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Movie "Inubu!" Kento Hayashi's "Dog Stupid" Fully Open Expression & Serious Veterinarian Scene Cut Lifting

 
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Synopsis Sota Hanai, a college student at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has loved dogs and animals since she was a child.
 

The movie "Inube!" Scheduled to be released on July 7nd. ], 22 new scene photos that capture the appearance of Kento Hayashi's main character, Sota Hanai ... → Continue reading

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Faculty of medicine

Faculty of medicine(Igakubu,English: Faculty of Medicine etc.)UniversityInMedical educationAboutResearch-EducationFaculty that is doing. AlsoMedical scienceLearn to specializeCourse..The social responsibility of the medical schoolEducation-Clinical-ResearchIt is said to be three.

  • Medical educationIs the responsibility of the medical school because it is more effective to have an affiliated hospital where you can actually touch the patient and learn psychology and ethics.In addition, medical education is a responsibility of the medical school because patients with "rare diseases but intractable diseases whose pathology is easy to understand" gather in hospitals that provide advanced medical care, and such hospitals are more effective. ,FacultyStudent OfClinical trainingAfter graduationtrainingAnd so on.
  • Highly advanced medical treatment contributes to the improvement of local medical care level by gathering the latest knowledge from all over the world, and it is more effective that it is a hospital with scholars conducting research. It is the responsibility of the Faculty of Medicine to help students learn medicine.
  • It is the responsibility of the Faculty of Medicine because it is more effective to conduct research in a hospital equipped with highly advanced equipment and scholars who can experimentally treat intractable diseases that cannot be cured by current medicine (Special function hospital).

School of Medicine in Japan

Subject

The following departments are attached to the Faculty of Medicine.

Department of medicine
Medical departmentDoctorIt is a 6-year course for training students. The Department of Medicine is a course to take medicines (internal medicine, external medicine, radiology, etc.) excluding "dentistry" and is different from the Department of Dentistry.
Department of Health Science and Nursing
Faculty of Medicine, University of TokyoDepartment of Health1992It was installed by changing the department name. Having a nursing course and a health science course,nurseNot necessarily. It aims at an interdisciplinary approach to health care. 4-year system.
Department of Nursing
Previously, it was often used as an affiliated nursing vocational school or a junior college nursing department (both are three-year systems).Department of Nursing Thenurse,Public health nurseIt is a four-year system to train students.
Department of Health
Medical radiologist,Clinical technologist,Occupational therapist,physical therapistThis is a four-year system for training students. In addition to these,nurse,Public health nurseThere are places that have a training course.
Department of Medical Nutrition
Registered dietitianIt is a four-year system to train students. As of April 4,Tokushima UniversityIt is installed only in (it was a "Department of Nutrition" until April 2014).
Comprehensive pharmacy
pharmacistIt is a 6-year course for training students. The Department of Pharmacy was originally set up in the Faculty of Medicine, but most became independent as an undergraduate and remained in this form until the end.Hiroshima UniversityTo move to 6-year pharmacy educationPharmacyAs independent.
Department of Life Science
A four-year department to train life scientists who have acquired basic knowledge of medicine. 4Tottori UniversityWas installed in 2007Kyushu UniversityWas also newly established.

According to a 2012 report, lectures on oriental medicine are given at medical schools of all Japanese universities.[1], Japanese medical schoolOriental medicineThere is no subject.

Qualifications/Licenses

For those who have graduated from the doctor training course (6 years under the faculty of medicine)Bachelor (Medical)"ofBachelor of Science(Before 1991, the title of "medical bachelor") is awarded, but bachelor (medical) and other 6-year undergraduate graduatesmaster's degreeAcquirer is medicalgraduate SchoolIt is possible to enroll inDoctor (medicine)You can obtain a degree. In other words, a doctoral degree can be obtained without going through a doctor training course.

A graduate school where you can obtain a doctoral degree is set up at a university that has a doctor training course. To obtain a Ph.D. degree in those graduate schoolsGraduate School of MedicineMust be enrolled in, and also wrote by himselfpaperA doctoral degree will be awarded based on the evaluation of. The Graduate School of Medicine has a four-year system,Graduate school for working adultsIf you enroll in, you need to pay the tuition fee for 3 years or more and submit a sufficient dissertation to be recognized as a doctor (medicine).

Doctor of Medicine is a degreeDoctor's licenseA doctor (medicine) who is not a doctor cannot practice medical practice because it has nothing to do with. In addition, even if you obtain only a doctoral degree (medicine) without graduating from the medical department of the Faculty of Medicine, you are not eligible to take the national medical examination. To become a doctor, a person who is planning to graduate from or has graduated from the Faculty of Medicine must take and pass the National Medical Examination.

Education

As of 2016, there are 80 universities in Japan, and the number of students enrolled in each grade is around 1.[2].. The number of medical students continued to increase due to the Cabinet decision of the "Medicine-free University Prefecture Elimination Plan" in 1973, but in 1982DoctorCapacity was curtailed to prevent overnumbering and remained unchanged at 2003 from 2007 to 7625[3].The competition rate of applicants for admission is high, and the average age of medical students is higher than that of other faculties.[Source required].

According to the income and expenditure reports released by each university, tuition income basically exceeds education expenses. The high tuition fees of private university medical schools are used to cover the deficit of university hospitals and research expenses in addition to educational expenses.private universityThe average amount of 6-year total payments from the Faculty of Medicine is about 3,300 million yen.[4]Is. The maximum amount isKawasaki Medical SchoolIt costs about 4,600 million yen to graduate from the medical school. On the other handJichi Medical UniversitySome universities, like this, offer almost no tuition fees if certain conditions are met after graduation.

At the time of graduationGraduation thesisIt will be completed by passing the "graduation exam" (with some exceptions).National Doctor ExamThe pass rate is often directly linked to the university evaluation,Faculty of Science,Faculty of EngineeringIt is said that the difficulty of promotion and graduation is higher than that of[5]..Therefore, in the medical department of the university medical schoolRepetitionThe problem has been discussed for a long time.In line with the current situation in which the number of medical students is increasing due to the establishment of regional frameworks in recent years, there is an increasing need for discussions again.At the time of admission to the Faculty of Medicine, despite the premise that those who can withstand both academic ability and physical strength are selected for the curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine and have started enrollment in the Faculty of Medicine as a student of the Faculty of Medicine, they will repeat the year within a few years after admission.Primary detentionIt is highly likely that medical students who do not have the qualifications to become doctors in the future, either academically or physically.Universities that admit admission can provide supplementary lessonsAdvancementWe are giving guidance for.From the point of view of the national tax that is levied on the medical school,penaltyAnd as much as possibleLower GradeでCareer guidanceIt is believed that doing so should also be considered.In particular, the medical department of private universities is very strict, and it is not uncommon for students who are unlikely to pass the national examination for medical practitioners to repeat a year without mercy, and because the tuition fee is very high.Drop outThere is no end to those who do it every year[6].

As of 2017, the youngest medical schoolInternational University of Health and WelfareIt was opened in 2017 (Heisei 29) at the Faculty of Medicine.

Also, in recent yearsLack of doctorsAgainst this background, there is a movement to consider establishing a medical school at a private university.Doshisha UniversityAnnounced in 2012 that it would aim to establish a medical school in collaboration with multiple local governments.[7].. However, in 2013, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced thatGreat East Japan EarthquakeDoshisha University abandoned the establishment of a medical school because it took a policy to allow only one university located in the Tohoku region to establish a new university as reconstruction support.[8].. In the subsequent examination, the examination committee of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology decided that the university would establish a new medical school.Tohoku Pharmaceutical UniversityIn 2016Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical UniversityA medical school was established.

Entrance exam

Pacific WarDuring the war, the Japanese government established a number of medical colleges to solve the shortage of clinicians, and in 1947 after the war.Basic Education LawとSchool education lawThe medical vocational school that met the standards was promoted to a university by the promulgation of, and was reorganized into 1952 medical colleges and medical schools in 46.At that time, there were medical schools at 19 national universities, 14 public universities, and 13 private universities, and the enrollment capacity was 2820.[9].High economic growth periodWhen entering, voices such as "1 prefecture, 1 medical college" and "10 doctors for 150 population" increased, and in 1970Akita UniversityStarting with the establishment of medical schools in Japan, the establishment of private medical schools has occurred rapidly, and since 1973, national medical schools have been newly established one after another in prefectures where medical schools have not been established, and all prefectures have medical schools.In 60, the capacity of the medical school reached 120, coupled with the increase in the capacity of the existing medical school from 1984 to 8280.[9]..Many of the top performers in science at this time were not aiming for medical school, and the top performers at that time wereFormer Imperial UniversityThere was a segregation between aspiring science and engineering faculties at the level and aspiring medical students at each university.Medical students at that time were moving nationwide in search of universities with a high probability of passing.[9].

In 1979Common first-stage examWas introduced, it was possible to take the exams of two universities until then.National former first and second term schoolsWas abolished, and one national and public university took the examination, and the number of applicants for the medical school dropped sharply.This effect is especiallyHirosaki University,Kagoshima UniversityIt was remarkable in the old second term school. With the introduction of the A / B schedule continuous system in 1987, the reduction of the number of elective subjects in the science society, and the introduction of a pre-application system for applying for the secondary exam before the common primary exam, the number of medical school examinees recovered, mainly in eastern Japan. I showed you.After that, the number of applicants decreased due to the repeated changes in the examination system at national and public universities, but the medical school was not significantly affected, and the number of applicants for private medical schools increased as a joint application destination for national and public universities.[9].

In recent yearsYoungerbyCollege entrance examinationSimplification of[10],Away from scienceHas been pointed out,Bubble burstLong afterrecessionBankruptcy of the company due toRestructuringThe number of applicants for medical school has increased significantly due to the influence of the above, especially in the medical school of national and public universities.Entrance examinationIs becoming more difficult, and its popularity remains high even after the economic recovery. National and public university medical schools are extremely popular with aspiring medical students (especially) because tuition fees are overwhelmingly cheaper than private university medical schools (about 50 a year).Former Imperial University(Old Imperial University)Three major metropolitan areasNational and Public University School of MedicineTokyo UniversityComparable or better than science class XNUMX and science class XNUMXEntrance exam difficultyIs often said[11], Even in the medical school of the non-former imperial university in the region, it is said that the difficulty level is comparable to or equivalent to the above-mentioned science class XNUMX and XNUMX of the University of Tokyo.However, it is said that the difficulty of science class XNUMX and XNUMX of the University of Tokyo and the difficulty of the medical school of national and public universities cannot be simply compared because the vectors of difficulty are completely different).In addition, it is said that the higher the tuition fee of a university, the higher the entrance examination difficulty level, and conversely, the higher the tuition fee, the easier the entrance examination difficulty level (the high tuition fee and the entrance examination difficulty level are inversely proportional). ing[12].. Regarding the level of entrance examinations for medical schools since 1990, the difference in deviation between the former medical college and the former imperial university / former medical college tends to narrow at national and public universities, and overall at private universities. An increase in the deviation value is seen[9].

Most universities have the same questions as other faculties,Center examIn both the secondary exams, the minimum passing score and entrance exam deviation value are extremely high compared to other faculties of the same university, and it is called the most difficult faculty (department).Furthermore, from the 2006 entrance examination, some universities have to take all three science subjects (chemistry, physics, and biology) at the medical school of the national public university, but the consistency with the high school curriculum has been reviewed and as of 3. ThenKyushu UniversityIt is possible to take two science subjects at all national and public universities except[9]..In addition, until the 2016 entrance examination, Kyushu University School of Medicine, University of Tokyo Science Class XNUMX, and Kinki University School of Medicine were three schools that did not conduct interviews at all medical schools, including national and private medical schools.[9]However, interviews are now required at all universities and entrance examination dates.

After graduation

From 2004 onwards, when the trainees themselves became able to select the training destination for postgraduate clinical training, the number of applicants for hospitals in urban areas where the training contents tend to be enriched began to concentrate.[13].. For this reason, an upper limit was set for the number of people by region from 2010.[13].. In 2016, 42.6% of the trainees were trained at university hospitals and 58.3% were community hospitals.[14].

Capacity

School of Medicine capacity (1st grade)
Entrance exam年度Capacity
19987,640
19997,630
2000
2001
2002
20037,625
2004
2005
2006
2007
20087,793
20098,486
20108,846
20118,923
20128,991
20139,041
20149,069
20159,134
20169,262
20179,420
20189,419
2019 (first year of Reiwa)9,420
2020 (Reiwa02 years)9,330
2021 (Reiwa03 years)9,357

National (Government) Public and Private University School of Medicine (Medical specialty), etc., the total number of students for one school year is 1945 in 20 (Showa 10,533)[† 1]However, the number of medical professionals was abolished, and the number was reduced to 1948 in 23.[15].. This number was fixed, but was increased to 1960 in 35.[15][16],1961(Showa 36)Universal insuranceThe establishment of a medical school started in line with the increase in medical demand due to the achievement, and in 1965 (Showa 40) 3,560 people[16],1970(Showa 45) 4,380[16], 1975 in 50[16],1980In 55, there were 8,260 people[16].

LastNew medical schoolBecameUniversity of the RyukyusFaculty of Medicine has begun accepting medical students[17]Increased to 1981 in 56 (Showa 8,280)[18][19].. Then,Ministry of Health and WelfareIn 1982 (Showa 57)Cabinet decisionWas started, and capacity reduction began with a peak of 1985 in 60.[16].Bubble economyIn the backgroundEducation continuance rateRises,Baby boom juniorIn 1990 (Heisei 2) when the generation took the exam, it was reduced to 7,750.[16], The number of university applicants peaked at 1992 in 4[20]And 1995 in 7[16]The reduction was further promoted based on the cabinet decision in 1997 (Heisei 9), and fixed at 2003 after 15 (7,625).[21].

However, it started in 2004Postgraduate clinical trainingWith compulsion, etc.Working doctorDemand for doctors has increased due to a shortage and the uneven distribution of doctors by region and department. Therefore, the number of seats was increased to 2008 in the 20 (Heisei 7,793) entrance examination.[21]In 2009, the number of employees increased to a record high of 21[22].. The number of employees increased every year after the change of government, and the number of employees increased to 2017 in 29.[23].

The number of university applicants is2006Since 18, 70 people have fallen[20].

List of Japanese universities with medical schools

National university

Public university

private university

Ministry College

Name similar to medical school

DoctorAbout the educational process of trainingMedical educationSee.

Medical school, medical school, medical school, medical hall
Medical school
Faculty of medicine
  1. 1886 yearsJunior high school decree1918 from enforcementUniversity decreeUntil enforcementHigh schoolorOld high schoolRefers to a medical education institution that is a faculty of.
  2. After the enforcement of the university ordinance, it refers to a medical education institution that is a faculty of the university.
Medical college
  1. 1886 yearsImperial University OrdinanceFrom to the enforcement of university orderImperial UniversityPointed to a medical department university.
  2. After the enforcement of the university ordinance,CollegePointed tonurse,Co-medicalDepartment, which trainsFaculty of Dentistry,PharmacyIn some cases, it has a medical faculty such as.
Medical College
Medical college
  • There is no faculty that trains doctors, but there are cases where universities that have faculties that train other medical professionals give their names.
Faculty of Health Sciences

Medical School in Europe and America

Germany

As of 2014, Germany has 37 medical schools, of which 35 are state schools and 2 are private schools.[24].

History

In Germany1388ToHeidelberg UniversityLeading the world in the medical field with the start of medical education in[24]..But German medical educationAuthoritarianismIt is said that it was targeted and tightly closed, and it has been pointed out that it is necessary to emulate medical education in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, etc. after the war.[24].

Medical education reform was carried out and the regulation law on doctor's license came into effect in 2003.[24].

Education

Germany's medical school is a 6-year system but a semester system is adopted instead of a grade system[24].. The 6-year curriculum is mostly 2 years for basic science, 3 years for clinical medicine, and 1 year for clinical training.[24].. Many semester systems are two semesters, the first semester and the second semester.[24].

The German national examination for doctors is the first examination (at the end of 1 years) and the second examination (the written examination at the end of 2 years and the oral examination at the end of 2 years).[24].

Entrance exam

Various selection methods are used for entrance examinations of German medical schools[24].

  • Abitur -About 2% of medical schools are selected from the top performers of Abitur[24].
  • University-specific selection system-Approximately 6% of medical schools are selected by document screening and interview examinations for each university.[24].
  • Waiting time system-Approximately 2% of medical schools are selected by a system that waits for a chance to enter the medical school while participating in nursing practice and civic activities using a selection method peculiar to Germany.[24].

The United Kingdom

There are 2011 medical schools in the UK as of 32[25].. EspeciallyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHas adopted pioneering medical education and is considered to be one of the leading regions in the world for medical education, and the University of Dundee is said to be a mecca for medical education.[25].

Most British medical schools are five-year, but there are also four-year courses for undergraduate students and six-year courses that emphasize basic life science education.[25].

After graduating from medical school, in order to be officially registered as a doctor, it is necessary to temporarily register with the General Medical Council (GMC) and take two years of clinical training.[25]..After that, it will be divided into a course to take a 3-year program as a family doctor (GP) and a course to take a program of 5 to 7 years as a specialist, and after completion, you will be officially registered as a doctor by receiving a certificate.[25].

The United States of America

Medical education reforms took place in the United States from 1910 to 1920, and medical schools were rated in three stages: A, B, and C.[26].. At the same time, the Medical Education Council was established and later recognized as an advisory body to the Ministry of Education.[26].. And many medical colleges that are unlikely to meet the new standards of medical education were closed during this period.[26].

From 2023, the qualifications for the National Examination for Medical Practitioners in the United States will be limited to graduates of medical schools certified by the American Medical College Association (AAMC) or the World Federation of Medical Education (WFME).[26].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Number of enrolled students

Source

  1. ^ Yoshihiro Imazu, Shun Kanari, Hiroshi Odaguchi and others, "Current status of Chinese medicine education in 80 university medical schoolsJapan Society for Oriental Medicine 2012 Vol. 63, No. 2, p.121-130, two:10.3937 / kampomed.63.121
  2. ^ List of enrollment capacity of Faculty of Medicine (28)
  3. ^ About efforts to increase the enrollment capacity of the medical school so far 2011 Medical Education Division, Higher Education Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
  4. ^ Private University School of Medicine, Tuition Reduction Competition Securing Students "While Popular"(Asahi ShimbunDigital February 2013, 2)
  5. ^ This is the amazing reality of mass repetition of medical school | Bungei Online
  6. ^ Faculty of Dentistry-Dentist National Exam,Pharmacy6-year departmentNational pharmacist examThe same can be said for.
  7. ^ Doshisha considers establishing a new medical college Since 79, approval is unclear(Nihon Keizai Shimbun August 2012, 11)
  8. ^ Doshisha abandons opening of medical college(December 2014, 4, Nihon Keizai Shimbun)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Kenichi Ishihara "Transition and future direction of medical school entrance examination"Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine," Vol. 104, No. 12, 2015, pp. 2490-2497, two:10.2169 / naika.104.2490.Free to browse
  10. ^ Changes in the 18-year-old population and the number of students enrolled in higher education institutions and the rate of enrollment(Ministry of education)
  11. ^ The reason why the difficulty level of the medical school has risen to "University of Tokyo" | Diamond Online
  12. ^ Is there any movement in the private university medical school ranking "Tuition fees for 6 years"? Latest edition! 2020 Entrance Examination Information Analysis | Asahi Shimbun Publishing Aeradot
  13. ^ a b Doctor's urban concentration stop? Rewarding and hospitality to rural areas  2016/7/3 NIKKEI STYLE
  14. ^ The largest number of residents outside the metropolitan area, the final result of matching in 2016 October 2016, 10 Naozumi Takahashi (m20.com editorial department)
  15. ^ a b Consideration of Japan's history of health human resources development (PDF) (Independent administrative agencyJapan International Cooperation Agency)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h About the transition and direction change of the doctor number control policy(Japan Alto Mark "Medical Studies (Ishima Nabu)" January 2009, 01)
  17. ^ History overview(Ryukyu University)
  18. ^ About efforts to increase the enrollment capacity of the medical school so far (PDF) (Medical Education Division, Higher Education Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, January 2011, 1)
  19. ^ About the plan to increase the enrollment capacity of the Faculty of Medicine in 26 (PDF) (MEXT, November 2013, 12)
  20. ^ a b Recent exam environment(Kawai Juku Kei-Net)
  21. ^ a b Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to increase the capacity of medical school by 500(Sankei Shimbun August 2008, 8)
  22. ^ Medical school capacity increased to 693 = 77 universities from next year-Ministry of Education(Newsletter August 2008, 11)
  23. ^ About increase in enrollment capacity of medical school in 30 (PDF) (MEXT, November 2017, 10)
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nobuo Nara, Toshiya Suzuki, "National Medical Education and Medical Examinations in GermanyMedical Education 2014 Vol. 45, No. 3, p.193-200, two:10.11307 / mededjapan.45.3_193
  25. ^ a b c d e Nobuo Nara "Around the World Medical School (2) I Europe Edition UK" Modern Media Vol. 66, No. 9, viewed March 2021, 3.
  26. ^ a b c d "The need for internationalization of medical education”. Comparative Law Research Center. 2017/12/7Browse.

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