What is the impact on pension benefits if a full-time housewife works part-time for three years?
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When a full-time housewife works part-time, consider the pension as well as the current take-home pay and what kind of work style can enrich the future.
What if I continue to work part-time in my dependents?When a full-time housewife works part-time, the first thing that goes through her head is to work in her dependents. ... → Continue reading
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|Women in society|
"a working woman"(Wage worker)" and "housewife" are not originally contradictory concepts, and many women go back and forth between "working women (wage worker)" and "housewife" for various reasons.
Because it is the name of the time when he was not engaged in wage labor, "Unemployed"are categorized.Childcare leaveIn women wage workers, companies, etc.Retirement ageEven if a woman who worked up to become a full-time housewife after retirement, it is considered as a "full-time housewife".
Similar to "general affairs / accounting" in a company, the role of a full-time housewife is not to earn money directly from the outside in an organization.家庭It is considered to be an "in-home role" equivalent to the "general affairs/accounting role" for manufacturing/sales in a company because it receives internal distribution while contributing within the organization..
AmericaCompaniesUnited technologiesBut"Wall Street Journal"on paper1979From once a monthAdvocacyAdsIn the series of "Gray Matter" (Gray is the surname of the then president),1980In July, we covered the work of a housewife under the title "What is the most creative job in the world?"SexThe expression "homemaker" (homemaker), which was removed, was used to create a reaction.
As a man who supports the family becomes a earner and dedicates himself to salary work outside the house,birth(Reproduction)·ParentingI will concentrate onMarxism,feminismThen "Reproduction laborWomen who are engaged in (childbirth/childcare activities)". On the other hand, in light of the fact that the division of labor within the company progresses as the company/organization grows and evolves,HistoryThere is also a position that "the most advanced element exists".
Trends in each country
Since the Meiji era, Western ideas have entered Japan, and in the process of urbanization and nuclear family, lost maids and underworkers until around 1955, lost relatives, and became the only adult woman of a family in a salaryman family. Housewives have become popular. However, in the first place, from the prewar period to the postwar 1950s, the main industry was the primary industry, so there were many agricultural, forestry and fishery workers, and both men and women were often employed. In this way, it is pointed out that full-time housewives are born from a certain period in history and are not considered to exist permanently..
Before the war, industries, service industries, town factories, shops, etc. were run as a family business, and babysitters were carried out by those who had free hands, and those who could afford to babysit were hired. ..The combination of salaried workers and full-time housewives before the war was limited to military personnel, officials, executives of large corporations, etc. ..However, in the UK, the percentage of full-time housewives was around 1920, more than 8%, and in the United States, around 1950, the percentage of full-time housewives was 75%, but in Japan, the percentage of full-time housewives was the highest in 1975. There was, but it was about 60%, and it was not so popular compared to overseas..
In Germany, when Nazi Germany came to power in 1933, it set out policies related to the slogan, "Mother, go home."This had an effect on the encouragement of full-time housewives in Japan, but in reality, when the war intensified during the war, there was a shortage of male workers due to factory labor, and female workers were appointed.However, after the war, the structure was centered on the manufacturing industry due to the period of high economic miracle, and one male worker could afford to earn foreign currency and make his wife a full-time housewife. The number of full-time housewives, mainly office workers, has increased due to the promotion of policies under the slogan "Mothers should go home"..
Until 1990, the number of full-time housewives was on a downward trend, but it turned to an increasing trend.The increasing trend continued until 1995, but in 1996, double-income households reversed the number of full-time housewives and began to decrease.After that, the downward trend continued, and in 2020, it decreased to 571 million households, which is about half of double-income households..
According to a survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, women who decided that a full-time housewife would be their "ideal life course"1987の34%から2015年には18%まで減少している。専業主婦を希望する女性でも、経済的な面から実際に「予定のライフコース」とする女性は7.5%にまで減っている。夫が妻に対して希望する「子育てに専念した後の再就職」は37.4%、仕事と主婦の「両立」は上昇を続け33.9%、そのまま専業主婦のライフコースを継続することを期待する率は1987年は38%だったが、2015年は10.1%に減少していた.
Research shows that if a husband is highly educated, his wife tends to become a housewife.
In the 2020 White Paper on Gender Equality, 6.5% of women and 8.6% of men think that "husbands should work outside and wives should protect their homes.".. In July 2021NHK Broadcasting Culture Research InstituteAccording to a more published opinion poll on gender, 40.1% agree (agree + rather agree) with the idea that "husbands should work outside and wives should protect their families", and "disagree". (Opposite + rather opposite) was 59.1%.
The role of housewives in the community
WeekdayIn the daytimeCommunityTaking advantage of the time available for participation in activities in the local communityDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThere are quite a few roles that are assigned to activities.
- Role in neighborhood associations: Housewives often serve as officers, mainly in regional organizations such as neighborhood associations.
- Role in school: In many cases, he serves as an officer in PTA.Also, as a volunteer, he is asked to read aloud books and assist teachers.Also, for local festivals, we will teach local children to dance and prepare for happi coats.
- Complementing the contact network: Complementing the contact network for the families of women (wage workers) who work away from the community during the day.
- Role in a gender equality society
- volunteerIt is playing an active part as a main player in the field. According to the National Council of Social Welfare "National Survey of Volunteer Workers" (13), the occupations of volunteer workers are the most "housewives who do not have a job,"Gender equality societyPlay a part in promotion.
Since many women who have families move between the positions of full-time housewives and working women in their life courses, they basically give up and cooperate with each other.
The United States of America
In the United States, about 1990% of women started working outside the home in the latter half of the 60s, but it has remained flat since then, and the number of women has been declining since the beginning of 2000 in the computer industry and other industries..
In the United States, about 1994% of mothers with children under the age of 15 were full-time housewives in 20, but the proportion increased by about 2008% in 4... It is thought that the reason for this is that local governments have financial difficulties and it is difficult to find services for entrusting children... In addition, there is no paid maternity leave system in the United States, and there is no legal guarantee of the paid leave system in the first place..
Full-time housewife in society
Sociology-Women's studies, Including full-time housewivesHousewifeIs responsible for reproductive labor and is said to play an essential role in maintaining the basis of a livelihood for men to work as wage labor.volunteer,Social educationIt is evaluated that it contributes to society through activities at home and in the community.Also,employmentCompared to wage-earners involved, the range of activities during the day is basically free and diverse, the actions are under the right of self-determination, and the economic power is relatively generous.
Expecting such a wide range of housewives' ability to actShopping mall,Movie theaterCommercial facilities such as are open from daytime on weekdays,Sports ClubAnd variousCulture centerIs open for active full-time housewives, and services such as women's discounts are often provided for housewives, and it is also regarded as important as a consumer..
- ^ Teruko Inoue, Invitation to Women's Studies
- ^ Teruko Inoue, Invitation to Women's Studies
- ^ Michiyoshi Hayashi, "The Restoration of Housewives"Kodansha
- ^ Kazuo Kaneshiro "Transformation of family structure in modern Japan"Bulletin of Okinawa University" No. 15, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Okinawa University, March 1998, pp. 3-249, ISSN 0388-4198 , NOT 110004622063.
- ^ Hideko Shiobara "Married woman labor"Teikyo Economics Research," Vol. 38, No. 2, Teikyo University Economic Society, March 2005, pp. 3-169, ISSN 02882450, NOT 120005945193.
- ^ Masahiro Yamada, Professor, Chuo University (June 2013). “Gender equality is Japan's hope (2) In the midst of major changes in the times”. Gender Equality Bureau, Cabinet Office. 2020/5/6Browse.
- ^ Reiji Ishiwatari. “When did the full-time housewife become established? And what about the future? Exploring surprising history”. Yahoo news. 2020/5/5Browse.
- ^ "Figure 12 Full-time housewife households and double-income households”. Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training. 2021/5/21Browse.
- ^ Part I Summary of Singles Survey Results: Chapter 3 Desired Marriage Image
- ^ National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. “Ⅲ. Marriage image of hope-What kind of marriage are you looking for?-". 2008/10/11Browse.
- ^ Ritsumeikan University Graduate School of Advanced Science and Technology (November 2005, 11). “Formation and transformation of full-time housewives". 2008/10/11Browse.[Broken link]
- ^ "Main story> I> Special feature> Fig. 13 Changes in consciousness regarding the idea that "husbands should work outside and wives should protect their families" (by gender)”. Gender Equality Bureau. 2021/3/18Browse.
- ^ Akira Tomioka (Web editorial department) (July 2021, 7). “Various temperature differences even with the same gender issues such as "male childcare leave," "married couple's surname," and "same-sex marriage" [according to NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute]”(Japanese). Web Contact Forum. 2021/7/9Browse.
- ^ Annual report on the formation of a gender-equal society in 15. “Progress of gender equality in the community". 2008/10/11Browse.[Broken link]
- ^ "Nothing in company life! The truth about the boom of full-time housewives in the United States”. Toyo Keizai ONLINE. P. 1. 2018/10/29Browse.
- ^ a b c "Nothing in company life! The truth about the boom of full-time housewives in the United States”. Toyo Keizai ONLINE. P. 2. 2018/10/29Browse.
- ^ Source "Encyclopedia Family"
- Positive literature
- Nobuko Nagasawa, “Housewife is a Dream Free Company” Kyodo News (1986/2) ISBN 4764101793
- Linda Burton "Why is it a housewife!" 文藝 春秋 . ISBN 4163588604
- Shin Komiyama, "Songs for a Full-time Housewife-Risa Ishihara Slash" Shinpusha (2002/03) ISBN 4797419687
- Naoko Kamada, "Money Philosophy for a Happy Life: My Method as a Housewife Who Saved 5 Million Yen in 1000 Years" Gentosha (2004/11) ISBN 4344007093
- Negative literature
- Risa IshiharaWritten "Flirtful housewives-why are you stupid and stupid, why bad!" Shinchosha (2001/08) ISBN 4102901140
- "Kutabare! Housewife" Kobunsha (2003/01) ISBN 4334782000
- Chikako OguraAuthor "Condition of marriage』Asahi Shimbun (2003) ISBN 402257884X
- Nobuko IwamuraWritten by "The Birth of <Modern Family>: The Death of the Illusionary Family Theory" Keiso Shobo (2005/6) ISBN 4326653051
- marriage - 家庭 - 家族
- Housework - Housework
- Parenting - Child-rearing
- Shadow work
- Support - Spousal deduction
- Home Economics - Faculty of Home Economics
- Working together - a working woman
- Full-time housewife controversy
- Full-time husband
- Home Economics, Chapter 1890, "Housework in a Family" (XNUMX) National Diet Library
- "Women's Honbu," Vol. 1908, "Women as Leaders of Housewives and Men" (XNUMX) National Diet Library
- Why Highly Educated Women in their 20s Aim to Be “Full-time Housewives” President Reuters
- White Paper, Annual Report | Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- Gender Equality White Paper | Gender Equality Bureau, Cabinet Office
- Statistics Bureau Home Page/Labor Force Survey
- Figure 12 Full-time housewife households and double-income households / Easy-to-understand graph long-term labor statistics | Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (JILPT)