Discount Japan Corona, which operates a discount request service, has caused a rapid increase in rent reduction requests, and the response rate is 3 ...
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Although the state of emergency issued on April 2020, 4 was completely lifted in about a month and a half, the number of infected people has increased again in various places, and the number of prefectures requesting leave has increased.
Discount Japan (Location: Toyohashi City, Aichi Prefecture, Representative: Yasunori Mizuno), which operates the discount request service, is a new corona ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Emergency declaration(Hijojitai Sengen) orEmergency declarationWhat is (Kinkyuji Taisengen)?Natural disasters,Infection(Epidemic-Disease)ofPandemic,Nuclear accidentSuch asdisasterAnd戦 争,terrorism,Civil strife,MayhemSuch,Health-life-property-EnvironmentDanger is imminentEmergency(Emergency)Country-Region Of政府(Local governmentEtc.)decreeTo activate a special authority based onpublicIt is to proclaim and declare such a situation in order to call attention to.
About the name
Current,Japanese lawThe basic wording ofEmergency(Emergency)"·"Emergency declarationDespite being unified as "Kinkyuji Taisengen", due to customs from the wording of the provisions of the former Japanese law, "(Kinkyuji Taisengen)" is used in foreign languages.emergency"Or"state of emergency"Emergency situation" and "Emergency declaration" are sometimes used in the media etc. as a Japanese translation of "," etc. It has the same meaning as "statement of emergency".
Measures includePolicemen-軍隊(in Japan's case,SDF)SuchCivil servantMobilization ofPublic financeCondemnation of an emergencycommandPromulgation of government ordinances superior to the law and suspension of constitutional human rights guaranteesWritIn addition to allowing arrests and home searches that do not depend on the media,Freedom of assemblyな どLibertyThere can be restrictions. But,Japan,アイス ランドAnd someCountry ruled by lawThen, there are some cases where the request is almost unenforceable.
in Japan,1954Old until (Showa 29)Police lawAuthority to proclaim a "national emergency" under Article 62Prime MinisterWas given to the currentPolice lawbased onEmergency DeclarationOther than that,Disaster Countermeasures Basic Lawbased onDeclaration of a disaster emergency,New influenza measures special measures lawbased onPandemic influenza etc.And so onPrime MinisterIs announced.
The United States of AmericaThen,PresidentIt is not uncommon to declare a state of emergency, but it is declared when the assets are frozen under the authority of the president as "a threat from foreign countries" (For example, in November 2018, an anti-government demonstration was announced. Central America suppressed by forceEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTo see the turmoil as an American security threat and freeze the assets of those who undermine security and democracyDonald Trump(Proclaimed by the President) and othersterrorism,InfectionIs also declared to correspond to.. In the United States, vs. 1979(I.e.Approximately 30 declarations, including asset freezes, are reported to be valid as of February 2019 in US media.
List of National Emergency Situations
Here, as mentioned above, declarations with names which are almost synonymous with each other, such as "emergency declaration" and "emergency order", are also described.
Before the 21th century
- 1941May 12 - Pacific WarOpen war ( Japan）
- 1948May 4 - Hanshin Education Case( Japan）
- 1962May 12 - Brunei People's PartyArmed uprising of ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Annotation 1]）
- 1963May 3 - Baath partyThe administration is established ( (I.e.）
- 1969May 7 - Singapore Race Riot (1969) ( Singapore） 
- 1975May 6 -Opposition protest ( India）
- 1982May 9 - Japan National RailwayExtreme deterioration of ( Japan）
- 1992May 1 - Algerian Civil Waroutbreak( アルジェリア）
- 1996May 9 - KB bridgeCollapse ( パラオ）
- 1999May 9 - 921 earthquake( Republic of China）
- 2000 - McDonald's OfHello KittyConfusion due to product purchase ( Singapore）
- 2003May 3 - JinjićPresidential assassination ( Serbia and Montenegro）
- 2006May 2 - Coup d'etatattempted( フィリピン）
- May 1 - Jasmine Revolution( チュニジア）
- May 3 - Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident( Japan）
- May 3 - Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power StationLoss of pressure suppression function of ( Japan）
- May 3 - anti-government protest( Yemen）
- May 8 -Deterioration of security ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 9 -Dried (( (I.e.）
- 2012May 6 - ReligiousIntensifying conflict ( Myanmar）
- May 1 -Cyclone "Ian" direct hit ( トンガ）
- May 5 - Torrential rain( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- 7~8 - West Africa Ebola outbreak
- May 2 - Boko HaramThe rise of ( ニ ジ ェ ー ル）
- May 3 -Cyclone "Pam" direct hit ( (I.e.- バヌアツ）
- May 3 - EbolaRe-epidemic of ( (I.e.）
- May 3 - typhoondamage( ミクロネシア 連邦）
- May 7 - HEATForeign attack by ( チュニジア）
- May 8 - 洪水( Myanmar）
- May 11 - Paris terrorist attacks( France）
- May 11 -Bus blastterrorism( チュニジア）
- May 3 - refugeesIncrease inflow of ( ハンガリー）
- May 3 -Zika fever epidemic ( マ ー ャ ル ル）
- May 3 -Dried (( ミクロネシア 連邦）
- May 4 -Demonstration plunge into Congress ( (I.e.）
- May 5 -Coup plan ( ベネズエラ）
- May 7 -Attempted coup ( トルコ）
- May 10 -Frequent anti-government demonstrations ( エチオピア）
- May 11 - Drought( ボリビア）
- May 1 -Demonstration to please the results of the presidential election ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 3 -Invasion of Islamic extremist groups from Mali ( ニ ジ ェ ー ル）
- May 4 - MocoaInEarth and stone flow( コロンビア）
- May 4 -Continuous bombing terrorism ( Egypt）
- May 4 - (I.e.( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 9 - Hurricane"Irma" direct hit ( バ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダ）
- May 9 - Mount Manaloeruption( バヌアツ）
- May 9 - PlagueFashion of ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 12 -Presidential election demonstration ( ホンジュラス）
- May 1 - Montego BayIn the cityMurder caseFrequent occurrence of ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 2 -Illegal rally of opposition ( Maldives）
- May 2 - flood( ボリビア）
- May 2 -Cyclone "Zeta" approaching ( トンガ）
- May 3 -AntiMuslimRiot ( Sri Lanka）
- May 5 - Socotra Island OfCyclonedamage( Yemen）
- May 6 -Demonstration against election results ( パ ュ ュ ニ ニ）
- May 8 -Hurricane “Lane” approach ( America）
- May 9 -Deterioration of security ( ベリーズ）
- May 9 -Spread of cholera infection ( Zimbabwe）
- May 1 -Deterioration of security ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 2 - Belushia GubaInPolar bearThe number of appearances of ロシア）
- May 2 - Mexican and american wallAiming for constructionDonald TrumpIssued by ( America）
- May 2 -Due to floodgold mineFlooded ( Zimbabwe）
- May 3 - BreadRiots against the price increase ( スーダン）
- May 3 - CycloneCatastrophic damage from "eye dye" ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 3 -Same ( Mozambique）
- May 4 - Sri Lanka bombing terrorist attacks( Sri Lanka）
- May 5 - Drought( Namibia）
- May 6 - Dengue feverFashion of ( ホンジュラス）
- May 7 -Rapid increase in murders in St Andrew ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 8 - Zika fever・Simultaneous fashion of dengue fever ( ペルー）
- May 8 - Evia IslandLarge-scale wildfire in ( Greece）
- May 8 - bananaEpidemic of disease ( コロンビア）
- May 8 - LivestockWith the peopleAgricultureConflict of people ( チャド）
- May 8 -Large-scale forest fire ( ボリビア）
- May 8 -Hurricane "Dorian" direct hit ( America）
- May 9 -Narcotics killed soldiers ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 10 - strikeRadicalization ( エクアドル）
- May 10 - Chile riot( チリ）
- May 10 -Government overthrow plan ( ボリビア）
- May 11 - Gaza StripfromRocketattack( イ ス ラ エ ル）
- May 11 - flood( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 11 -Bus bombing terrorism ( チュニジア）
- May 11 - 2019 Albania Earthquake( アルバニア）
- May 1 - KingstonDeterioration of security ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- 1~8 - Global expansion of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)
- May 1 - イタリア- ミクロネシア 連邦
- May 2 - マ ー ャ ル ル
- May 2 - South Korea
- May 2 - アフガニスタン- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 2 - リトアニア
- May 3 - France
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 3 - アイス ランド
- May 3 - ハンガリー- ボリビア
- May 3 - アルゼンチン- チ ェ コ- ベネズエラ- ラトビア
- May 3 - America- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- エストニア- スペイン- パナマ- ブルガリア
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- ポーランド- ホンジュラス- (I.e.
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- フィリピン- ペルー- South Africa- Maldives- Lebanon
- May 3 - アルメニア- エクアドル- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- スイス- スーダン- パラグアイ- フィンランド- ルーマニア
- May 3 - Eswatini- コロンビア- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Namibia- パラオ- Luxembourg
- May 3 - Australia- Northern Macedonia- Portugal- Lesotho
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- ハイチ
- May 3 - サモア- トンガ- (I.e.- Brazil- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- モロッコ
- May 3 - ジ ョ ー ジ ジ
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 3 - セントルシア
- May 3 - シエラレオネ- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- セネガル- パ ュ ュ ニ ニ
- May 3 - グレナダ- New Zealand
- May 3 - Thailand- バヌアツ- Fiji
- May 3 - アンゴラ- バ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダ- (I.e.- セ ァ · · · · · · · · · · ·- ニ ジ ェ ー ル
- May 3 - 東 テ モ ー ル
- May 3 - メキシコ
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- ボツワナ
- May 4 - ト ー ゴ- ベリーズ- Mozambique
- May 4 - ウクライナ
- May 4 - Japan[Annotation 2][Annotation 3]
- May 4 - エチオピア- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Annotation 4]
- May 4 - コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル
- May 4 - ガボン
- May 4 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 7 - north korea
- May 8 - ブ ー タ タ
- Date unknown - オーストリア- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- (I.e.
- May 2 - Massive flight of grasshoppers( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 6 -Crude oil spill ( ロシア）
- May 6 -A large number of locusts arrived ( アルゼンチン）
- May 8 - Beirut explosion accident( Lebanon）
- May 8 - Fuel spill( Mauritius）
- May 8 - Large-scale wildfire( America）
- May 9 - flood( スーダン）
- May 9 - Sex crimeincrease of( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- 10Since then-Re-expansion of new coronavirus infection
- May 10 - Antigovernment demonstration(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 10 - anti-government protest( Thailand）
Invocation from outside the nation
Federal systemCountries andDecentralizationIn advanced countries,Local governmentMay be authorized to declare an emergency. Also, although the special law does not come into effect,International organization,armyHas established effective controlArmed organizationMay make a declaration for the purpose of calling attention.
It is an international organization WHOIt is,2005Since then, in response to a large-scale epidemic,Public health emergencies of international concernIs to be declared. The example of activation is "#Notification/designationSee.
Local Government/Local Government
- America : -The chief has the authority to declare a state of emergency in the area due to a disaster.There are mainly the following examples.
- The United Kingdom
- Japan : Local governmentOr ordinary local governmentEmergencyDeclaration" may be carried out. However, these do not trigger special laws, but are merely requests or warnings that are not legally binding. The main examples are as follows.
- Miyazaki : 2010(Heisei22 years)May 5ToHideo HigashikuniharaGovernor Foot-and-mouth diseaseExample of proclaiming the epidemic.2021(Reiwa3 years)May 1ToShunji KonoGovernorEpidemic of new coronavirus (COVID-19)Example declared for.
- Hokkaido : 2020(2nd year of Reiwa)May 2ToNaoichi SuzukiGovernor Epidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Declared againstexample.
- Aichi: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 4And the same yearMay 8ToHideaki OmuraGovernor Epidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Declared againstexample.
- Gifu: On April 2020, 2 (Reiwa 4), the prefecture's own state of emergency was issued in line with Aichi Prefecture's own "state of emergency" (above) due to the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection... The same yearMay 7As the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased, the prefecture issued its own second wave emergency (state of emergency) until the end of August..
- Mie: On April 2020, 2 (Reiwa 4), the prefecture issued an emergency declaration to prevent the spread of infection in line with Aichi Prefecture's own "emergency declaration" (above) due to the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection... The same yearMay 8からMay 8Issued a prefecture-specific emergency alert declaration.
- Tochigi City: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 4ToHideko OkawaThe mayor declares a state of emergency unique to the city based on the fact that the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the city is the second highest in the prefecture and the ratio per 2 population is the highest in the prefecture. ..Request hand washing, cough etiquette, wearing a mask and refraining from going out.
- Nasu area: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 4ToNasushiobaraDeclared against the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). On the 27thOtawara CityとNasu TownDeclared for the same reason. On 28th, the heads of these three municipalities discussed measures at the Nasushiobara City Office, and jointly issued a joint emergency declaration.Road StationIn a form that aligns the footsteps such as complete blockade ofTomio TsukuiMayor Otawara said, "We will establish a joint front and cooperate in the three cities and towns.".
- Okinawa: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 7As the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased,May 8からMay 9Issued a state of emergency unique to the prefecture.
- Fukuoka: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 8,New influenza measures special measures lawBased on Article 24, Paragraph 9May 8からMay 8Invokes "Fukuoka Corona Warning" to request closure cooperation to stores with insufficient infectious disease countermeasures and to restrict dinner and drinking parties to citizens of the prefecture.. It was canceled on October 10thHowever, it reoccurred on December 12th..
- Okayama: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 12As the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased, the prefecture issues its own medical emergency declaration..
- Miyagi: 2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 3Since the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased, from this dayMay 4Issued a state of emergency unique to the prefecture throughout the prefecture.
- Fukui: 2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 4,May 5In the period until, the prefecture's own state of emergency was issued throughout the prefecture..
- Ishikawa: 2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 5,May 5In the period until, the prefecture's own state of emergency was issued throughout the prefecture..
- Yemen : 2017May, armed organization of the countryFuchsia choleraDeclaration of “emergency situation” based on the seriousness of the epidemic.
- ^ at that timeThe United KingdomAlthough he was a territory, he had already obtained the autonomy of internal affairs.
- ^ New influenza measures special measures lawDate of emergency declaration by.Historical emergencyToMay 3However, the declaration date is generally treated as April 4.
- ^ As of the beginning of April 4, the scope of issuance is 7 city, 1 prefecture and 1 prefectures (Tokyo,Osaka,Kanagawa,Saitama,Chiba,Hyogo,Fukuoka) Was,May 4And expanded to all other prefectures, totaling 47PrefecturesBecame the scope of official announcement.. afterwardsMay 539 prefectures (other than 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures and 4 prefectures, which will be described later)May 5In Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture,KyotoBut,May 5Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba,HokkaidoHave been released respectively.
- ^ Date of declaration. It will be activated at 9:0 on the XNUMXth of the following day.
- ^ As of the beginning of January 1, the scope of the announcement was 8 metropolitan area and 1 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa).May 1ToTochigi,Aichi,Gifu, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture.afterwardsMay 2Tochigi prefectureMay 2Aichi prefecture, Gifu prefecture, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture were canceled respectively...The remaining 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa)May 3Until.
- ^ As of the beginning of April 4, the scope of the announcement was 25 metropolitan area, 1 prefectures and 2 prefecture (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo).May 5In Aichi and Fukuoka prefecturesMay 5To Hokkaido,Okayama,HiroshimaAlso,May 5ToOkinawaWas also expanded.After that, 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures and 5 prefectures other than Okinawa prefectureMay 6The remaining Okinawa prefectureLaterlike,
May 7May 9Scheduled up to.
- ^ As of July 7, the scope of issuance is 12 prefecture and 1 prefecture (Tokyo, Okinawa), and the period is initiallyMay 8However, on August 8th, Okinawa Prefecture was extended to September 8th, and Tokyo Metropolitan Government was extended to November 9th...In addition, Okinawa Prefecture has already issued a declaration from May 5, which was originally scheduled for July 23, but with this declaration, the period will be extended to August 7. Ta..After that, from August 8nd, Saitama prefecture, Chiba prefecture, Kanagawa prefecture, Osaka prefecture (total 2 prefecture, 1 prefecture, 1 prefectures), from August 4th.Ibaraki,Tochigi Prefecture,Gunma,Shizuoka, Kyoto prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture (1 metropolitan area, 2 prefectures, 10 prefectures in total), Hokkaido from August 8,Miyagi, Gifu prefecture, Aichi prefecture,Mie,Shiga、岡山県、広島県（計1都1道2府17県）に拡大した。その後宮城県、茨城県、栃木県、群馬県、岡山県、広島県、沖縄県は9月26日まで、北海道、静岡県、愛知県、岐阜県、三重県、滋賀県、京都府、大阪府、福岡県は10月17日まで、首都圏1都3県（東京都、埼玉県、千葉県、神奈川県）の期間はMay 11Until.
- ^ a b "President Trump has declared three emergency situations". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2019/2/18Browse.
- ^ "That emergency situations become everyday”(May 2016, 11). 2017/4/23Browse.
- ^ "After 2 years, France lifts the declaration of emergency 6 times due to terrorism”. TV Asahi (September 2017, 11). 2019/7/6Browse.
- ^ “Kotoba Commentary: Difference between “Emergency Declaration” and “Martial Law””. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2015, 12) 2017/7/6Browse.
- ^ Conceicao. "The 13th May 1969 (Kuala Lumpur) Disturbances", pp. 112—113
- ^ Weird fashion situation in "Singapore" that Japanese people have difficulty understanding
- ^ Question on the Special Measures Act concerning the implementation of humanitarian reconstruction support activities and security assurance support activities in Iraq-House of Representatives 国会House of Representatives: 2004 (Heisei16 years) April 11
- ^ State of emergency issuance, confusion overwhelming new government process-Bangladesh AFP (January 2008, 1)
- ^ Prime Minister declares emergency, 46 dead in Greek wildfire expansion AFP (January 2008, 8)
- ^ President of Pakistan declares emergency and dismisses Supreme Court Reuters Communication (November 2008, 11)
- ^ Georgia's state of emergency declared canceled before 22 days of parliamentary approval AFP (January 2008, 11)
- ^ Fiji: Heavy rain in western Viti Levu Embassy of Japan in Fiji
- ^ Chad issues a national emergency declaration AFP (January 2008, 2)
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Mongolia, due to riot over general election Reuters Communication (November 2008, 7)
- ^ Zimbabwe declares emergency, cholera dead over 560 Reuters Communication (November 2008, 12)
- ^ Hurricane "Ida" hits Central America, killing 124 people in El Salvador AFP (January 2009, 11)
- ^ State of emergency declared by police station attack Jamaica Nippon Television News
- ^ Eruption of volcanic eruptions in Guatemala and Ecuador, Latin America Rescue Now
- ^ Kyrgyz clash, over 80 dead, second emergency state declaration -(June 2010, 6) AFP
- ^ Spanish controller abandons all workplaces, declares emergency -AFP News
- ^ “Tunisia State of Emergency Declaration 5 Demonstrations, Cabinet Resignation”. 47NEWS (Kyodo News). (November 2011, 1) 2011/1/16Browse.
- ^ Yemen declares state of emergency Security forces fire on demonstrators(March 2011, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ (Untitled)(August 2011, 8) Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago
- ^ Tuvalu Crisis Due to Global Warming Water Shortage Government Declares State of Emergency(October 2011, 10) Excite News
- ^ State of emergency declared in western Myanmar, religious confrontation worsens(June 2012, 6) Reuters News
- ^ Mali declares state of emergency across France France dispatches troops CNN (January 2013, 1)
- ^ Egyptian president declares emergency in three provinces after riot after soccer trial AFP (January 2013, 1)
- ^ Meteorite falls in Russia, 500 people are injured Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2013, 2)
- ^ Declaration of state of emergency in the three northeastern states-No effect on Lagos- JETRO (June 2013, 6)
- ^ Emergency assistance for cyclone damage in the Kingdom of Tonga Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2014, 1)
- ^ Floods in Serbia kill three people "worst natural disaster" AFP (January 2014, 5)
- ^ Rod Mac Johnson (August 2014, 8). “Sierra Leone declares emergency with spread of Ebola infection”. AFP. AFPBB News. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8. 2014/10/11Browse.
- ^ “Ebola, Liberia declares emergency”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8. 2014/10/11Browse.
- ^ “Nigeria also declares an emergency” Third country due to Ebola outbreak”. Kyodo News. 47NEWS(November 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 10. 2014/10/11Browse.
- ^ “Guinea declares emergency with spread of Ebola infection”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8. 2014/10/11Browse.
- ^ Niger declares state of emergency Boko Haram's offensive AFP (February 2015, 2) Ryukyu Shimpo
- ^ UNICEF decides to provide US$60 assistance to Japanese government, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu damaged by Cyclone Pam UNICEF (March 2015, 3)
- ^ Ebola fears reignite, Guinea declares "emergency" AFP (January 2015, 3)
- ^ Typhoon damage in the Federated States of Micronesia (issue of sympathy messages from Prime Minister Abe and Foreign Minister Kishida) (April 2015, 4) Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- ^ President of Tunisia announces 30-day declaration of emergency AFP (July 2015, 7) Huff Post
- ^ Myanmar flood 47 dead, 21 affected(2015 8 年 月 日 3)
- ^ "Simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris: suicide bombing and 120 shooting deaths”. Mainichi Shimbun (December 2015, 11). 2015/11/14Browse.
- ^ Terror in Tunisia's capital kills 12 presidential declaration Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 11)
- ^ Immigration/Refugee Issues: Issuance of Emergency Declaration Embassy of Japan in Hungary (March 2016, 3)
- ^ Declaration of health emergency due to Zika fever (Marshall Islands) PIC (April 2016, 4)
- ^ Emergency assistance for drought damage in the Republic of Palau Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2016, 4)
- ^ Iraq and Shiite demonstrators declare parliamentary emergency Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2016, 5)
- ^ President Venezuela declares emergency, "US plans to overthrow government" Reuters Communication (November 2016, 5)
- ^ Turkish President announces state of emergency Coup attempt BBC NEWS JAPAN (July 2016, 7)
- ^ Ethiopia declares emergency situation Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 10)
- ^ Bolivia South America declares emergency due to drought worst in 25 years AFP (January 2016, 11)
- ^ Gambia crisis, neighboring countries temporarily dispatch new president inauguration ceremony in Senegal AFP (January 2017, 1)
- ^ State of emergency declared in western Niger attacked by Islamic extremists in Mali AFP (January 2017, 3)
- ^ Colombian Debris Flow declares emergency BBC (April 2017, 4)
- ^ Egypt continuous explosion, 44 deaths Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2017, 4)
- ^ Moldova Weekly Report [April 4-16] Embassy of Japan in Moldova (May 2017, 5)
- ^ Barbuda, hit by a hurricane, unmanned for the first time in 300 years CNN (January 2017, 9)
- ^ Emergency assistance for volcanic eruption damage in Vanuatu Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2017, 10)
- ^ State of emergency against Madagascar plague Nihombashi Yumeya (October 2017, 10) Read December 4, 2017
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Central America Honduras, violence demonstration after presidential election AFP (December 2017, 12) Read December 3, 2017
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Jamaica's second largest city, frequent murder calls alert tourists AFP (December 2018, 1) Read December 21, 2018
- ^ Maldives Emergency Situation Cancellation(March 2018, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Bolivian domestic affairs and diplomacy (February 2018)(March 2018, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bolivia
- ^ Tonga approaching a powerful cyclone declares an emergency(February 2018, 2) AFP
- ^ Sri Lanka is the epitome of a world that leans to the right-emergency statement due to delay in hate speech regulation(March 2018, 3) Yahoo! News
- ^ Two people dead, three missing in Oman after cyclone(June 2018, 5) Reuters News
- ^ State of emergency declared in the Highlands (Papua New Guinea)(June 2018, 6) PIC
- ^ Hawaii approaching hurricane, president declares emergency AFP (January 2018, 8)
- ^ Issuance of Emergency Situation (Belize City) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2018, 9)
- ^ Cholera expanded in Zimbabwe, 20 dead, state of emergency declared in capital CNN (January 2018, 9)
- ^ Burkina Faso Issuance of Emergency Declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 1)
- ^ "A lot of ferocious polar bears roam... Declaration of emergency on Russian island”. AFP (July 2019, 2). 2019/2/10Browse.
- ^ "U.S. Trump administration to declare state of emergency for construction of" border wall "". NHK News (NHK) 2019/2/16Browse.
- ^ Gold mine inundation, 24 deaths declared state of emergency Mainichi Newspaper (a 2019th, 19)
- ^ Sudanese Parliament Approves Presidential Declaration of Emergency AFP (January 2019, 3)
- ^ Cyclone damage and Malawi Seibo Japan (April 2019, 4)
- ^ UN WFP strengthens emergency response to cyclones and floods in Mozambique WFP (March 2019, 3)
- ^ Sri Lanka declares emergency, terrorist attacks, dead 310 Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2019, 4)
- ^ Honduras dengue fever declared emergency declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 6)
- ^ Details of areas subject to emergency declaration Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2019, 7)
- ^ Information on the issuance of hygiene emergency declarations against Zika virus infection and dengue in Peru Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Quarantine Station (August 2019, 8)
- ^ Wildfire state of emergency announced on an island in eastern Greece TV Tokyo News (August 2019, 8)
- ^ Bananas disappear from the table? New Panama disease goes to South America Nationalism (August 2019, 8)
- ^ State of emergency in eastern Chad = President due to intensified collision JIJI (August 2019, 8)
- ^ State of emergency declared in Bolivia due to forest fire sputnik japan (August 2019, 8)
- ^ Hurricane, Florida landing on the 2nd or declaration of emergency(March 2019, 8) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ Guatemala Calling attention to the state of emergency -Nihonbashi Yumeya
- ^ Regarding the issuance of an emergency situation declaration following the radicalization of the Ecuador strike(March 2019, 10) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ "State of emergency declared in Chile's capital, violence over subway fares”. AFP (July 2019, 10). 2019/11/3Browse.
- ^ Bolivia, presidential election declared emergency situation suspected of intervention(March 2019, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ Israel bombs Gaza and announces emergency(November 2019, 11) TRT
- ^ Congo (joint) monthly report November 2019
- ^ Extension of the emergency declaration Travel Sun
- ^ Albanian earthquake continues to rescue 28 dead(November 2019, 11) JIJI
- ^ Eastern Kingston Area Emergency Declaration Target Area Map (Issued January 2020, 1)(Jan 2020, 1) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica
- ^ "Italy declares emergency with new coronavirus, first domestic infection confirmed“Reuters” May 2020, 1.2020/2/1Browse.
- ^ Micronesia Presidential Office Declaration of Emergency for New Coronavirus(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Marshall Suspension of air and sea routes with China, Hong Kong and Macau(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ South Korea declares emergency due to spread of coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
- ^ Declaration of emergency due to new pneumonia in Herat, Afghanistan(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
- ^ Presidential Emergency Order in Bishkek Embassy of Japan in Kyrgyzstan
- ^ Declaration of emergency in all three Baltic countries and restrictions on foreign entry(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Declaration of emergency in France following pandemic of new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
- ^ Measures for new coronavirus infection by the Guatemalan government (general)(Read April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Guatemala
- ^ COVID19 Related Information 7(March 2020, 3) Viking Co., Ltd.
- ^ "Hungary declares an emergency Situation ban on new viruses such as Italy”(Japanese). NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
- ^ Confirmed first person infected with new coronavirus, issued national emergency declaration(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Argentinian flight stop from Europe and America in new Corona(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ "Czech Republic declares emergency Slovakia closes border". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2020/4/5Browse.
- ^ Even in Venezuela in South America, the new Corona economic collapse makes it difficult to prevent(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ New Coronavirus: Latvian Government Declares Emergency Situation(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Latvia
- ^ "Trump declares emergency with new Corona”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020/3/13Browse.
- ^ Confirmed the first new corona infection in Uruguay, currency depreciation(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Estonian Government Announces Emergency Situation Regarding New Corona Infection(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Estonia
- ^ "Spain declares emergency to reduce spread". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
- ^ National Emergency Declaration on the New Coronavirus in Panama(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Panama
- ^ New Coronavirus-related information (extension of the expiration date of measures to spread infection accompanying declaration of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bulgaria
- ^ Issuance of emergency declaration regarding the new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in El Salvador
- ^ [Poland] Prohibition of entry by foreigners-With the spread of coronavirus infection [Declaration of emergency](March 2020, 3) European navigation
- ^ Coronavirus infection (Honduras: Stay-at-home order issued: As of 3:16 pm on March 9)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Honduras
- ^ "Libya declares emergency situation Temporary administration, airports etc closed”(Japanese). Tokyo Newspaper. 2020/3/13Browse.
- ^ "State of emergency declared in Kazakhstan Concerns over spread of infection in Central Africa". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
- ^ Information on new coronaviruses in Slovakia (declaration of emergency, etc.)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Slovakia
- ^ "(PDF)”. Embassy of Japan in Serbia. 2020/3/27Browse.
- ^ First community-acquired president declares emergency(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New Coronavirus in Peru (National Emergency Ordinance-Part 2)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Peru
- ^ "South Africa National Emergency Situation Prohibition of entry from Italy". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
- ^ Alert regarding the new coronavirus (9: State of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Maldives
- ^ Lebanon defaults, state of emergency declared against coronavirus, major airports closed(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Armenian government declares emergency against new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New coronavirus (situation until 6:16 on the XNUMXth)(May 2020, 5) Embassy of Japan in Ecuador
- ^ Announcement of the National Emergency Declaration in Costa Rica(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Costa Rica
- ^ Switzerland also declares an emergency situation: store bans, entry restrictions(March 2020, 3) Tokyo Shimbun
- ^ Lebanon, Jordan, and Sudan are limited to economic activities due to extension of international flight suspension and outing restrictions(March 2020, 4) JETRO
- ^ New coronavirus infectious disease (restriction on night out due to public health emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Paraguay
- ^ Finnish government declares emergency with new coronavirus measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ "Romanian government announces emergency”(Japanese). Business report. 2020/3/24Browse.
- ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
- ^ The government issued an emergency declaration and announced 10 economic measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New Coronavirus Measures (Sao Tome and Principe: Emergency State Declaration on Public Health dated 17th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
- ^ Namibia Monthly Report (March 2020)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Namibia
- ^ Information on the new coronavirus in Palau (March 3th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Palau
- ^ Alert about new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Luxembourg
- ^ Australia's "emergency declaration" de facto ban on new corona(March 2020, 3) Sankei Biz
- ^ [Emergency] [New Coronavirus] Declaration of emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Macedonia
- ^ Declaration of emergency due to expansion of new coronavirus infection, impact on Japanese companies due to blockade of some local governments(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
- ^ Issuance of a curfew by the government of the Dominican Republic(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Dominican Republic
- ^ Haiti first confirmed new coronavirus infected person(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Alert about new coronavirus (partial relaxation of emergency orders)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Samoa
- ^ About National Restrictions Notice(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Tonga
- ^ New coronavirus (infection control measures in the Bahamas)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Bahamas
- ^ "New Coronavirus Brazil declares emergency". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
- ^ Regarding the National Disaster Declaration by President Mutarika(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Malawi
- ^ New coronavirus (sanitary emergency, long-term stay, health consultation)(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Morocco
- ^ Declaration of national emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Georgia
- ^ Declaration of national health emergency and implementation of inspections for Madagascar immigrants within 14 days(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Madagascar
- ^ a b c d Monthly situation report for 6 countries returning to the East Caribbean countries (March 2020) -Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago (read April 2020, 4)
- ^ Sierra Leone's New Coronavirus Measures (Part 6): National Emergency Situation (1 Year)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Ghana
- ^ Congo (People) Declaration of Emergency: Border closure, Kinshasa-Prohibition of traffic between states, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Senegal: Prohibition of movement between cities, restrictions on transportation, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Senegal
- ^ Coronavirus Response <Papua New Guinea> Latest Information(April 2020, 4) Nippon Express Pelican Travel Net
- ^ "NZ declares national emergency”(Japanese). Kobe Shimbun NEXT. 2020/3/24Browse.
- ^ "Thailand, new corona to declare emergency situation Number of infected people ... (Photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. 2020/3/24Browse.
- ^ Alert about the new coronavirus (Vanuatu government announced "Emergency Declaration")(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Vanuatu
- ^ Fiji alert for new coronavirus(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Fiji
- ^ New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases: Announcement of Presidential Decree on Declaration of Emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Angola
- ^ Declaration of Emergency Situation in Guinea Due to Epidemic of New Coronavirus: Border Blockade, Regulations on Transportation, etc.(2020 3 年 月 日 26)
- ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Niger (Part 3))(2020 3 年 月 日 27)
- ^ East Timor Banned foreigners from entering the country (March 2020, 3 28:00 to April 00, 4:26)(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Announcement of hygiene emergency declaration (Mexico)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Mexico
- ^ Equatorial Guinea: Prime Minister's Ordinance on Extension of Hygiene Emergency Declaration and New Measures(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Equatorial Guinea
- ^ New Corona virus protection-Botswana declared a state of emergency(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Botswana
- ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Togo (Part 3))(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Ivory Coast
- ^ Declaration of emergency situation nationwide, prohibition of going out at night from 4 April, daytime, shops, banks are open(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Belize
- ^ The "actual situation" of the new corona that cannot be seen in numbers Africa where poverty is serious(March 2020, 4) Sankei Biz
- ^ Ukrainian new coronavirus countermeasures (addition of prohibitions, penalties, etc .: April 4)(2020 4 年 月 日 5)Embassy of Japan in Ukraine
- ^ Prime Minister Abe declared an emergency situation 7 prefectures Effectiveness Until May 5 -NHKNEWSWEB, delivered at 2020:4 on April 7, 18.
- ^ Declaration of emergency, spread all over the country Until next month, 6th month Corona infection explosion sense of crisis-Government(April 2020, 4) Jiji Press
- ^ Declaration of national emergency with new coronavirus countermeasures (Ethiopia)(March 2020, 4) JETRO
- ^ Liberia National Emergency Situation (April 2020, 4-)(March 2020, 4) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Downtown only watched by mannequins(February 2020, 4) AFP
- ^ Temporary interruption of inter-city traffic in Mongolia(March 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
- ^ [Correction] New Coronavirus Measures (Health Emergency Declaration: Great Libreville Blockade)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Mongolia
- ^ Is corona infected person outbreak in North Korea?(March 2020, 7) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ [Summary] Response to new coronavirus infections(January 2021, 1) WAVOC
- ^ 30 countries around the world are implementing the strictest measures such as emergency declarations and city blockades(March 2020, 3) Japanese version of People's Network
- ^ New virus, which country will reach the end in the world?(April 2020, 4) BBC NEWS JAPAN
- ^ Somalia declares emergency situation Kenya is the worst outbreak in the last 70 years(February 2020, 2) Japan Agricultural Newspaper
- ^ Fuel spill accident in Russia's Arctic, climate change-permafrost melts(June 2020, 6) bloomberg
- ^ "Ministry of Agriculture declares phytosanitary emergency for South American grasshopper hordes”(Japanese). JETRO. 2020/7/4Browse.
- ^ Lebanon Declaration of Emergency Situation, Beirut Explosion Receives 135 Dead(August 2020, 8) Reuters
- ^ MOL's ship aground, Mauritius “environmental emergency declaration”... Request for heavy oil recovery cooperation(So-net, August 2020, 8)
- ^ California wildfire declares "emergency"(ParsToday, August 2020, 8)
- ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(ASC, September 2020, 9)
- ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(AFP, September 2020, 9)
- ^ Hygiene emergency declaration reissued throughout France(March 2020, 10) JETRO
- ^ Spain declares state of emergency again Italy also restricts food and beverage business(March 2020, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ Extension of the Portuguese State of Emergency (until December 2020, 12)(March 2020, 12) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ "State of emergency in the Kyrgyz capital spreads political unrest-Livedoor News”(Japanese). news.livedoor.com. 2020/10/13Browse.
- ^ "Thailand's big blow, anti-government demonstration continued, state of emergency, capital outflow and tourism reconstruction fear of retreat"SankeiBiz" Sankei Digital, October 2020, 10.2020/11/13Browse.
- ^ "Tochigi Prefecture Declaration Cancellation Relaxation is step by step". NHK News. 2021/2/14Browse.
- ^ "State of emergency Canceled today in 6 prefectures excluding the Greater Tokyo Area". NHK News. 2021/3/1Browse.
- ^ Announced tomorrow's state of emergency, to announce restaurants that do not respond to time saving requests at XNUMX:XNUMX pm(January 2021, 1) TBS NEWS
- ^ "Declaration of emergency Expanded to 11 prefectures Government refrains from going out unnecessarily during the day". NHK News. 2020/1/14Browse.
- ^ Malaysia declares state of emergency in Corona Possibility of prolonging administration(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 1)
- ^ "Declaration of emergency, announced in Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo ... XNUMX days from XNUMXth to May XNUMXth". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head Office (September 2021, 4). 2021/4/26Browse.
- ^ "Government decides to extend state of emergency in 4 prefectures Aichi and Fukuoka until 31st". Mainichi Newspapers. Mainichi Shimbun (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/10Browse.
- ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Declaration of emergency in Hokkaido, Okayama, Hiroshima Government policy change subcommittee approval". NHK News. 2021/5/14Browse.
- ^ "Declaration of emergency in Okinawa Prefecture Government officially decided until June 6". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/25Browse.
- ^ "Declaration of emergency in 9 prefectures Decided to extend until 20th next month Government". NHK NEWS WEB. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/28Browse.
- ^ a b "Handing over the cooperation money to the restaurant ... The fourth "declaration" was announced in Tokyo, Okinawa was extended". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head Office (September 2021, 7). 2021/7/9Browse.
- ^ "Texas Retreats Economic Resumption-Houston Declares State of Emergency”(Japanese). Bloomberg.com. 2020/6/27Browse.
- ^ London UK declares serious incident, corona infection "out of control"(REUTERS, January 2021, 1)
- ^ Jakarta declares emergency in new Corona request to stop using office -Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ "Foot-and-mouth disease, culling of more than 11 heads, Chief Cabinet Secretary, considering all heads" Asahi Shimbun, May 2010, 5 evening edition (Tokyo head office version), page 18.
- ^ "Yahoo! search". search.yahoo.co.jp. 2021/1/7Browse.
- ^ Dear citizens, New Coronavirus emergency declaration - Hokkaido GovernmentOfficial homepage, viewed on February 2020, 2.
- ^ Emergency Declaration (Corona) - Hokkaido GovernmentOfficial homepage, viewed on February 2020, 3.
- ^ "Aichi prefecture's own "emergency declaration" seeks refrain from going out and moving”. NHKNEWSWEB. 2020/4/10Browse.
- ^ Aichi Prefecture issues emergency declaration(Chunichi Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
- ^ a b “Municipal movements one after another The government is cautious about adding more Emergency declaration one week” (jp). Mainichi Daily News(July 2020, 4) 2020/11/29Browse.
- ^ Gifu Prefecture declares a second state of emergency(Chunichi Shimbun, August 2020, 7)
- ^ Governor of Mie Prefecture "One step before an emergency" New virus infections one after another Emergency alert declaration(Ise Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
- ^ "3 Municipalities to "declare a joint emergency" Nasu Shiobara, Otawara, Nasu | Local topics, society | Shimotsuke Shinbun "SOON" News | New pneumonia-COVID19- | Shimotsuke Shinbun SOON”(Japanese). Shimotsuke Newspaper SOON. 2020/5/1Browse.
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture's original "emergency declaration" Call for refraining from going out without unnecessary urgency(NHK, July 2020, 7)
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture's original warning level "Infestation spread" to be extended to the declaration(NHK, July 2020, 8)
- ^ Okinawa extends its own state of emergency again until September 9th Be wary of spreading infection in the old tray(Ryukyu Shimpo, August 2020, 8)
- ^ Fukuoka Prefecture Official Home Page "Fukuoka Prefecture Corona Warning" Activation and Future Responses (August 8)
- ^ "Fukuoka Corona Warning" cancellation is also decided to partially review the trigger index ". West Japan Newspaper (Nishi-Nippon Shimbun). (March 2020, 10) 2020/10/9Browse.
- ^ "Fukuoka Prefecture to activate its own" corona warning "... the second time since August". Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun). (October 2020, 12) 2020/12/12Browse.
- ^ Okayama Prefecture Medical Emergency Declaration “Even if infected, it is not always possible to be hospitalized”(NHK, July 2020, 12)
- ^ Governor Miyagi Murai issues his own state of emergency due to a rapid increase in infected people(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 3)
- ^ Unique emergency declaration for Yamagata City The number of people infected with the new corona is increasing rapidly(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 3)
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Sagae City New Corona(Yamagata News Online, March 2021, 3)
- ^ Fukui Prefecture's own "state of emergency" spread of new corona infection(Nikkei, viewed May 2021, 5)
- ^ <Breaking news> Ishikawa Prefecture declares its own emergency situation Requests to refrain from going out unnecessarily after XNUMX:XNUMX pm Until the end of May(Hokkoku Shimbun DIGITAL, May 2021, 5)
- ^ Yemen and cholera continue to grow, killing 1 in a month Asahi Shimbun Digital (June 2017, 6) Read June 3, 2017
- National emergency right
- Lockdown (blockade)
- Emergency law
- Severe disaster
- Emergency basic law
- Exceptional state
- New influenza measures special measures law
- Emergency declaration (avoid ambiguity)
- Priority measures such as prevention of spread
Prefectures(Todofuken) isJapan OfWide-area local public bodiesIs都""road""Prefecture""PrefectureIs a generic term.Currently47 prefecturesExists, and the breakdown is1 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures(Tokyo:Tokyo1, Road:Hokkaido1, prefecture:KyotoandOsaka2, prefectures: 43) other than those.
Prefectures in JapanAdministrative divisionone of.
Municipalities are "basic local public bodies" (Local government lawArticle 2 paragraph 4), On the other hand, prefectures are regarded as "wide-area local public bodies that include municipalities" (paragraph 5 of the same Article), and handle wide-area affairs and liaison affairs related to municipalities.
All over Japan1724 municipalities(792 city,743 town,Village 189)as well as23special area(Tokyo Ward), All municipalities and special wards47 prefectures(1 capital,1 Road,2 prefectures,43 prefectures) Is included in any one, A two-stage local system.
As a voting body in prefecturesParliament (prefectural assembly), As an enforcement agencyGovernor(Governor Department). others,Public Safety Commission(Prefectural Public Safety Commission)Police headquarters,Board of education,Election Management Committee,Audit CommitteeSet up committees and committees and their secretariat. PrefecturesAutonomyHaveOrdinance・Establish rules,Local tax・Assuming and collecting contributions,Local bondHas the authority to issue.
Organizations that are the center of administrative work of prefectures andGovernment buildingIs referred to as the prefectural office, and is a city within the prefecture (Prefectural office location) Is installed.Some prefectures have the same city name as the prefecture name, while others have different names (#namereference).
1947(Showa22 years)May 5 OfThe Constitution of JapanOn the same day as the enforcementLocal government lawIs also enforced, mainly in prefectures and municipalitiesLocal autonomyThe system has started.The Local Autonomy Law stipulates a unified prefectural system.However, among the prefectures, the capital is characterized by having a certain authority to coordinate the special wards.There are no legal differences between prefectures, and the differences in names are exclusively historical... Roads are treated the same as prefectures under the Local Autonomy Law, but in addition to having a slightly different police organization from prefectures (Police lawArticles 46 and 51),River law(Article 96),Road law(Article 88), etc. have special rules about roads.
When referring to some of the prefectures in Japan, there is also a usage such as "prefecture" if Hokkaido is not included, and "prefecture" if Tokyo is not included.
Institutional change in the Meiji period
1871(Meiji4 years)Abandoned DomainIn each of the prefectures/prefectures/agencies/capitals that were sequentially installed before and afterMinistry of InteriorThe governor-appointed governor was in charge of administration and was positioned as a national administrative agency. On the other hand, a private election for eachParliamentHas been installed,Local autonomyExisted.
1868(Keio4th year, XNUMXst year of Meiji),Edo ShogunateDirect control of (Affairs-Flag bookThe territory of the Meiji era政府Became under the direct control of.the governmentSandu(Edo-Osaka-Kyoto),5 ports openedImportant areas that have jurisdiction overPrefectureAnd other thanPrefectureAs a matter of fact, "Chinese Affairs" was placed in the prefecture, and "Chinese Affairs" in the prefecture.ClanIs as it isDaming(Mouhou) ruled.
At this point, the princes have full control over the territory and the people.EmperorAlthough it was supposed to be redeemed toBakuhan system OfEdo ShogunateMeiji government took over the status ofPrefectural Sanji systemIs called (only prefectures are under direct control).
1869May 9(Meiji 2May 8), the official edict ofKyoto-Tokyo-OsakaIt is decided to call all the prefectures except for the other prefectures (Kanagawa Prefecture-Niigata Prefecture-Echigofu-Kaifu-Degree-Narafu-Hakodate-Nagasaki) Changed its name to prefecture. At this point,Emperor Yukiyuki TokyoでTokyoI was there,Takagoza(Indicates the whereabouts of the EmperorThroneAnd the place where this isImperial PalaceIt is said that there is no move, so Kyoto Prefecture, which has the high Goza, has a higher ranking than Tokyo Prefecture. In addition, before this proclamation of the Prime MinisterEdo prefectureIt was renamed from Edo to Tokyo at the same time.
1871May 8(Meiji 4May 7) Made inAbandoned DomainAs a result, the feudal clan became a prefecture and the whole country became a direct control of the Meiji government. As a result, 1 messenger (Pioneer) 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka) 302 prefectures. At this point, it was almost the same as the boundaries of the feudal domain and the territory of the Edo period.EnclaveWas found all over the country, hindering prefectural administration. In December of the same year, this was consolidated and merged (First prefecture integration), and became one prefecture with 1 prefectures and 3 prefectures.
1876(Meiji 9) Large-scale merger of prefectures (First prefecture integration) Was carried out and the number decreased to 37 prefectures, but as a result of division movements in various places, one agency (Hokkaido Government) There are 3 prefectures (Tokyo prefecture, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture).At this time,1878(11th year of Meiji)Local three new lawEnactment and1889From (Meiji 22)1890(Meiji 23)Municipal system-Municipal system-County system-Prefecture systemThe development of local systems, such as the establishment of the above, is being promoted by trial and error. Since the separation of Kagawa prefecture in 1888 (Meiji 21), no merger or division of prefectures has been carried out.[Note 1],1943(Showa 18) officiallyInlandTransferredKarafuto AgencyIn addition to the addition ofTokyoNext to the present (at the end of the war, 1 city (Tokyo) 2 agencies (Hokkaido agency/Karafuta agency) 2 prefectures (Kyoto/Osaka) 43 prefectures).
Incidentally,1902(35th year of Meiji),Ministry of InteriorWill abolish 47 prefectures from 19 prefectures and integrate them into 28 prefectures.Prefectural abolition billWas planning[Note 2].1903(Meiji 36) The first in NovemberKeitaroCabinetByCabinetDecided, Next day1904It was scheduled to come into effect in April (Meiji 37).But in December of the same yearDissolution of the House of RepresentativesAnd March 1904Russo-Japanese WaroutbreakByParliamentIt was not submitted to.
After the abandonment of prefectures, the prefectural directors were renamed "prefectural ordinances" from "prefectural government", and the ministers of prefectures such as Kyoto, Tokyo, and Osaka were renamed "prefectural governors" to "prefectural governors."1886After (Meiji 19), both were "GovernorWas called. Prefectural governor and prefectural ordinance (prefectural governor)Ministry of InteriorDispatched fromOfficialsMet. On the other hand,1878It is one of the three local new laws enacted in (Meiji 11)Prefectural assembly rulesPrefectural assembly will be set up by (not applied to Hokkaido),Local autonomyIt also had a personality as the subject.
1889(Meiji 22)Municipal systemBegins, butCityIs representative ofCity councilAnd like the presentMayorWas not. However, while the cities under “prefecture” had “mayors recommended by the city council”, the cities under “prefecture” (Tokyo city-Kyoto City-Osaka) Does not have a mayor, and the governor of the prefecture also serves as the mayor.In these three cities,1898(Meiji 31) Only in October was the mayor born.
OkinawaThe background of the establishment of "prefectures" is different from the other 42 prefectures.
|2 prefectures||As the first prefectureHakodate,KyotoSettings.|
Or later,Prefectural Sanji systemBelow, the areas directly controlled by the government become prefectures
(Meiji 2May 8)
(Meiji 4May 7)
|3 prefectures 302 prefectures||Abandoned Domain.. All prefectures except Hokkaido are prefectures|
(Meiji 5May 1)
|3 prefectures 72 prefectures||May 1(Previous yearMay 12)- First prefecture integration|
|1875May 12||3 prefectures 59 prefectures||Before the second prefecture integration|
|1876May 1||3 prefectures 35 prefectures||December 12th of the previous year ~ |
Second prefecture integration.. The smallest number of prefectures after abandoned clan
|1879May 4||3 prefectures 36 prefectures||OkinawaInstallation|
|1880May 3||3 prefectures 37 prefectures||TokushimaSeparation|
|1881May 2||Sakai prefectureTransfer,FukuiSeparation|
|1881May 9||3 prefectures 38 prefectures||TottoriSeparation|
|1882May 2||3 prefectures 41 prefectures||PioneerThree prefecturesTransition to|
|1883May 5||3 prefectures 44 prefectures||Toyama,Saga,MiyazakiSeparation|
|1886May 1||3 prefectures 41 prefectures 1 agency||Three prefecturesHokkaido GovernmentTransition to|
|1887May 11||3 prefectures 42 prefectures 1 agency||NaraSeparation|
|1888May 12||3 prefectures 43 prefectures 1 agency||KagawaSeparation|
|1899May 3||Prefecture systemIs enforced in 3 prefectures and 4 prefectures, excluding Hokkaido and Okinawa prefectures|
All 3 prefectures and 42 prefectures become "local governments"
|1943May 1||3 prefectures 43 prefectures 2 agency||Karafuto AgencyCabinet decision to transfer inland|
|1943May 7||1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures 2 offices||Tokyo PrefectureTokyoTransition to|
|1945||1 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures 2 offices||Okinawa goes under US administration|
|1946May 6||1 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures 1 offices||National Administrative Organization LawThe enforcement of the Karafuto Agency will be officially abolished.|
|1946May 9||1 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures||Hokkaido government moved to Hokkaido due to prefectural system revision|
|1947May 5||Local government lawPrefectural government becomes "ordinary local public entity" by enforcement|
|1972May 5||1 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures||Okinawa returnReturned Okinawa Prefecture|
|* Pioneer andPrewarInForeign landExcluded.|
"HokkaidoIs called1869(2th year of Meiji)7 OfPioneerThe same year as the installation,MatsumaechiAnd the area called "Ezochi",11 counties in 86 countries in HokkaidoIt started even though it was established. this isRitual systemUnder 68CountryTheGoki ShichidoIt is consistent with the usage divided into.Oshima IslandAbout some of theTate prefectureAbsorbed by Hirosaki PrefectureAomoriWas transferred to the pioneering envoy.1882(15th year of Meiji) The pioneer ambassador was abolished and the province was divided into threeHakodate-Sapporo-NemuroAlthough three prefectures were set up,1886It was abolished in (Meiji 19) "Hokkaido GovernmentWas installed.
At that time, the jurisdiction of the Hokkaido Government was called "Hokkaido", but "Hokkaido" is simply a regional name.RegionIt is the name of the municipality, not the current "road" (InlandTransferredKarafutoInKarafuto AgencyCommon with the nomenclature). Therefore, the term "agency" was used when paralleling with other prefectures as a local government.
Under the Hokkaido government system (Meiji 19th Royal Decree No. 83 (later amended)), the Hokkaido government secretary was appointed as the governor of another prefecture.1901(Meiji 34), (Meiji 34 Law No. 2) and (Meiji 34 Law No. 3) were promulgated and a parliament was established.CorporationIt became a local government with a personality. In addition, the authority of the parliament was narrower in the Hokkaido association than in the prefectural association. Then, Karafuto (Common lawIn Article 1 paragraph 2Inland(Included in) was abolished and newly addedKarafuto AgencyWas officially added and became two offices.
Showa period system change
Second World WarIn1943(18)May 7,Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentBy the enforcement of (Law No. 18 of 89),Tokyo city TheTokyoAbsorbed byTokyo", and was stripped of the municipality and autonomy. Under the Tokyo Metropolitan Government system (Korean Decree No. 18 of 504), the "Tokyo Metropolitan Secretary" was made the secretary and Tokyo was established.Internal affairsBe a bureaucratShigeo OdateWas appointed as the first generation.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government established a metropolitan assembly, and ward associations were also set up in each ward of the former Tokyo city, but the state's control over the ward was particularly strong.
After the war1946(Showa 21) With the revision of the prefectural system in September, and was abolished and integrated into the prefectural system, and the law was renamed the prefectural system.According to the supplementary provisions of this revised law, the local government, which was conventionally called Hokkaido local expenses, is now called "road".
1947(22)May 5With the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law, the government system of the Hokkaido government was abolished, and the Hokkaido government agency, which was a local government agency, became "Hokkaido" which is one of the ordinary local public bodies.
After the enforcement of Local Autonomy Law
1947(Showa 22) March,The Constitution of JapanAs the law planned in Article 92Local government lawWas promulgated. Among them, the prefectures are not in the position of the former “subordinate body of the central government”,市町村Similar toOrdinary local governmentPositioned as a member of parliamentGovernorAlsoelectionWas chosen by. However,1947The first prefectural election for governors implemented in April (Showa 22) is not based on the local autonomy law that had not yet been enacted, but the prefectural system (prefecture system) and Tokyo Metropolitan Government system revision introduced a public election system for local ministers. It was done on the basis of that. At this time, 4 prefecture (Tokyo) 1 way (Hokkaido) 1 prefectures (Kyoto/Osaka prefecture) 2 prefectures. afterwards,1972(Showa 47)AmericaReturned to OkinawaOkinawaHas been set up, and it has become 43 prefectures again.
While the prefectural governor is elected, it has its origins before the warAgency delegationSystem is2000It survived for a long time until it was abolished in 12. Prefectures are usually on a par with municipalities as local public bodies, but prefectures市町村As a wide-area local public body that includes the above, the wide-area local governments, those related to communication adjustments related to municipalities, and those deemed unsuitable by ordinary municipalities due to their size or nature are processed (Local Autonomy Law (2nd Article 5))).
However, the definition of “unit” such as “capital”, “road”, “prefecture”, and “prefecture” is not specified in the Local Autonomy Law, and the current prefecture name is the same as Article 3, Paragraph 1 of the same law. It is used based on the rule that "the name of the local government is the conventional name". However, "city" is not just a name, but has a character different from "prefecture". That is, according to the Local Autonomy Law, the "ward" of the "city" is "special areaIt is said that (Local Autonomy Law Article 281 Paragraph 1), it is different from "prefecture". Even if you are a prefectureLaw on the establishment of special wards in metropolitan areasIt is possible to set up a special ward based on the above, and the prefectures that cover the special ward are, in principle, regarded as the "capital" for the application of the provisions of the Local Autonomy Law and other laws and regulations (Article 10 of the same law).
Okinawa The1945From (20) (officiallySan Francisco Peace TreatyCame into effect1952(27)May 4From)1972(Showa 47)Under US occupationThen, because it was not under Japanese rule, the treatment of Okinawa at this time was delicate,国会Then "Ryukyu government","Nansei IslandsIs used, and the number of prefectures is counted as "1 prefectures" of "1 prefecture, 2 prefectures and 42 prefectures", and Okinawa is not included in the number of prefectures..
- Local council -Secretariat
Tax paid to prefectures
The merger of prefectures or the establishment of new prefectures is called "decommissioning", and can be divided as follows.
- Abolish multiple prefectures and establish new prefectures (union).
- Abolish one prefecture and make that area an area of another prefecture (transfer).
- Abolish one prefecture and set up multiple prefectures in that area (division).
- Establish a new prefecture by separating part of the prefecture area (separation).
Regarding decommissioning, “boundary change” (changing only the area without setting or abolishing prefectures)市町村Including the transfer of the prefecture to which the company belongs)Article 6 of the Local Autonomy Lawas well as the Article 6-2Stipulated in.
Principle procedure for disposal and consolidation
By law (Article 6, paragraph 1). This lawArticle 95 of the ConstitutionIt is understood that it is a "special law that applies only to one local public entity" (a special law for local autonomy) defined in stipulations. No (Detailed rulesArticle 261 of the Local Autonomy Law-Article 262).
Merge and transfer exceptions
With the revision of Law No. 16 in 57, a new procedure for merging/transferring was established by a simple method.
- When abolishing multiple prefectures and establishing new prefectures in all areas
- When one prefecture is abolished and the entire area is changed to another prefecture
- Apply by the decision of the relevant prefectural assembly,
- Determined by the Cabinet after approval by the Diet.
It was made possible to follow the procedure (Local Autonomy Law, Article 6-2).
this is,NaganoYamaguchi VillageとGifuNakatsugawaAt the time of the merger with, the fact that it was necessary to enact a law for mergers of municipalities that span prefectures (new mergers) was highlighted, andPrefectural systemIt was established with the intention of promoting voluntary merger of prefectures as the first stage of introduction.
Decommissioning and Governor/Member
- In the case of a merger, the governors of the relevant prefectures and members of the parliament will lose their jobs, and the governor's election and the member's election will be held in the newly established prefecture.
- In the case of transfer, the governor and councilor of the transferred prefecture will lose their jobs, but the governor and councilor of the transferred prefecture will not lose their jobs.
- In the case of a division, the governors and members of the prefectures to be abolished will lose their jobs, and the governors' elections and members' elections will be held in the newly established prefectures after the division.
- In the case of separation, the prefectural governors and members of the prefectural government will not lose their jobs, and the prefectural governor's election and the members' election will be held in the newly established prefecture.
Border change of prefectures is basically based on the law (Special Act on Local Autonomy) as in the case of abandonment and consolidation, but in the following cases, it will be "change itself" (Local Autonomy Act No. 6). Article 2).
- When there is a change in the boundaries of municipalities that are also boundaries of prefectures
- When municipalities were set up across the boundaries of prefectures
In these two cases, the relevant municipalities/prefectures will apply through the decisions of the respective parliament and will be determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Article 7 paragraph 3).
- When the area that did not belong to the area of the local government was transferred to the area of the municipality
This is because the change is due to the change in the area of the municipality, like the change of the boundary of the municipality.
Change of prefecture
Even when the whole municipality or county is transferred to another prefecture, it is a boundary change between prefectures and is subject to the law (as of September 25, 9).
Union of municipalities that span prefectures
When a municipality belonging to a different prefecture is abolished and a municipality is established in that area, the relevant municipality/prefecture applies for each through a vote of the Parliament and is determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Article 7, paragraph 3). ).
Conventionally, the unification of municipalities that cross the boundaries of prefectures (abolishing multiple municipalities and establishing new municipalities in that area) is also subject to the newly enacted law under Article 6 Clause 1. It was supposed to be (No. 28 of own departure from June 6, 29).
For that reason,2005(Heisei(17) The merger of Yamaguchi Village in Nagano Prefecture and Nakatsugawa City in Gifu Prefecture will take the form of transfer to Nakatsugawa City. Taking this as an opportunity, it was decided that the amendment under Law No. 16 in 57 would be similar to the procedure for changing the boundaries of municipalities across prefecture boundaries.
Area where division theory exists
1876In some prefectures where a large-scale merger was carried out (Meiji 9), there are some prefectures that were divided again due to the division movement.1888(Meiji 21) At the endKagawa EhimeNo division of prefectures has been implemented since it was separated from.
However, even now, there are voices calling for the division of prefectures, such as the mayors, prefectural governors, and online. Here, we list the prefectures where the mayor or prefectural governor suggests division or separation of prefectures.
- 2006(18) In early March,ReinanCorresponds to (Wakasa region)Tsuruga,Obama City OfMayorIs "(ifPrefectural systemWhen it is laid)ReihokuIf the (Echizen region) enters Hokuriku, it will enter Kinki even if it has no relation to Reihoku," he said, suggesting the withdrawal from the southern part of Fukui prefecture.
- Chikuma PrefectureHas been split and transferred to Nagano Prefecture, and there have been many movements for splitting. After the merger of both prefectures, it was created as a song song for geography education within the prefecture.Shinano countryWas widely sung as a de facto prefectural song, and was made a symbol of the integration of prefectural awareness (formally established as a prefectural song in 1968).
- Yamaguchi Shimonoseki,FukuokaKitakyushu
- Kanmon StraitShimonoseki City and Kitakyushu City, which are located on both sides of theStateDoes not belong toKanmon Special CityThere is a movement to form.
- Goki ShichidoOut of (XNUMX Goki)Kinai-Sanin road-Sanyo road-NankaidoAcross (most in 47 prefectures),Regulatory countryThen.Settsu-Tamba country-Tajima country-Harima country-Beautiful land-Bizen country-Awaji countryThere is a theory of separation because it spans 7 countries (after 11 countries in Hokkaido) and has different history and climate. Described as 7 borders, 6 republics, 5 ethnic groups, 4 languages, 3 religions, 2 letters, 1 nation.ユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ ア"Hyogoslavia" was even compared to.
- Hokkaido is larger than the 7 prefectures of Kyushu and the 6 prefectures of Tohoku,Governor of HokkaidoThere is only one. Divide into multiple prefectures, saying that "the governor alone cannot keep an eye on the issues in the vast area of Hokkaido" and "the distance between the prefectural office and the municipalities will be shortened, and flexible administrative measures can be taken according to the actual conditions of the area." There is a concept.2016(28)May 1 OfMainichi Newspapersso,Hokkaido Assemblyof"LDP・ It was reported that the "Dominkai" established a private institution "Hokkaido Branch Prefectural Study Group" and started discussions on the "branch prefecture" plan to divide the road into multiple prefectures..May 8 OfHokkaido ShimbunSo, the draft of the report compiled by the study group was reported, and the contents were published by Ryuichi Kita, the chairman of the "Hokkaido Branch Study Group"...At the study group, about 4% of medical institutions such as hospitals and clinics and educational institutions such as universities and junior collegesSapporoAiming to improve the current situation where economic, administrative and cultural functions are concentrated..From the participating members of the study groupHokkaido ShinkansenTheKyushu ShinkansenIn comparison with Kyushu, there is an analysis that it grew immediately because seven governors cooperated, and there is an opinion that the reason why the Hokkaido Shinkansen does not grow easily is that there is only one governor, and the voice is Weaknesses have been pointed out..Ryuichi Kita, the chairman of the study group, said, "There are seven governors, the chairman of the prefectural assembly, and the top of the economic group in Kyushu. I want you to imagine the power when you move together." By increasing the number of governors, the national presence of Hokkaido will increase..
- Initially, a four-division plan for "Sapporo prefecture, Hakodate prefecture, Kushiro prefecture, Asahikawa prefecture" and "Donan,Doo,Dohoku,Okhotsk,Tokachi,Kushiro-NemuroThere was a 6-division plan, It was judged to be difficult from the viewpoint of "maintaining the independence of the prefecture".Kyodo NewsAccording to the report, on November 2016, 11, the study group announced a three-division plan for "Central Hokkaido / Southern Hokkaido, Northern Hokkaido, and Eastern Hokkaido" (not necessarily a branch of the Promotion Bureau) and " A report that includes the east-west two-division plan for "Eastern Hokkaido and others"Takahashi HarumiSubmitted to the governor (at that time)..In the branch prefectureReferendumWith the consent of the majority of the people of Hokkaido,Special lawNeed to be enacted..Once in Hokkaido, February 1882, 15 (Meiji 2)PioneerJanuary 1886, 19 (Meiji 1) from the abolitionHokkaido GovernmentUntil installation, with 3 prefectures of "Sapporo prefecture, Hakodate prefecture, Nemuro prefecture"Ministry of Agriculture and CommerceHokkaido Business Administration Bureau was establishedThree prefectures first erawas there.
Indicates the location on the map. Separated from Hokkaido and Okinawa.
Major remote island affiliations that are unclear or omitted in the map above are as follows.
- Etorofu Island,Kunashiri Island,Shikotan Island -Hokkaido
- Rebun Island,Rishiri Island,Okushiri Island -Hokkaido
- Sado Island -Niigata Prefecture
- Izu Islands,Ogasawara Islands - Tokyo
- Oki Islands - Shimane Prefecture
- Awaji Island -Hyogo Prefecture
- Bisan Islands -Okayama prefecture, Kagawa prefecture
- Geiyo Islands -Hiroshima prefecture, Ehime prefecture
- Boso Islands -Yamaguchi prefecture, Ehime prefecture
- Tsushima,Iki,Hirado Island,Goto Islands - Nagasaki Prefecture
- Amakusa islands -Kumamoto prefecture, Kagoshima prefecture
- Kashiwa Islands - Kagoshima prefecture
- Satsunan Islands(Osumi Islands,Tokara Islands,Amami archipelago) - Kagoshima prefecture
- Ryukyu Islands(Okinawa Islands,Sakishima Islands),Daito Islands - Okinawa Prefecture
Here is a list of prefectures according to the most common regional divisions. For other regional divisionsRegion of JapanSee.
|Honshu||Tohoku region||Aomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima|
|Kanto region||Ibaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanagawa|
|Chubu region||Niigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Aichi|
|Kinki||Mie Shiga Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama|
|Chugoku||Tottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Yamaguchi|
|Shikoku||Shikoku region||Tokushima Kagawa Ehime Kochi|
|Kyushu・Okinawa||Kyushu and Okinawa region||Fukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Oita Miyazaki Kagoshima Okinawa|
Alphabetical order/basic data
- The metropolitan area of Tokyo isTokyo 23 Ward(Tokyo's XNUMX wards) may be used.
- The largest city is the city with the largest population in each prefecture (Tokyo isspecial area), as of 2015 (Heisei 27) Census.
- Population and population density is 2015 (Heisei 27)CensusThe area is as of 2014 (Heisei 26)Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismGeographical Survey InstituteAccording to the “26 National Survey of Areas by Prefectures” announced byNorthern TerritoriesExcept.
- ※mark:House of CouncilorsRegarding the fixed number of lawmakers, Tottori prefecture and Shimane prefectureTottori Prefecture/Shimane Prefecture Election DistrictAs 2 seats, Tokushima prefecture, Kochi prefectureTokushima Prefecture/Kochi Prefecture Election DistrictHas been assigned 2 seats.
- 市町村Number andcountyThe numbers are as of April 2014, 26.Government-designated city OfAdministrative districtExcept in Tokyospecial areaIncludes. Northern territories are excluded.
- 国会The constant is 2019 (ReiwaAs of August. (House of Councilors Saitama Prefectural CouncilWill increase by 2022 from 4 (1th year of Reiwa) to 8. )
|ISO/JIS number||Prefectures||reading||Prefectural office location||Largest city||flag||Region||area|
|The population density|
Masses / Reference
|23||Aichi||Aichi Prefecture||Nagoya city||Nagoya city||Central part||5,172.40||7,484,094||1,446.9||54||Zones|
|05||Akita||Akitaken||Akita City||Akita City||Tohoku||11,637.54||1,022,839||87.9||25||Zones|
|17||Ishikawa||Ishikawa Prefecture||Kanazawa||Kanazawa||Central part||4,186.15||1,154,343||275.8||19||Zones|
|38||Ehime||Ehime Ken||Matsuyama City||Matsuyama City||Shikoku||5,676.10||1,385,840||244.2||20||Zones|
|44||Oita||Oitaken||Oita City||Oita City||Kyusyu||6,340.61||1,166,729||184.0||18||Zones|
|33||Okayama||Okayama Prefecture||Okayama City||Okayama City||Chugoku||7,114.62||1,922,181||270.2||27||Zones|
|37||Kagawa||I don't know||Takamatsu||Takamatsu||Shikoku||1,876.73||976,756||520.5||17||Zones|
|14||Kanagawa||Kanagawa Prefecture||横 浜 市||横 浜 市||Kanto||2,415.81||9,127,323||3,778.2||33||Zones|
|26||Kyoto||Today||Kyoto City||Kyoto City||Kinki||4,612.20||2,610,140||565.9||26||Zones|
|39||Kochi||Kouchiken||Kochi||Kochi||Shikoku||7,103.91||728,461||102.5||34||2 / *|
|41||Saga||Saken||Saga City||Saga City||Kyusyu||2,440.64||833,245||341.4||20||Zones|
|25||Shiga||Shigaken||Otsu City||Otsu City||Kinki||4,017.38||1,413,184||351.8||19||Zones|
|22||Shizuoka||Shizuoka Ken||Shizuoka City||Hamamatsu city||Central part||7,778.70||3,701,181||475.8||35||Zones|
|32||Shimane||Shimaneken||Matsue||Matsue||Chugoku||6,708.23||694,188||103.5||19||2 / *|
|13||Tokyo||Tokyo Metropolitan area||Shinjuku ward (Tokyo 23 Ward）||Setagaya (Tokyo 23 Ward）||Kanto||2,190.90||13,513,734||6,168.1||62||Zones|
|36||Tokushima||Tokushima Ken||Tokushima||Tokushima||Shikoku||4,146.93||756,063||182.3||24||2 / *|
|09||Tochigi||Tochigiken||Utsunomiya City||Utsunomiya City||Kanto||6,408.09||1,974,671||308.2||25||Zones|
|31||Tottori||Tottoriken||Tottori City||Tottori City||Chugoku||3,507.05||573,648||163.6||19||2 / *|
|16||Toyama||Toyama Ken||Toyama||Toyama||Central part||4,247.61||1,066,883||251.2||15||Zones|
|20||Nagano||Nagano||Nagano city||Nagano city||Central part||13,561.56||2,099,759||154.8||77||Zones|
|15||Niigata||Niigata Prefecture||Niigata||Niigata||Central part||12,584.10||2,305,098||183.2||30||Zones|
|28||Hyogo||Hyoken||Kobe City||Kobe City||Kinki||8,400.90||5,536,989||659.1||41||Zones|
|34||Hiroshima||Hiroshima Ken||Hiroshima city||Hiroshima city||Chugoku||8,479.38||2,844,963||335.5||23||Zones|
|18||Fukui||Fukuiken||Fukui City||Fukui City||Central part||4,190.43||787,099||187.8||17||Zones|
|40||Fukuoka||Fukuoka province||Fukuoka City||Fukuoka City||Kyusyu||4,986.40||5,102,871||1,023.4||60||Zones|
|01||Hokkaido||How are you||Sapporo||Sapporo||Hokkaido||83,424.22||5,383,579||68.6||179||Zones|
|04||Miyagi||Miyagi Ken||Sendai city||Sendai city||Tohoku||7,282.14||2,334,215||320.5||35||Zones|
|45||Miyazaki||Miyazaki Ken||Miyazaki City||Miyazaki City||Kyusyu||7,735.31||1,104,377||142.8||26||Zones|
|35||Yamaguchi||Yamaguchi Ken||Yamaguchi City||Shimonoseki||Chugoku||6,112.30||1,405,007||229.9||19||Zones|
|19||Yamanashi||Yamanashi Ken||Kofu City||Kofu City||Central part||4,464.99||835,165||187.0||27||Zones|
|30||Wakayama||Wakayama Prefecture||Wakayama City||Wakayama City||Kinki||4,724.68||963,850||204.0||30||Zones|
As is clear from the table (location and county of government office when the prefecture was established), the principle of prefecture name is the location of the government office. However, if the place name on which the prefecture name is based falls under the following, the prefecture name does not match the current city name of the residence.
- When the "county name" does not match the "city name" of the government building location (prefectures where the "location county" column is colored blue in the table, except for the two prefectures whose city name was changed later)[Note 11].
- If it is not the current location of the government building (Tochigi-Gunma-Saitama-Mie）[Note 10][Note 12][Note 13].
- If it does not exist as a "city" due to a city merger (Tokyo-Kanagawa-Hyogo).
- If neither "city name" nor "county name" (Hokkaido-Ehime-Okinawa）[Note 14].
1888Since (Meiji 21), there is no change in the place name part of the prefecture name, and now the place name part of the prefecture has become established. Refers to the entire Aomori Prefecture rather than the city) usage is generally used, but is originally a place name showing only a part of the area. Especially when the prefecture name does not match the city name of the government office building, it is often misunderstood that the prefecture name is originally a place name pointing to the entire area. The place name part of the current prefecture name indicates the whole area of prefecture.HokkaidoとEhimeOnly.
The principle of using the location of the government building for the prefecture name isNaming rules in the Sanjo system of the prefectureTheAbandoned DomainIt is believed that it was inherited afterwards. Throughout the Edo periodClan namingIt was not recognized that there was a unified policy in (in the first place, the name "han" itself is not the official one at that time),castle townName (eg "Kagoshima clan"),Regulatory countryIt was unclear whether to refer to a wide-area place name (for example, "Satsuma Domain") or the family name of the lord (for example, "Shimadzu Domain"). City name or village name of the government office location (exceptionally, the county name is used in some cases, and the regulatory country name is also used in prefectures and prefectures)[Note 15]) Is the only thing that has come to be used exclusivelyPrefectural Sanji systemAfter that.
after that,Abandoned DomainRight afterFirst prefecture integrationThere were many cases where the prefecture name based on "city name" was renamed to "gun name" at the time of and immediately after that (within about 7 months), and the specific reason is not always clear. In addition, this renameBoshin WarThe theory that it was based on a clear political will to display "reverse" in (Award and punishment), but this theory"Forward and Reverse" evaluation criteria are not clear,Cannot demonstrate the existence of political willThere are problems such as.
Renamed immediately after the first prefecture integrationSince then, the change of the prefecture name due to the relocation of the prefectural office has been exceptional. Even if the prefectural government offices are inherited, the prefectural name is also inherited (Abandoned domain # Transfer from the first prefecture integration to the second prefecture integration"Integration", "Transfer" andAbandoned clan prefecture # Second prefecture integrationSee "Transfer"). The obvious exception is the prefecture's name, which is a "grand name" that symbolizes the entire jurisdiction.Ishitetsu prefectureとKamiyamaAs a new "elegant name" when they mergeEhimeIt was the same as the case namedShirakawaAccording to the principleKumamotoOnly two cases have been renamed to. Cases corresponding to exceptions have also been abolishedShinkawa Prefecture-Asuwa prefecture-Meito prefectureWhen we reinstated, instead of the original prefecture nameToyama-Fukui-TokushimaIt is limited to 3 cases.First prefecture integrationAfter that, the case where the prefectural office was moved to another city (Tochigi) And the place name that is the basis of the prefecture name disappeared (Shimane,Kanagawa TownThe name of the prefecture has not changed.
English name of prefecture
PrefectureEnglish"Prefecture" is used as a translation, but this wordCentral governmentDispatched fromPrefectural governor(Prefect) has a sense of word of jurisdiction (similar example: France), the governor has been electedAfter the warIn, this word does not match the word sense,PrewarIt is still used by the convention from. In addition,TokyoIn the case of, "metropolis" is also used.HokkaidoIn some cases, "prefecture" is not used and "Hokkaido" is sometimes used.
Many prefecturesPrefecture flag,Prefecture badge,symbol markHave been established. They areNational Athletic MeetIn addition to being used for events such as, it is also displayed at the facilities of prefectures, and is used as a sign of facilities managed by prefectures.
Also, in many prefectures,flower, "Of the prefectureThu, "Of the prefecture(I.e.Has been established. Some of them have designated "prefecture fish" and "prefecture beast". Detail isList of symbols of prefecturesSee.
See below for other symbols.
- song - Prefectural folk song
- anniversary - Prefectural day
- Mascot character - Prefecture mascot
- stone - Prefecture stone
- ^ As a large-scale boundary change, there is a case where the Tama region was transferred from Kanagawa prefecture to Tokyo prefecture in 1893 (Meiji 26), but the establishment or abolition of the prefecture itself is not accompanied.
- ^ However, strictly speaking, the bill does not mention Hokkaido and Okinawa prefectures.In addition, Hokkaido at that time was a public corporation with "Hokkaido local expenses" which is different from the prefectural system.Hokkaido GovernmentWas governing.Also, "Okinawa Prefecture"1879It was established in (Meiji 12), but1909Until (Meiji 42), the prefectural system like other prefectures was not enforced.
- ^ Only the type that has been changed while maintaining the place name part goes back to before the change.If a prefecture with the same place name is once abolished, it will be the government building when it is revived.As a county in Tokyo, Kyoto, and OsakaEdo Castle-Nijo Castle-Osaka CastleI marked the county.
- ^ a b c Oita and Miyazaki renamed the prefectural office location name to match the county name after the prefecture was established. Akita also renamed the county name after entering the Meiji era, but before the prefecture was established.
- ^ The difference between the prefecture name of Tochigi prefecture and the location name of the prefectural office is that the conflict between Utsunomiya prefecture and the former Tochigi prefecture continued for a long time, so instead of moving the prefectural office from Tochigi to Utsunomiya, the prefecture name remains "Tochigi prefecture". By doing so, both faces are raised.
- ^ When Saitama Prefecture was established, Iwatsuki was planned to be the prefectural capital, but a temporary government building was set up in Urawa, and Urawa became the prefectural capital without moving to Iwatsuki.Urawa is not Saitama-gun but Adachi-gun.
- ^ Urawa City, which was the prefectural capital, merged with Omiya City and Yono City.Later, Iwatsuki City, which was the original planned location of the prefectural office, was incorporated.
- ^ Shinjuku Ward is also a part of the former Tokyo City, and the current location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building is the former Yodobashi Ward, which was Toshima County (later Minami Toshima County ⇒ Toyotama County) before the incorporation of Tokyo City.
- ^ "Kanagawa" as the name of the municipality has disappeared, but now Yokohama City "Kanagawa Ward" exists as the base of the prefecture name.
- ^ a b IshikawaIs based on the county to which Mikawa (currently Hakusan City) belongs, which is not the current location of the prefectural office, but Kanazawa, the current location, is also in Ishikawa County.
- ^ First prefecture integrationSince then, there are cases where the “county name” of the government office is used as a prefecture name, and those that do not currently exist as prefectures (including those that were once abolished and revived under a different prefecture name)Iwai prefecture-Okitama Prefecture-Bandai prefecture-Shinji prefecture-Inba Prefecture-Iruma-Ashigara-Shinkawa Prefecture-Asuwa prefecture-Chikuma Prefecture-Nukata prefecture-Dokai prefecture-Inugami-Shikama Prefecture-Hojo Prefecture-Fukatsu-Oda-Meito prefecture-Mitan prefectureThere are 19 cases (Fukutsu prefecture → Oda prefecture are renamed due to the relocation of the government building, so there are 18 prefectures in total).
- ^ Present in Maebashi cityGunmaThe office was located in Gunma-gun since the law, but in the early Meiji eraAn area that is effectively one with Seta-gun, And the county was eventually reset accordingly, so we considered it to be "not the county of the current location".
- ^ Cases where the location of the government building, which is the basis of the prefecture name, is not the actual locationFirst prefecture integrationからFirst prefecture integrationThere are many places up to, and the planned place name was used as a nonexistent example.Mizusawa-Inba Prefecture-FukatsuAnd adjacent place names were usedKisarazu-HamadaThere are such cases (dissolved discrepancies in a short period of time, since there are many cases where it is not obvious whether or not they are applicable, it is difficult to list all of them without excess or deficiency).
- ^ A non-existent case where a place name that is neither "city name" nor "county name" is used isFirst prefecture integrationAfter thatIshitetsu prefecture-Kamiyama-ShirakawaThere are 3 cases. BesidesNanao PrefectureIn the example, "common name of city = name of castle" is used.
- ^ Specifically, the entire government was a former Shogunate territory.Sado prefecture,Hida Prefecture,KaifuAlso played a role in postwar processing of the Boshin WarEchigofu, Had a direct jurisdiction over the relatively small area (mainly the old flag territory)Kawachi Prefecture,Settsu prefecture,Mikawa PrefectureThere is a similar exampleMusashichi Prefectural Government,Hitachi Prefecture Prefectural Government,Shimosui Prefectural Government,Kazusa Awachi Prefectural GovernmentThere is, but SadoFirst prefecture integrationExcept left overAbandoned DomainIt has disappeared due to renaming and integration before.
- ^ Find out the number of municipalities | General counter for official statistics(Retrieved September 2020, 10)
- ^ Hiroshi Shiono, Administrative Law III, 3rd Edition, p. 137, Yuhikaku,2006
- ^ "Prefectural abolition bill (submitted for dissolution)”(Japanese). National Archives Digital Archive.National Archives of Japan. 2020/12/31Browse.
- ^ Mitsuo Takenaga. “First Katsura Cabinet's prefectural abolition plan and Tsugunori Fukuoka / Mayor Matsue's move to Tokyo (Matsue City History Study 1)". Shimane Regional Material Repository. Matsue City Board of Education. 2020/12/31Browse.
- ^ "Russo-Japanese War chronology". Russo-Japanese War Special Exhibition. National Archives of Japan Center for Asian Historical Records. 2021/1/2Browse.
- ^ Nikkei Inc., Nikkei BP. “Kita Kanto 3 prefectures are "Utsunomiya prefecture" 28 phantom prefectural plans | Entertainment! ｜ NIKKEI STYLE”(Japanese). NIKKEI STYLE. 2020/12/19Browse.
- ^ Tadamitsu Saito (2013). “Attachment to the Prefectural Abolition Law [Complete Map of the Empire of Japan]”. Japan Map Society "Map" Vol. 51, No. 3: 17.
- ^ Tadamitsu Saito "Prefectural abolition bill attached drawing [Complete map of the Empire of Japan]"Map" Vol. 51, No. 3, Japan Map Society, 2013, 3_17-3_18, two:10.11212 / jjca.51.3_17, ISSN 0009 4897, NOT 130005281792.
- ^ 国会議事録第6回衆議院地方行政委員会10号（昭和24年11月25日）門司委員、あるいは国会議事録第38回参議院文教委員会9号（昭和36年03月09日）Mitsuyoshi YajimaAnd many more
- ^ “Hyogo responds to SNS posts by the Hyogo Slavia Federation”. Kobe newspaper(July 2018, 8) 2018/12/19Browse. Although it was an article in August 2018, there is also a statement in the text that ""Hyogoslavia" became a hot topic on the Internet several years ago."
- ^ a b c d "Hokkaido "branch prefectural theory" emerged "The reason why the Shinkansen does not grow is because there is only one governor"”(Japanese). Huff post (September 2016, 1). 2021/9/5Browse.
- ^ a b c "Hot for the future of Hokkaido!”. Ryuichi Kita. 2021/9/6Browse.
- ^ a b c "Submit Hokkaido branch prefectural plan to the governor Volunteer road council "XNUMX or XNUMX prefectures"”(Japanese). jp.sputniknews.com. 2021/9/5Browse.
- ^ "If Hokkaido becomes XNUMX prefectures, the LDP's "branch prefecture" proposal: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2021/9/5Browse.
Data by prefecture
- Prefectural office location
- Prefectural office location and population rank of ordinance-designated cities
- Prefectural governor
- Area list of prefectures
- List of prefectures
- List of past prefectures' population
- Prefectural economic calculation
- ISO 3166-2: JP
- Prefectural association
- Japan's best list of local governments