The United Kingdom OfUKso,International Co-operative Alliance (the International Co-operative Alliance: ICA) was established. As of August 2011, the headquartersスイスThe largest in the world, with 94 members from 254 countries and the total number of co-operatives under its umbrella exceeding 10 billion.Nongovernmental organization (NGO)[3].. As of 2019, it has expanded to 109 cooperative organizations from 319 countries (including 17 in Japan).The total number of their members exceeds 10 billion, creating jobs for about 2 million people.United NationsOrganizes the Cooperative Promotion Committee (COPAC) with various organizations[4].

GermanyThen in the 19th centuryFriedrich Wilhelm Reifeisen For small farmers,Hermann Schulze-DerichDeveloped a credit union mainly for finance for commerce and industry.this isIndustrial Union Law(1900Established)[4]..I saw this movement while studying in GermanyHirata TosukeImpressed, JapanHotokushaIt was used as a reference for the bill together with the case of.

In 2016, as "the idea and practice of organizing co-operatives to realize common interests"United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)Intangible cultural heritageRegistered on the representative list based on the German application[5][6].

Cooperatives of each country

British co-operative

The first co-operative was born in England[7].. 18th centuryLancashireIn Rochdale, the textile industry was in recession and the wages of textile workers were very low.[7]..There 28 peopleFlannelCraftsmen gathered to form a small union, and a consumer union was created to purchase wheat and divide it into union members.[8](Rochdale Pioneer Cooperative).In the backgroundRobert OwenIt is said that there was an idea of[8].

German co-operative

Germany is said to be the homeland of credit unions[9].. Credit unions of farmers and handicrafts were formed in the 19th century[9].. Schulze Derich created the first urban credit union in 1851, and Life Eisen created the first rural credit union in 1862.[10]..These credit unions have some differences in establishment and operation, but they have in common that they operate savings and lending operations.[11].

Danish co-operative

The producers' union has developedデンマークIs. Denmark at the end of the 19th century had a serious recession in rural areas[12]..In order to make effective use of the small land area due to the plunge in the prices of agricultural productsLivestockMainlydairyA national movement to transform into a country was developed[12].. The first dairy union was formed in Shederick, West Jutland in 1882.[12].

Japanese co-operative

Current co-operative

In Japan, there are various individual laws (special laws) for each business content.CooperativeThere is no general provision regarding co-operatives.Corporate tax lawThen,Cooperatives, etc.Classified as (Kyoudokumi Aito)[13], The reduced tax rate is applied to all income.In addition, deduction is permitted.This is listed in Appendix 3 of the Corporation Tax Law.Some have called for enactment[14][15].

1956(Japan Joint Committee of Co-operatives: JJC) was established to promote activities such as cooperation and cooperation associated with international activities of cooperatives, including cooperation of various cooperative movements and participation in ICA general meetings. ing[16]..Currently a Japanese ICA membership organizationJA Zenchu,JA Zenno,JA Kyosairen,Norinchukin,Home Association of Light,Japan Agricultural Newspaper,Japanese Consumers' Co-op,All Fisheries Federation,Zenmoriren,All labored,Japan Cooperative Association,University CooperativesAnd 13 organizations are members.

On the other hand, unlike union organizations (agricultural cooperatives, co-ops, etc.) composed of individuals and their federations, they mainly play a role of guidance support and industry coordination regarding the management of small and medium-sized enterprises.SME Group Central AssociationThere is also a central organization such as.Although they are not affiliated with ICA, they are generally in common with other union organizations in terms of historical background and the principles of mutual aid.

Cooperatives or similar organizations under individual law include, for example:

"Corporatism" in the historical context

in Japan1900ToIndustrial Union LawWas enacted, and a policy was developed to promote the protection and solidarity of micro-enterprise for large companies with strong influence.Therefore, "corporatism", which is the basis of our activities, isLarge capitalIntention is the highest priority資本主義,Worker(Second World WarExpanding the rights of the former "proletariat")SocialismDifferent from "The third wayWas advocated as[17]..Especially in Japan in the late 1940s, right after the defeat in World War II.Sanehiko YamamotoWas the chairmanJapan Cooperative PartyとCooperative Democratic Party, And inherited thisNational Cooperative PartyContinued as a flow to.This raises capitalismConservative party OfJapanese Liberal Party,Democratic Party,Socialism·CommunismSeeking the realization ofInnovation party OfJapanese Socialist Party,Japan Communist PartyMade a clear distinction fromMiddle politicsIt functioned as a force.Many members of the Japan Cooperative PartyBanishment of public officeAlthough it was hit hard as a target, the corporatists maintained their voice due to the confluence of regional political parties formed all over the country.[Annotation 1], 1947-1948Katayama CabinetとAshida CabinetThen, the National Cooperative Party became the ruling party of the three-party coalition government in partnership with the Socialist Party and the Democratic Party.

After that, the National Cooperative Party was swallowed as the reorganization of conservative forces continued, and eventually it wasFunanaka[Annotation 2]Many members such as 1955MaintenanceWas established inLDPThe claim of "corporatism" disappeared after participating in the event, but as the chairman (leader) of the National Cooperative Party, the Katayama CabinetMinister of CommunicationsexperiencedTakeo MikiIs the Liberal Democratic PartyMiki schoolAs the leftmost non-mainstream sectMaintenanceDespite being placed in 1974Liberal Democratic Party President-Prime MinisterBecomeMiki CabinetWas organized.Miki includes the split of a large company that monopolizes the market as prime ministerAntitrust lawAiming for amendment, the bill was passed by the House of Representatives with the support of opposition parties including the Socialist Party after major amendments and twists, but the House of Councilors was abandoned without suppressing the opposition within the Liberal Democratic Party, and Miki's influence due to isolation within the party It contributed to the weakening of power.However, my wife pointed out that Miki's political philosophy, including after Shimono in 1976, had always had "corporatism."睦子, Furthermore, it is different from Miki in the political lineYasuhiro NakasoneIt is made from such things.

Meanwhile, 194221th House of Representatives general electionI was elected in the (wing praise election)Tadashi YoshidaParticipated in the rally of the above-mentioned corporatists shortly after the end of the war, but in 195225th House of Representatives general electionWhen I returned to national affairsRight-wing Socialist PartyWas a member of.Yoshida aspired to be a farmer-centered company during his tenureCooperative dairy industryEstablished, the company continues to operate in partnership with major companies.

Cooperative Principles

International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) adopted the "New Co-operative Principles that provide guidelines for the activities of co-operatives around the world towards the 100st century" at the 1995th Anniversary Convention (September 9, Manchester, United Kingdom)[18].

Definition

Co-operatives are self-governing organizations of people, with common economic, social and cultural needs and wishes through jointly owned and democratically managed entities of those who voluntarily join hands. The purpose is to fulfill.

value

Co-operatives are based on the values ​​of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, justice and solidarity.In keeping with the tradition of co-operative founders, co-operative members believe in the ethical values ​​of honesty, openness, social responsibility and consideration for others.

principle

Co-operative principles are guidelines for co-operatives to put their values ​​into practice.

  • First Principle "Voluntary and Open Membership System"
  • Second principle "Democratic management by union members"
  • Third Principle "Economic Participation of Union Members"
  • Fourth Principle "Autonomy and Independence"
  • Fifth Principle "Education, Training and Public Relations"
  • 6th Principle "Cooperatives between co-operatives"
  • Seventh Principle "Involvement in the Community"

symbol

Represents a co-operative㈿As "Kyo with double-byte parentheses"UnicodeIncluded in.

symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName
㈿U+323F-㈿
㈿
Cooperative with double-byte brackets
PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH ALLIANCE
㊯U+32AF-㊯
㊯
Marukyo
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH ALLIANCE

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ One example is participating in the formation of the Cooperative Democratic Party.The partyMiyazaki(OldHyuga country) Only, but it was held in April 1946, just before the merger.22th House of Representatives general electionThen, out of the fixed number of 6 in all Miyazaki prefectures of the Daisenkyokusei systemYoshimitsu KawanoFour official candidates were elected, and the number of seats won nationwide was sixth after the Communist Party's five (the Japan Cooperative Party was fourth with 4).
  2. ^ Funada joined the Japan Cooperative Party while he was a member of the Diet, but was banished from public office, and returned to national affairs in 1952 after the disappearance of the National Cooperative Party.Liberal partyPlayed from.

Source

  1. ^ "History”. The Shore Porters' Society. 2019/2/18Browse.
  2. ^ David Thompson (July–Aug 1994). “Cooperative Principles Then and Now”. Co-operative Grocer (, Minneapolis). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2007, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20071010012855/http://cooperativegrocer.coop/articles/index.php?id=158 2008/6/26Browse. 
  3. ^ Introducing the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) Archived August 2008, 10, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ a b [Cooperatives learning from scratch] (8) Global expansion The number of union members exceeds 10 billion / ICA Cooperation with the United NationsJapan Agricultural Newspaper] July 2019, 5 (one page).
  5. ^ UNESCO »Culture» Intangible Heritage »Lists» Idea and practice of organizing shared interests in cooperatives(Viewed on July 2017, 7)
  6. ^ Agricultural Cooperative Newspaper [electronic version] December 2016, 12Registered "Cooperative" as "Intangible Cultural Heritage" -UNESCO(Viewed on July 2017, 7)
  7. ^ a b Toshihiko Suzuki, "Cooperative Trajectory and Vision," Agriculture and Forestry Statistics Association, 2006, p. 3
  8. ^ a b Toshihiko Suzuki, "Cooperative Trajectory and Vision," Agriculture and Forestry Statistics Association, 2006, pp. 3-4
  9. ^ a b Toshihiko Suzuki, "Cooperative Trajectory and Vision," Agriculture and Forestry Statistics Association, 2006, p. 4
  10. ^ Toshihiko Suzuki, "Cooperative Trajectory and Vision," Agriculture and Forestry Statistics Association, 2006, pp. 4-5
  11. ^ Toshihiko Suzuki, "Cooperative Trajectory and Vision," Agriculture and Forestry Statistics Association, 2006, p. 5
  12. ^ a b c Toshihiko Suzuki, "Cooperative Trajectory and Vision," Agriculture and Forestry Statistics Association, 2006, p. 6
  13. ^ Cooperatives, etc .;Corporate tax lawArticle 2 No. 7
  14. ^ Yoshiaki Horikoshi "Proposal of the Basic Law of Cooperatives"
  15. ^ Eiji Kono "From a Cooperative Trip" - Wayback machine(For archived March 2013, 6)
  16. ^ Japanese Consumers' Co-operative "What is a Cooperative?"
  17. ^ Yoshihiko Takenaka,Postwar Japanese Corporatist Party-Activist Popularization and Differentiation"Annual Report Political Science," 1998, Vol. 49, p.169-194, two:10.7218 / nenpouseijigaku1953.49.0_169.
  18. ^ Ian MacPherson, Cooperative Principles of the 21st Century-ICA Identity Statement and Declaration, Translated and Edited by the Japan Cooperative Society, Japan Economic Review, 2000, pp. 16-22.

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