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Starbucks / Aiming for 2024 stores by 2000

 
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Approximately 1 kg of coffee grounds discharged daily per store are recycled as compost.
 

Starbucks Coffee Japan will be online on June 6st for business growth in the Japanese market, people, the global environment ... → Continue reading

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16kg discharge

Coffee beans

Coffee beans(Coffee beans, coffee beans,British: Coffee bean) IsCoffee treeOf coffee cherries collected fromseedThat thing. The raw state as producedGreen beans, Heat-processedRoasted beansThat.

Roast-CrushingCoffee beansHot water,WedでExtractionWhat I didcoffeeCalledhobbyIt is loved as a beverage all over the world. Also, roasted beansConfectioneryIt may be eaten as it is (チ ョ コ レ ー トEtccoatingOften done).

Sort

What is commonly called coffee beans depends on their processed state.Green beansとRoasted beansIt can be roughly divided into.

Green beans

Raw beansNamameOrKimameIs pronounced. Generally, it is often read as "Kimame", but it is often called "Namame" as a technical term in the coffee industry. Besides thisグ リ ー ン,Green coffeeSometimes called.

Structure of coffee berries and coffee beans

Raw beans are raw coffee beans that have not yet been roasted. From coffee berries to pulpInner pericarpRemoved (also called seed coat, parchment) (purificationStrictly speaking, not the seed itselfendospermとGermRefers to the combined part. Normally, coffee beans are produced in this raw state from the place of production to the country of consumption.OutputAnd in the consuming countryRoasteryIt is often roasted by a roaster called, a coffee bean dealer, a coffee shop owner, or the like. However, some are in the state of raw beans,Home roastingIt is sold to consumers who do.

Raw beans may be classified as follows depending on the year of harvest. The harvest year of raw beans is every yearMay 10Is calculated as the first day.[1]

New crop
New coffee beans harvested and shipped that year. In particular, it is often called after the new harvest year in October.
Current crop
Coffee beans obtained in the latest harvest year. It may refer to the same thing as New Crop, but it is often called this when the time has passed since October.
Perst crop
Coffee beans harvested in the previous year.
Old crop
In a broad sense, it refers to coffee beans harvested before that.ただし狭義にはHowever, in a narrow senseParchment coffeeIt is treated as a brand for those that have been stored for several years in the state of.It is said that coffee beans corresponding to this narrowly defined old crop are hardly available at present.
Old beans
In order to avoid confusion with old crop in the narrow sense, it was coined as a word equivalent to old crop in the broad sense.Behavior.

The newer the green beans, the stronger the green color, and the yellowish brown color changes over time.However, since the color tone differs depending on the method of refining coffee beans, it is not possible to distinguish from the color alone.In addition, it is said that the water content of raw beans gradually decreases with the passage of time, and the variation within the lot is reduced.For this reason, it is said that old green beans are less likely to fail during roasting.

The flavor is also said to be different between new and old green beans.In general, new green beans are said to have a clear individuality and excellent aroma, for better or worse, and old raw beans are often described as lacking in individuality but having a calm taste.Which one you prefer is different for each person, and it is not possible to conclude that one is superior.

Roasted beans

Roasted beans(Baisenmame) is for raw beansRoastIt has been subjected to a heat treatment called.Roasting causes chemical changes in the ingredients contained in raw beans, resulting in the first production of the taste, aroma, and color of the coffee we eat.

Roasted beans roasted by roasters are available from intermediate wholesalersA coffee shopIt is wholesaled to consumers and delivered to consumers from there.At this time, it is sold as it is roasted, or it may be sold after further crushing.In addition, we purchase raw beans, roast them (using a roasting pot up to about 10 kg) and sell them at one store, or we can use a small roasting machine that weighs less than 1 kg according to the customer's order. In recent years, the number of privately-owned stores that use the roasted beans to sell them is increasing.These types of stores are called "home roasting (stores)".

Roasted beans are further classified according to the degree of roasting.この焙煎の度合いのことをThe degree of this roastingDegree of roastingThe one with a low degree of roastingLight roast, HighDeep roastCalled.Lightly roasted coffee beans are light brown, and as the deep roast progresses, they turn dark brown and oil oozes out on the surface.Something between light roast and deep roast is sometimes called medium roast, but these are relative names and are not clearly defined, and differ depending on the store.In Japan, the following eight levels of roasting (light roasting → deep roasting) may be used.

  1. Light
  2. Cinnamon
  3. Medium
  4. High
  5. City
  6. Full city
  7. French
  8. Italian (Italian)

In the case of sweet beans, deep roasting weakens the flavor.Lightly roasted contains more caffeine.Generally, it is said that light roasting is excellent in aroma and sourness and deep roasting is excellent in bitterness, but since it is a matter of taste, it is not particularly superior in terms of overall taste.

Coffee bean production

mainCountry of originIt is estimated that 1000 billion coffee trees are cultivated on 150 million hectares of land around the world, centered on large-scale coffee plantations in Japan, and the main production areas are from 25 degrees north latitude to 25 degrees south latitude.熱 帯とSubtropicalConcentrate on "Coffee beltIs called.

To produce as much as possible (1 tonnes of ripe fruit per hectare, or 16 pounds per acre), the plantation requires large amounts of water and fertilizer.

There are about 60 producing countries in the international market, and the production volume isBrazilOccupies one-third,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs second with 15%. 2年まで世界1999位だったIt was the second largest in the world until 2コロンビアProduction has decreased in recent years, and in 2008IndonesiaIt is overtaken by and is in 4th place. 5位は年によってXNUMXth place depends on the yearIndia,エチオピア,メキシコHave been replaced.

Depending on the country of originCoffee treeAnd the coffee bean production varieties are biasedArabicaThe center is ColombiaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euLatin American countries, such asパ ュ ュ ニ ニ, Ethiopia,Kenyaetc.RobustaThe center is VietnamThailand,コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,ZambiaSuch.Brazil,Indonesia, India, Mexico,TanzaniaBoth species are produced in such places.

JapanButOgasawara Islands,OkinawaでMeijiProduction has been tried since the times, and it is still being produced and sold on a small scale.[2].

Producing area and brand

The name (brand) of coffee beans is traditionally based on the place of origin (place of production, place of accumulation / shipment).

  • Country name: Colombia, Kenya, Brazil, Guatemala, etc.
  • Mountains: Kilimanjaro, Blue Mountain, Emerald Mountain, etc.
  • Shipping port: Mocha, Santos, etc.
  • Cultivation place name: Kona, Mandelin, Java, etc.
  • Species nameCultivarName: Java Robusta, Bourbon Santos, etc.
  • Sorting grade: Brazil No. 2, Tanzania AA, etc.

On the other hand, as a movement since the 1990s, coffee beans bearing the name of a specific farm are increasing in order to differentiate them from high quality for sale.

Main brands and production areas

Typical coffee bean brands and their main production areas are shown in parentheses. Regarding the tastecoffeechecking ...

Africa / Middle East

Asia

  • Indonesia(Indonesia): There are many famous brands with a long history.
  • India(South India): With a history of 400 years, it boasts one of the longest history and traditions among coffee producing areas in the world. There is a plantation as a famous brand.
    • Monsoon coffee: Cultivated by forest farming, planted with fruit trees of tall trees called shade trees, grown organically while taking advantage of the forest ecosystem, harvested and sorted by traditional hand-picking. High humiditymonsoonA unique fermentation process using (monsoon) and a unique cleaning technology have been cultivated. The resulting "monsoon coffee" is very popular in Europe, especially in Northern Europe.
  • Papua New Guinea (パ ュ ュ ニ ニ): The farm name (, processor) is added as the brand.
  • Republic of the Philippines: The Baguio mountainous region is a major production area. Other mountainous areas of Batangas and Mindanao. It mainly exports to Arab countries.
  • East Timor(東 テ モ ー ル): Almost the only exported agricultural product with good quality, but the shipment volume is small.
  • Laos(Laos): It is the largest export agricultural product, and there are also high-grade brands (such as Elephant Mountain).
  • Chugoku(Yunnan): Located in the same low latitudes as Colombia, the largest coffee producing area, suitable for producing small coffee.2012Current,AsiaIt is the largest and high quality small variety producing area in Japan. In particularteaBut knownPu'er CityIt is thriving. The trigger2007Happened aroundPuer tea OfSpeculationMarketso,PriceIs volatileFarmer The天国とhellBased on the lessons learned from this, coffee was noticed based on the idea that many kinds of crops should be produced to disperse the risk.StarbucksIncludingNestleMajor companies have signed a memorandum of cooperation with the Pu'er city government.2010, Nestlé procured 8000 tons of coffee in Pu'er, but it has grown rapidly since then. The company started experimental coffee cultivation in Yunnan Province in 1988, and immediately after that, it officially decided to grow coffee in Yunnan. afterwards2012By 5000 millionyuanTheinvestmentIt accepts more than 5100 people. As of 2012, Nestlé, one of the world's five largest coffee makers,Maxwell[Avoid ambiguity](America),Craft(America),Newman(Germany), (イタリア) Are all in Yunnan and JapanUCC Coffee UCC,Singapore,TaiwanCompanies are also expanding. The production volume of Pu'er City in 2011 was 2.85 tons, accounting for 57.5% of the whole of China, and the sales were 8.55 million yuan. In addition, Yunnan Province announced that it will invest 2011 billion yuan in the coffee industry and increase coffee bean production to 12 tons per year during the 5th five-year plan period from 30.[3].
  • Vietnam(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu): Robusta varieties for processing are the main production, but Arabica varieties are also beginning to be produced.
    • Vietnam overtook Colombia in 1999 to become the second largest coffee producer in the world after Brazil. OldSovereign countryFranceIncorporating the method ofVietnamese coffeeThere is a way of brewing.

Hawaii / oceania

Caribbean countries

Central america

South America

Production

2011 Top 20 Coffee Bean Producing Countries
RankingCountryProduction tonnage[4]Thousand bags [5]market share
1Brazilian flag Brazil2,609,04043,48433.1%
2 Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1,200,00020,00015.2%
3 Indonesia495,0008,2506.3%
4 ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢468,0007,8005.9%
5Ethiopian flag エチオピア390,0006,5005.0%
6Peru flag ペルー326,5805,4434.1%
7Indian flag India319,9805,3334.1%
8Honduras flag ホンジュラス270,0004,5003.4%
9Mexican flag メキシコ258,0004,3003.3%
10Guatemala flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu225,0003,7502.9%
11Uganda flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu192,7203,2122.4%
12Nicaragua flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu126,0002,1001.6%
13Costa Rica flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu107,9401,7991.4%
14Cote d'Ivoire flag コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル96,0001,6001.2%
15Papua New Guinea flag パ ュ ュ ニ ニ84,9001,4151.1%
16El Salvador flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu70,5001,1750.90%
17Cambodia flag Cambodia64,9801,0830.83%
18Ecuador flag エクアドル64,5001,0750.82%
19 Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu63,3601,0560.80%
20Venezuelan flag ベネズエラ60,0001,0000.76%
Total  世界7,875,180131,253

Distribution of coffee beans

The distribution of coffee beans is four major companies in the world (Craft,Nestle,P & GDue to the oligopoly of ,), the cost is considerably high due to the more complicated distribution channels. There was a time when it was once considered to be second only to oil in terms of trade volume among the world's commodities trade items, but export prices have fallen sharply since 1989 when the export quota system was suspended (and subsequently deleted). Nevertheless, the current situation is that consumer prices have not changed much.

Import and export of coffee beans except for some countriessackIs being done in[6]..It is traded in hemp bags (straddle) in the state of raw beans before roasting, and the weight per bag is basically 1 kg (statistical data from Brazil, the US Department of Agriculture and the World Coffee Organization), but actually Depends on the origin, 60 kg in Colombia, 70 in Central and South Americalb= 68kg, Hawaii 100lbs = 45.4kg, etc.In coffee importing countries, hemp bags are discharged in large quantities and are recycled.[6].

Commodity trading

The price of coffee beans fluctuates greatly because the production area is worldwide and the crop is affected by the climate. Therefore, in order to stabilize the price and supply,Futures tradingIs the target of.

Arabica speciesIntercontinental ExchangeUnder the umbrellaICE Futures US[7],Brazilian Commodity and Futures ExchangeAnd the Robusta coffeeEuronextUnder the umbrella (en: LIFFE)Etc,Commodity futures tradingIt is listed as a major stock of the company, and the transaction amount is large. In addition, both have different production areas and uses, and there are differences in price trends, so they have become a staple of (sheath removal).

JapanBut,Tokyo Grain ExchangeArabica coffee and Robusta coffee were listed in, but as shown in the next section, they declined as only money games, Robusta coffee was suspended in May 2012, and Arabica coffee was suspended in March 5.[8]

Disparity

Distribution of coffee beans by four major companiesoligopolyIn addition, because it requires an intermediary (broker) with a large warehouse, it becomes a complicated and less competitive distribution system, the position of the producer is weak, and the profit is only a few percent of the transaction scale. This is the economic disparity between developed countries (consuming countries) and emerging countries (producing countries) regarding international agricultural products (North-South problem) It is an element.

In addition, the economic disparity within the production country (poverty) It is also an element. Large-scale cultivation until nowPlantationHowever, its operation relies on labor-intensive work. For this reason, a small number of businesses (landowners) employ innumerable workers, but the efficiency improvement orientation described above islabor management OfHierarchyWill be urged to fix the disparity. The labor force of major producing countries such as Brazil used to beBlack slaveAfter the abolition of slaveryImmigrationMoved to a worker. All of them are in a position that is easy to be placed in the poorest, and the working environment is also bad.

Fair trade since the 1970sFair trade) Is being purchased directly. Non-profit organization[9]And small businesses guarantee high qualityGourmet coffeeWe are trying to sell directly to consumers in developed countries, stabilize the profits of producers, improve the treatment of workers, environmental problems and production environment, and promote economic independence, but consumers' brand beliefs and prices Blocked by demands for destruction, the size of the transaction remains at a level (less than XNUMX%) that does not appear in the statistics. Starbucks Coffee,AEON groupSome major companies, such as, advocate "fair trade" for a small part of their products.

Trade

Exporting country

  • The top 5 exporters of green coffee beans are:[10]
  1. Brazil
  2. Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
  3. コロンビア
  4. Indonesia 
  5. India 
  • The top five instant coffee exporters are:
  1. Brazil
  2. Malaysia
  3. Indonesia
  4. India 
  5. エクアドル

Importing country

  • The top 5 importers of green coffee beans are:[11].
  1. European Union
  2. America
  3. Japan
  4. ロシア
  5. カナダ
  • The top XNUMX instant coffee importers are:
  1. フィリピン
  2. ロシア
  3. カナダ
  4. Chugoku
  5. Japan

International Coffee Organization

To balance the supply and demand of coffee bean production and formulate trade rulesInternational Coffee Organization(ICO) is organized.

Coffee bean processing

Until you make coffee

In the process of making coffee as a beverage from coffee trees, coffee beans are processed in several steps. To get the big picturecoffeeSee section.

Refining coffee beans

The process of extracting coffee beans from the fruits of the harvested coffee is called coffee refining. There are two main types of coffee refining: dry (dry / non-washing) and wet (washing). For simple tasks, coffee refining takes place in the production area. Refined coffee beans are called raw beans, which are dried and stored so that the water content is 10-12% to prevent the growth of mold, etc., and then exported to the place of consumption.

Dry type (dry type, non-flush type)

It is a refining method that has been used for a long time, and has the advantage that it can be performed even in areas where water is inconvenient. In the mocha and mandelin producing areas, except for a small part, it is traditionally refined by the dry method. In Brazil, most of them were dry, but wet and semi-wet are gradually increasing because they sell as higher quality products, and most Robusta coffees are dry. Spread the harvested fruits flat on a drying area and dry them in the sun. The time required for drying depends on the degree of ripeness of the fruit, and it takes 1 to 3 days for ripe black fruits and 2 weeks for immature green fruits. Stirring is done several times daily to homogenize the drying. After drying, the exodermis, flesh, and inner pericarp are mechanically removed. Currently, mechanical drying is also performed, which dries at 50 ° C for about 3 days. In the old manual sorting work, a round flat net called Peneira was used to raise the beans high in the air to screen out the contaminants.

Wet (washable)

Compared to the dry type, the coffee beans have the advantage that the appearance is easier to adjust and the commercial value is higher. It is often done for Arabica species in production areas other than Brazil. The harvested fruits are first soaked in water for about a day, and the immature fruits that float there are removed. After the exodermis and pulp are roughly mechanically removed, they are placed in a water tank called a fermenter for 1 to 1 days. In this process, the pectin layer surrounding the seed is decomposed by the action of the pectin-degrading enzyme possessed by the pulp and the aquatic microorganisms living in the fermenter. After washing with water and drying, it is shipped to a refinery where the inner pericarp is mechanically removed to make coffee beans. Before removing the inner pericarpParchment coffeeIt is called, and it may be exported in this state. Most of the Robusta varieties are dry-refined, but the brand called WIB from Indonesia, which has the largest import volume of Robusta varieties in Japan, is wet-refined.

Other purification methods

A semi-wet (semi-washing) method that combines a dry and a wet method is used in some farms in Brazil. The harvested fruits are placed in a water tank in the same manner as in the wet type, but the exodermis and pulp are removed without putting them in the fermenter, and then dried in the same manner as in the dry method.

Also, as a special refining method, for animals that ate coffee berriesshitThere is something that refines coffee beans from. It can be obtained from the feces of the civet that lives in Indonesia as something that may be on the market.Kopi LuwakIs famous. In addition, a very small amount of what is said to be collected from bird, weasel, and tiger droppings may be obtained in the production area. All of them are traded at the highest price because of their rare value because the production volume is extremely low, but they are not necessarily linked to the evaluation of coffee beans as quality, and their taste is also evaluated differently.

Roast

The refined raw coffee beans are then roasted to produce the aroma and taste of the coffee we actually eat for the first time. In many cases, this process is done in the consuming country and is done by a major coffee bean wholesaler called a roaster, as well as at coffee bean retailers and coffee shops.Home roastingWill be done. Some enthusiasts buy their own raw beans and roast them in-house.

Roasting is performed by a dedicated machine called a roasting machine. However, it can also be roasted in a frying pan, roasting, a metal hand net used for roasting ginnan, or an electric popcorn machine. These devices are classified as follows according to the difference in heating principle and heat source.

  • Open fire roast
  • Hot air roasting
  • Far infrared roasting
  • Microwave roasting
  • Charcoal roasting-Japan's unique method

When coffee is roasted, the temperature of the beans reaches about 200-300 ° C.A general roasting method requires a heating time of about 10 to 20 minutes.In the case of the direct fire method, about 15 minute is a guideline for every 1g.

Roasting requires craftsmanship, but some home roasting machines perform all the processes automatically. The time required for roasting varies depending on the amount of water in the raw beans, as well as the mood and humidity of the day. After the roasting is completed, it is necessary to cool the roasted beans immediately by applying cold air so that the roasting does not proceed due to the residual heat.

By roasting beanspHDecreases (becomes more acidic), reaching the lowest value per medium, and roasting to Italian will be around ph5.7 to 5.8. In addition, heat decomposes proteins and causes bitterness.DiketopiperazineWill increase. Therefore, light roasting has a strong acidity, and deep roasting has a strong bitterness.

The thin skin left from the beans during the roasting process (Silver skin, Silver skin) peels off, and the waste (waste)Chaffと 呼 ば れ る[6]..The amount of chaff is several tens of grams a day in stores, but in factories that process in large quantities, the amount of chaff is also large, so efforts are being made to compost.[6].

blend

Several types of coffee beans may be mixed depending on the purpose of consumption. thisblendCalled. Blended coffeeBlended coffeeOn the other hand, coffee consisting of only one type of roasted beansStraight coffeeCalled. Blending is usually done by mixing several types of roasted beans after roasting and before grinding. This is because if raw beans with different origins, years of origin, varieties, grain weights, moisture content, etc. are mixed and then roasted under the same heating conditions, the roasted finish will vary, and each coffee bean will have different finishes. This is because it is necessary to change the degree of roasting in order to make the best use of the characteristics of. In some cases, it may be blended before roasting or crushed powders.

Blending is a process of mixing coffees with different tastes to create a taste that cannot be achieved by a single straight coffee, according to the intention of the provider. However, the rules are not fixed, and each roaster follows a unique blending recipe. In industrial production such as instant coffee, eight or more types of beans are mixed to maintain the quality such as flavor.

Crushing

The roasted coffee beans are ground into small granules or powders before being extracted. This processCoffee grinderThat is. For crushingCoffee millOrgrinderAn instrument or machine called is used, but in some cases, a mortar or stone mill may be used. Coffee may be sold as roasted beans or after being crushed at the factory, but it is said that crushing increases the surface area and accelerates the deterioration of quality due to air oxidation. Therefore, many people grind it with a coffee mill for home use just before extraction.

The crushed coffee depends on the size of the flourFinely ground,Medium grind,Coarse grindIs called. As a guideline for the size, it is said to be coarsely ground and have the size of rough sugar. However, this classification is only relative, there is no fixed standard, and the actual size will differ depending on the store and coffee mill. The degree of these grinds is adjusted by how the coffee is extracted and what taste it wants to taste. For exampleespressoThen, it is used after being finely ground so that it becomes a powder that is almost like fine powder.

Other processing technologies

Other processing techniques used for coffee beans includeDecafFor example, decaffeination treatment for producing decaffeinated products. This process is often done at the raw bean stage. Detail isDecafSee.

品質

Coffee beans are graded according to their quality. This rating is based on the size and quality of the beans (Defect beans) Is mixed in, and it does not necessarily match the flavor of coffee itself. In addition, the grading method and criteria differ depending on the place of origin.

Defect beans

Foreign substances mixed in coffee beans and beans that are sick or worm-eaten lower the evaluation of the quality of the coffee.DisadvantageIs called. In recent years, the mixing rate of defective beans has become very low, but even so, it is separated before and after roasting.Hand pickWork is indispensable. Inferior beans that are subject to defects are especially called defect beans. The defective beans are as follows.

  • Immature beans: Also known as Verji. It is a picked product that is not fully ripe and has a grayish color or the beans are not glossy and wrinkled. When mixed with this, it may give an unpleasant pungent odor.
  • Fermented beans: Fermented with yeast during the washing process, which is difficult to find in raw beans, but is often overcooked or barely cooked after roasting.
  • Seashell beans: Caused by poor drying or abnormal mating. It is called this because it is shaped like a shell.
  • Cracked beans
  • Kokko: Beans that have been spoiled or fermented due to insufficient pulp removal. Kokko means feces and causes a strange odor called Rio odor.
  • Black beans: Beans that have been fermented and darkened as a whole.
  • Bug-eating beans: Most coffee is called a blockerLepidopteraInsect larvae parasitized and damaged.
  • Mold beans: Beans with breeding blue and mildew.
  • Dead beans: Beans that did not bear fruit normally.

Brazilian coffee rating

Determined by the number of defective beans (number of defects)"No."とScreen numberIt is displayed in the combination of.

  • The number of defects is determined by the presence or absence of contaminants in the 300 gram sample.
    • Stone / Wood chip / Soil (Large) = 1 mixture and 5 defects
    • Stone / Wood piece / Soil (medium) = 1 mixture and 2 defects
    • Stone / Wood piece / Soil (small) = 1 mixed number and 1 defect
    • Black beans / dried fruits = 1 mixed number and 1 defect
    • Parchment / fermented beans = 2 mixed and 1 defect
    • Insect-eating beans = 2 or more mixed 5 and 1 defect
    • Immature beans / crushed beans = 5 mixed beans and 1 defect
  • The "No." display is determined by the total number of defects. No. 1 is virtually nonexistent.
    • Up to 4 defects = No.2
    • Up to 12 defects = No.3
    • Up to 26 defects = No.4
    • Up to 46 defects = No.5
    • Up to 86 defects = No.6
  • The screen number is the size of a bean and is used not only in Brazil but also in Colombia and Tanzania.
    • Extra small = 12-13
    • Small = 14
    • Medium = 15
    • Usually = 16
    • Semi-large = 17
    • Large = 18
    • Oversized = 19-20

Rating by altitude of production area (Mexico, etc.)

In the Central American regions of Mexico, Honduras, and Guatemala, the higher the altitude, the better the quality of beans, so the rating based on the altitude is used. The following are 7 grades of Guatemalan style, and the grades are good in order from the top.

  • Strictly Hard Bean (SHB) above 1350 meters above sea level
  • Hard Bean (HB) Altitude 1200-1350 meters
  • Semi-hard bean (SH) altitude 1050-1200 meters
  • Extra Prime Washed (EPW) 900-1050 meters above sea level
  • Prime Washed (PW) 750-900 meters above sea level
  • Extra Good Washed (EGW) 600-750 meters above sea level
  • Good washed (GW) altitude 600 meters or less

Rating of African beans

The ratings of beans produced in Tanzania and Kenya are written in alphabets such as AA, A and B.パ ュ ュ ニ ニThe same applies. AA is mainly used for screen number 18 and less contaminated beans.

Storage method

Raw beans can be stored for a long period of time for at least several years if they are stored carefully so that the water content does not become too high.

For roasted beans, when stored in a sealed container at room temperatureexpiration dateIt is said that it takes about 2 weeks for beans and about 2 days after crushing. However, the evaluation is divided depending on the person, and some people take it shorter and others take it longer.

This short expiration date is due to the fact that the flavor of coffee deteriorates over time. Immediately after the coffee beans are roasted, the components contained in the roasted beans begin to oxidize and volatilize, and the flavor when extracted into coffee is impaired over time. This deterioration of flavor progresses faster, especially after grinding, which is believed to be due to the increased surface area from beans to flour.

On the other hand, there is also a problem with beans immediately after roasting. A large amount from roasted beans for about 2 dayscarbon dioxideOccurs. Therefore, it should be noted that if the beans immediately after roasting are sealed in a highly airtight bag, they may burst. In addition, it is said that the taste when extracted into coffee is difficult to stabilize during this period. For this reason, some people consider the period from 1 to 2 days after roasting beans to about 2 weeks as the best-by date.

On a commercial scale, storage methods and packaging techniques have been developed for long-term storage of roasted beans, and vacuum packaging and low-temperature storage are also used. At home, if it is used up in a short period of time, it can be stored at room temperature, but for long-term storage, it should be refrigerated or frozen. However, when it is stored after being ground, it is said that it is desirable to put it in a sealed container because it absorbs moisture when it is returned from low temperature to room temperature.

footnote

  1. ^ For this reason,All Japan Coffee AssociationProposed in 1983 to make October 10st "Coffee Day".
  2. ^ Nago Coffee
  3. ^ Toyo Keizai Online "Coffee companies around the world fight fiercely for beans in China"
  4. ^ "Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division”. Faostat.fao.org (February 2012, 2). 2012/6/7Browse.
  5. ^ "Total production of exporting countries”. International Coffee Organization (April 2012, 4). 2012/12/24Browse.
  6. ^ a b c d "Hearing survey results for the restaurant industry”. Green Purchasing Network. 2020/12/19Browse.
  7. ^ https://www.theice.com/productguide/ProductDetails.shtml?specId=15
  8. ^ http://www.tge.or.jp/japanese/introduction/intro_coffee.shtml Tokyo Grain Exchange
  9. ^ http://www.fairtrade-jp.org/ Fair Trade Label Japan
  10. ^ World coffee (production, consumption, inventory, exports, imports, price changes)
  11. ^ World coffee (production, consumption, inventory, exports, imports, price changes)

References

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