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写真(Shashin, in the old daysMakoto) Is
- In a narrow sense,hole,lensReconstructing the rays emitted from the subject throughReal imageAfter tying and baking on the photosensitizer,developingProcessVisualizationWhat I did. At this time, the equipment that performs the process of printing on the photosensitizer is basicallyカメラCalled.
- Broadly speaking,Electromagnetic wave,Particle beamIt is discriminable and highly viable, which is established byimage.
Englishof"photographThe word "The United Kingdom OfAstronomerJohn HerschelWas invented.photo-Is "of light",-graphMeans "things written (written, drawn)" and "things written" in Japanese.Light paintingIs also translated. "photograph"Therefore, it is sometimes called" photo "for short.
Principle of photography
Generally for the subjectLightWhen hit, diffuse reflection (light scattering) occurs at each point on the surface.PinholeBy using a convex lens or the like (an optical system with positive power) to map light rays corresponding to each point of the subject to each point on the image plane.Real imageIs obtained. The optical system (lens system) specially designed for photography in order to obtain a precise image is commonly used.Photo lensThat.カメラIn addition to the above opticsshutterIt is a dark box equipped with auxiliary mechanisms such as, and furtherImage sensorYou can get an image electronically bydry plate,Photographic filmBy exposing the photosensitive material such asLatent imageAndSilver halideThen after thatdeveloping-EnlargePhotographs (so-called "prints") are obtained through processes such as.
Principle of silver halide photography
Silver halideThe principle and words of are the same as before,Digital cameraSince the spread ofRetro NimIt is sometimes explicitly referred to as a silver halide photograph rather than simply a "photograph". The term "analog photography" is used for photography, development, or printing that uses almost no digital technology (reversed in recent years, and somewhere in the process, it is sometimes called something that avoids digital technology. is there).
Silver halideWhen the light hitsSilverIonreductionAnd metalSilverA nucleus of fine particles is formed. Exposed to silver particle nucleiLatent imageEven if it becomes, it will not be an image as it is. Since the amount of silver in the exposed part is very small, it is necessary to grow and visualize the silver particles to an appropriate amount. This is done in the developing process. In addition, since it is difficult to expose the unexposed portion to further exposure, it is necessary to remove the unnecessary silver halide. This is done in the fixing process.
When silver halide is exposed to light, the region that absorbs wavelength isblueI'm close to. Therefore, in order to expose the light over the visible region, a photosensitive dye is used and the reaction is set so that the reaction occurs in addition to the original absorption wavelength. First, the photosensitive dye reacts with light, and the electrons of the dye move to the silver halide, so that a change similar to the direct exposure of silver halide is established. Only expose to a specific wavelength range of visible electromagnetic waves,Primary colorWhen the photosensitive layers are stacked so as to correspond toColor filmbecome.
Principle of image sensor
Digital camera,TV camera,Video cameraThen,Image sensorAs,Imaging tubeThose that do not use etc.Solid-state image sensorIs using. The solid-state image sensor is minutePhotodiodeAre regularly lined up closely,Photon pn junctionWhen you enterElectronicIs to be knocked out to generate an electric charge. Because the quantum efficiency is much higher than that of silver halide in silver halide photography,High sensitivityIs. Scan this and extract it as a signalAD converterSend to. OrElectronic still video cameraEtc., the analog signal is directly recorded on a magnetic tape or the like by FM modulation or the like.
Imaging tubeIn the case of, the electric charge due to the photoelectric effect is read by an electron beam scanned by a magnetic field or an electric field to obtain an electronic signal.
Reciprocity and reciprocity
The amount of light that is exposed to a photograph is basically determined by the amount of light (the amount of light per unit time x the time that the light hits). This is called a reciprocity (Souhansoku). However, the amount of exposure is not infinitely proportional to the amount of incident light. The unexposed area does not become lighter than the base film, and since the amount of silver halide to be exposed is limited, it does not become darker even when exposed to a certain amount of light. Therefore, if you graph the amount of light incident and the density of the image,Sigmoid functionbecome that way. The middle part of the change is linear, and the slope of this part isgammaThat.
If the exposure time is extremely short or long, the reciprocity may not hold. This is called reciprocity. In a color film, there is a problem that the color balance is lost because the state of reciprocity irregularity is different for each color. The shorter one does not become apparent in a few thousandths of a second of a normal camera, so it is usually not a concern. On the other hand, the longer one becomes a problem at night and when shooting celestial bodies.1977By the time, it was used for astronomical photography with adjusted spectral sensitivity and measures against reciprocity inconsistencies during long exposures.Spectroscopic photosensitive materialWas on the market.It is empirically known that in the case of film, it is possible to reduce reciprocity inconsistency during long exposure by cooling..
It should be noted that there is another problem in long-time exposure, which is different from the reciprocity irregularity. With currently available Optronics digital cameras, imagesThermal noiseAnd random noise generated from poor production is added. Some digital cameras have a function to reduce noise when exposed for a long time. When exposing for a very long time, it is necessary to operate the image sensor at a low temperature so that noise does not affect the final image. In some astronomical and scientific instruments, the cooling mechanism is included in the design from the beginning.
Taking a photo
Camera andCamera obscuraIs a photography device. Photo film or electronic recording cardrecoding mediaHowever, other methods may be adopted. For example, optical copyDry copy(Zerocopy) produces long-term usable images, but not photographic filmStatic electricityIt is called electronic copying (electrostatic copying) because it uses the movement of.Man RayPublished byRayographSuch asPhotogram ThePhotographic paperIt is an image made of shadows projected on, and does not use a camera. It is also possible to make an electronic copy by placing the object to be photographed directly on the glass surface of the scanner.
The photographer works with the camera to expose the recording medium to the required amount of light.lensCan be selected and operated (usually photographic film as the recording medium)Solid-state image sensoruse).
The targets of selection / operation are thought to be as follows. Camera operations are related to each other.
- Lens type (single focus, zoom / varifocal, general shooting, high magnification shooting, tilt / shift, soft focus, etc.)
- Of the lensFocal length(Ultra wide-angle, wide-angle, standard, telephoto, super-telephoto)
- Focus (point of focus)
- Aperture value (F value）
- Shutter speed
- ISO sensitivity
- Lens filter, CoverDiffuser
- Recording image quality, etc. (in digital cameras)
The total amount of light that reaches the film surface depends on the exposure time and the aperture of the lens. If you change either of these, the exposure will change. Exposure time is expressed in terms of shutter speed (even for cameras without a physical shutter). If the exposure time is less than 1 second, the numerator is usually expressed as a fraction of 1, which is the second if specified on the camera's shutter speed setting dial.ReciprocalIt is often displayed as. The aperture isF valueIt is displayed as, which indicates the brightness of the lens. F is the focus ratio (focal ratio) F. Every time the F value is halved from the route, the diameter of the aperture is doubled and the area of the aperture is doubled. The F-numbers engraved on a typical lens are 2, 1, 2, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, etc., but this means that the amount of light is halved as the number increases. Means.
There are various combinations of shutter speed and aperture value for a particular exposure. For example, F125 in 1/8 second and F500 in 1/4 second produce the same amount of light. Of course, which combination you choose will affect the final finish. Changes in the shutter speed change the degree of reflection of the movement of the target and the camera (such as blurring). The change in apertureDepth of fieldchange.
Depth of field extends before and after focusFocusIt is the range that seems to match. For example, a long focus lens (telescope lens)ApertureWhen used with the nose open, it happens that the tip of the nose is in focus and invisible when the subject's eyes are sharply focused. On the contrary, a short focus lens (Wide-angle lens), And by narrowing down (increasing the aperture value) and focusing on a long distance, it is easy to take a picture that looks in focus on the subject's eyes and nose.
If you use a long-focus lens, open the aperture and focus on a short distance, the depth of field becomes extremely shallow. On the other hand, if you use a short focus lens and stop down (increase the aperture value) to focus at a long distance, the depth of field will be extremely deep. Even if the aperture value, focal length, and focal position are the same, the lensF valueThe depth of field differs depending on (F value when the aperture is open). Even if the F value of the lens is the same, the depth of field differs depending on the difference between the design / notation and the actual lens. Also small enough[Note 1]You can use the aperture to focus on a fairly wide range. this isPan focusCalled.
In the baking process, the result can be changed by some adjustments. Many of these adjustments are similar to those made in image capture, but some are unique to the enlarger printing process. Most are digital-like adjustments, but some have very different effects.
Adjustments include the following:
- Contents of film development
- Photographic paperType (degree of gloss, texture, etc.)
- Enlarger method and performance
- Exposure time
- Lens aperture
- コ ン ト ラ ス ト
- Dodge (reduces exposure of only part of the burn)
- Burning (increasing exposure only partly)
100%cottonSuch asValita photographic paper, RC coated paper,watercolorApplying paperInkjet printer paper(For digital) has a unique texture, and there are various colors and shades of black and white on paper. With the increasing performance of printers, the number of digital monochrome prints has increased. Digital photography ・ In digitized photographs, conversion from "color" to "monochrome" is easy.
Color photos1800 eraToAlexandre Edmond BecquerelDevelopment started by. In the early color experiments, the image could not be fixed and it was easier to fade. Early highLight resistanceColor photo1861To the physicistJames Clark MaxwellTaken by He took pictures of the tartan ribbon three times, one by one with three primary colors, and three with one of the three primary colors filtered.Slide projectorBy projecting the image with and synthesizing it on the screen, we succeeded in reproducing the color at the time of shooting... However, there was a problem with the reproduction of red (purple in the image), and this attempt was forgotten until the 1890s.
Early color photography, for which Maxwell established the method, used three cameras, each with a different color filter lens on the front. This technique required three systems of processing equipment in the darkroom and image processing process, and since there was no color photographic paper yet, the viewing was limited to viewing on slides, and it was not put into practical use. At that time, it was not possible to produce a color film because no emulsion with appropriate sensitivity to the required color was known.ロシアPhotographerSergey Prokudin-GorskyHas developed a technique for quickly taking three color photographic plates in succession.
1891,Luxembourg OfGabriel LippmanDeveloped a color photograph by three-color interference, and due to this achievement1908ToNobel Prize in PhysicsWas awarded. Although this technology was not put into practical use, it is nowHologramIt is applied to.
1904,France OfLumiere brothersBy the first color plate, "AutochromeWas invented and appeared on the market. This was dyedpotato OfStarchBased on the screen board filter made inGermanyAgfa (laterAgfa-Gevaert)But1916Stained inGum arabicIt was the only color plate on the market until the invention of "", which uses a filter made of fine granules.
1930,The United States of America OfGeorge EastmanCalled for a simple method of color photography with a $ 100 million prize. Musicianと[Note 2]Invented and applied for a multi-layer emulsion type color filmKodakJoined the company and cooperated with the company's research team1935, The first modern color film "KodachromeWas released. Kodak initially advertised Kodachrome as "created by God and man."JapanThe first color film of1940Konica Roku Photo Industry (currentlyKonica Minolta Holdings) Announced the same method as Kodachrome, "Sakura Natural Color Film", followed byFuji photographic filmHas also published "Fuji Color Film".
1936Was followed by Agfa's "Agfacolor Neu". Agfa-GevaertIG Farben IndustrieThe color-developing agent developed by the above was contained in the emulsion layer, and the film processing was greatly simplified, such as the color development being completed in one operation. Most modern color films, with the exception of Kodachrome, are based on Agfacolor Neu technology.
Color photos areSlide projectorYou can take an image as a transparent film of a positive image for use in, or you can make a color negative image for making a print of a positive image. With the advent of automatic printing equipment, the latter is now the most popular film.
For photosensitive materialsSilver halideIt is a general term for photographs that use other materials without using, and has been developed since the dawn of photographic technology.Blueprint,Diazo typeWas put to practical use.Silver shockLater desilverization accelerated,Inferior in sensitivity and storability in applications that replace conventional silver halide photographs[Note 3]There are weaknesses such as.
In a broad sense, it is an analog electronic camera.Electronic still video cameraAndDigital cameraIt can be said that the photograph by is also a kind of non-silver salt photograph (in a broad sense). The word "electrograph" is for plain paper.Copier(Plain Paper Copier) electrostatic method, so-calledXerographyIt used to be a widely used word.
デ ジ タ ル 写真
Digital photography is for recording images as electronic dataCCD image sensor,CMOS image sensor such asSolid-state image sensorTo use.Mobile phoneSome of them have a digital camera function (Mobile phone with camera). Some people don't recognize digital photography as a photograph, but images captured by a digital camera can be viewed and printed. As of 2018, digital auto-exposure and auto-focus cameras have become widespread and have almost eliminated film cameras.MovieShootingrecordingIn addition to some models that have functions that film cameras do not have, there are also interchangeable-lens digital cameras that have an image sensor that is the size of a conventional medium format camera. With the spread of smartphones, the market for inexpensive compact digital cameras is shrinking.
For photographers such as newspaper reporters who work remotely from photo processing facilitiestelevisionAs the competition with the newspaper intensified, it became necessary to send the images to be published in the newspaper in a short time. For this reason, newspaper reporters working in remote areas had to carry a small photo processing set and tools for sending images over the telephone line for a while, which was a heavy burden.1981,SonyIs the first consumer camera that uses CCD for image capture and does not use film.Mavica"announced. Mavica saved the image on a disc and displayed the image itself on a television. Then1990Kodak announced the first commercially available digital camera DCS100. The price was unmanageable unless it was for commercial use. Commercial digital photography was born at this time.
Photographic properties (film and digital photography)
The nature of photography differs between film and digital, but there is a common point of view. In the following, the viewpoints will be introduced by dividing them into several properties. There is debate over which is better, film or digital, but in all respects one is not better than the other, and both have their own merits.
The reproducibility here is almost synonymous with the image quality. There are many criteria for judging the image quality of a photograph, but resolution, contrast, and color reproducibility are considered to be the main points. Here, the resolution is taken up. About this, how many image cells the photo has (pixelThere is an attempt to measure whether it is constructed with).
When comparing film photography and digital photography, it is easy to think about how much film is converted into the number of pixels of the image sensor, but first and foremost, the two are too different. Therefore, it is not easy to compare the resolution between film and digital. The measurement of resolution depends on various conditions. In the case of film, the size and size of the film,GraininessIt depends on the performance of the film and the performance of the lens used. Since there are no pixels on the film, the resolution measured assuming that the film has pixels is only a guide. In digital cameras, the image processing algorithm used for interpolating sensor images, the sensor filterBuyer pattern(Bayer pattern) Effect, recording image quality, etc. are related. In addition, of digital camerasImage sensor,Display device OfPixelBecause the array of has a regular repeating patternMoireHowever, such a phenomenon does not occur because the photosensitive particles of the film are arranged irregularly. The resolution evaluation of photographs taken with a 24 x 36 mm (Leica) format camera varies. For example, there is a rating of 10 megapixels.. The use of finer-grained films raises this number, and the use of lower optics, poor lighting, and improper development can lower this number. This rating implies that the 2007 state-of-the-art digital cameras outperform Leica cameras. However, 35mm film is a consumer format. As a professional film cameraMedium format camera,Large format cameraThere is. Simply applying the above figures to these will result in better resolution than the latest digital cameras as of 2007. Specifically, a 6 x 4.5 cm format film photograph has about 36 megapixels, and a 4 x 5 inch format has about 130 megapixels. The 8x10in size is about 540 megapixels. However, there are also ratings such as 20 megapixels and 7 megapixels... The Leica format film has a low sensitivity of ISO50 class and is equivalent to 20 megapixels, which is calculated from the size of silver particles. Effectively, it has flat characteristics in terms of color tone and gradation in terms of spatial frequency. It is correct to think that it is about 40% of that, and the detailed description below that is about 8 megapixels because it deteriorates in proportion to the spatial frequency. It can be said that there is no doubt about this from the physical limits such as the arrangement and size non-uniformity of the film photosensitive particles, the dispersibility, and the bleeding of the focal point due to the thickness of the emulsion layer.
The resolution of modern ultra-fine black-and-white film shot with a high-performance lens at an ideal exposure provides appropriate fineness for file sizes of 30 megapixels and above. Leica format color film for general consumers is 12 megapixels or more, inexpensive Leica format film camera (compact camera) But it can be worth more than 8 megapixels.
The medium used to display the image also needs to be taken into account. For example, if you only want to display photos on the display of a television or computer, which is mainly about 2 megapixels at most, you can say that the resolution that a low-end digital camera can produce is sufficient. There is a perceptible difference between digital and film, even when printing to 4x6in prints. If the output medium is a large advertising version, you will need a medium with high resolution or a large format.
Today, film is still superior to digital in terms of flexibility. Here is a comparison of exposure tolerance and dust / dust.
Exposure tolerance is the degree to which a good image is obtained from an overexposed or underexposed negative. In digital images, even the slightest overexposure can cause highlights to skip. Underexposure tends to result in the loss of shadow details. However, if the film is a negative film, even if a slightly overexposed or underexposed film is used, an image that can be said to be within the normal range can be obtained.
Riding on the image plane is a problem that accompanies the photographer. The sensor of a digital camera is fixed, and it is difficult to remove dust with a digital single-lens reflex camera. However, some digital cameras have a mechanism that detects dust on the image sensor and removes dust and dirt on the sensor to some extent. With film cameras, the film is changed for each image, so it is easy to deal with dust. Instead, there is a risk of dust and dirt being mixed in after the film development process, but if all are handled cleanly with the correct procedure, there will be almost no problem.
Convenience is one of the reasons why digital cameras have become widespread. With a film camera, you have to shoot a series of films and then develop them. And you can see the photo only after developing. On the other hand, most digital cameras are equipped with a liquid crystal display so that you can see the picture immediately after taking it, and you can delete unnecessary pictures on the spot.
Images from a digital camera can be easily processed by a personal computer. Many digital cameras store the image as is, without converting the output from the sensor into an image.RAW formatYou can save it with. Combined with suitable software, the photos taken before being "developed" into the final imageThe parameter[Avoid ambiguity](Sharpness, etc.) can be adjusted. There is also the option of processing or rewriting the recorded image itself.
Film tooscanningIt can be digitized through the process. In other words, silver halide photographs can be converted to digital photographs.
NASA still uses a limited number of film cameras to take recorded photographs just before the launch of the Space Shuttle. This is enough to check from one distant view photograph to one bolt using a nonstandard super large film, verify the photograph when a trouble occurs, and check whether there was an abnormality before the launch. It is used to confirm in. No matter how large the film is in a film camera, the time required for exposure does not change significantly, but in a digital camera, it takes time to save in proportion to the amount of data. In addition, the power required for a huge CCD and storage device will increase, and if the battery and cooling device are included, the device will become even larger and heavier. For this reason, digital cameras were unsuitable for the task of a single photographer shooting launch points from several locations on foot.
A similar drawback was the early consumer digital cameras, which tended to take time to save, miss a photo opportunity, or drain the battery when shooting at high resolutions. Subsequent technological innovations have improved these problems.
The economic superiority of the two formats varies greatly depending on the shooting style, so it cannot be said which one is more economical. Digital cameras are generally more expensive than similar categories of film cameras. This can be offset by the fact that the capture itself and the short-term storage of the image are of little cost. But digital photography also has running costs. If a large number of images are to be stored in the long term (similar to film), the cost of recording media and the like is enormous. Digital cameras don't need film, but record imagesSD memory card,Memory stickEtc. are required. They have a limited lifespan (as with films). Then, a medium such as a hard disk or an optical disk for storing digital images must be prepared. If you want a print (as well as a film), you have to print it yourself or ask a vendor. In addition, digital cameras (as well as film cameras) use batteries. Batteries deteriorate with each use, and even if they are rechargeable, they are replaced regularly.
On the other hand, in film photography, film acquisition and image processing (printing, etc.) continue to be costly. Since the image of film cannot be seen immediately after shooting, it is customary to develop all the film taken without knowing the final photograph. It is not possible to decide for each frame whether or not to develop according to the quality of the photograph. The price of equipment may be relatively higher than that of digital cameras if manufacturing is withdrawn or the production of models is reorganized, but it cannot be said unconditionally due to the large amount of distribution in the second-hand market. Many film cameras also use batteries, and to a greater or lesser extent, the expense of consumables similar to digital is inevitable.
The film produces a primary image, which contains information that has passed through the taking lens. Although there are differences such as sensitivity limited to a specific frequency domain like orthochromatic or wide sensitivity of panchromatic, the point that the object is captured by color (wavelength) is the same. The final negatives and positives will differ depending on the development method, but the image will hardly change after development. Films that have been processed and stored in ideal conditions will perform substantially unchanged for over 100 years. PlatinumCompoundThe prints made by are basically limited to the life of the base and last for hundreds of years. There was a cause that toning was indispensable if high preservation was desired. The toned prints are highly preserved. However, nowadays, chemicals that improve storage stability without toning are on the market.
As of 2007,ComputerCentered onDigital mediaIt's only been about 50 years since it first appeared, so the storability of digital photography is not as clear as that of film. However, there are at least three points that must be overcome when it comes to preservation. Physical durability of recording media, future of recording mediareadabilityUsed for savingfile formatThe future readability of.
Many digital media have little ability to store data in the long run. For example, manyFlash memoryLose data in decades to decades and is commonoptical diskIs about XNUMX years at the longest (with exceptions)). MO etc.Magneto-optical diskIs a highly storable recording medium, but is inferior in terms of future readability. In recent yearsGoogle PhotosThere is also a method of managing with cloud storage such as.
Further, even if the recording medium can hold data for a long period of time, the life span of digital technology is short, so that the drive for reading the medium may disappear. For example 5.25 inchesfloppy disk The1976Although it was first released in Japan, the drive that can read it was already a rare item in the late 30s, less than 1990 years later. As of 3.5, there are few personal computers equipped with a drive for the successor 2012-inch floppy disk.Zip The1994Sales have fallen a few years after the launch of the product, and as of 2007, it has become difficult to obtain both media drives.
DataDecodeThe survival of the software that can be done is also related. For example, many modern digital cameras capture images.JPEGSave in format, which appeared in the early 1990s (International Standards Organization(ISO) ・International Electrotechnical CommissionIt was standardized by (IEC) in 1994). Currently, a huge number of JPEG images are being produced, but there is the problem of being able to read the JPEG format even in the distant future. In addition, multiple are side by side,compatibilityPoorRAWThe future of the format is also uncertain. Some of these formats contain encrypted data or patent-protected proprietary data, but manufacturers can suddenly abandon the format. This situation will continue if manufacturers do not disclose information in RAW format.
Countermeasures are also taken against these disadvantages in digital photography. Choosing a versatile file format, such as a bitmap format, JPG format, or PNG format, increases the future chances that the software will be able to read the file. It is also possible to copy data stored on a recording medium that may become unreadable or unsupported in the future to new media without degrading quality. This is one of the major characteristics of digital media.
Authenticity of the statue
Film images are difficult to synthesize, but digital images can be easily modified, so film is preferred over digital when image authenticity is important (passports, visa photographs, etc.). Since March 2006, a digitized facial photograph has been embedded in an IC chip in Japanese passports.
many裁判 所Then, digital photographs are not adopted as evidence because they can be easily modified. And for the same reasonCriminal investigation,MedicalStill in the field etc.Polaroid cameraThere is a demand for. However, this problem can be overcome by using a non-rewritable dedicated flash memory.
As of 2012,Adobe Photoshop,Corel Paint Shop ProSuch asImage editing softwareSo I had to spend a lot of time on film photography,Color-コ ン ト ラ ス ト-Even beginners can easily and instantly perform image processing such as adjusting (sharpness of contour) and erasing unnecessary items.
- Camera (name / dimensions)
- half size(Cine version) --18 x 24 mm[Note 4]
- Leica format (35mm full size) --24 x 36 mm
- 6 x 4.5 cm size -41.5 x 56 mm
- 6 x 6 cm size -56 x 56 mm
- 6 x 7 cm size -56 x 70 mm
- 6 x 9 cm size -56 x 83 mm
- 4 x 5 in size --94 x 120 mm
- 5 x 7 in size --121 x 170 mm
- 8 x 10 in size --193 x 243 mm
- 10 x 12 in size --245 x 295 mm
- 11 x 14 in size --270 x 345 mm
- Photographic paper (name / dimensions)
- Business card size-2.5 x 3.5 in (62.5 x 89 mm)
- Hand size-3.5 x 5 in (89 x 119 mm)
- Major bill size ―― 4 × 5in (94 × 119mm)
- Large cabinet size-5 x 7 in (119 x 170 mm)
- Hachikiri-6 x 8 in (157 x 207 mm)
- Six-cut size-8 x 10 in (194 x 244 mm)
- Four-cut size -10 x 12 in (240 x 290 mm)
- Large four-cut size --11 x 14 in (265 x 340 mm)
- Half-cut size ―― 14 × 17in (343 × 417mm)
- Small whole paper size ―― 16 × 20in (393 × 492mm)
- All paper size ―― 18 × 22in (447 × 550mm)
- Daizen paper size -20 x 24 in (490 x 590 mm)
Digital camera photoaspect ratioThe main items are as follows. List from the one whose long side is longer than the short side. Previouslycomputer OfdisplayThere were many "4: 3" models because of the consistency with.
- 16: 9 - High definitionSame as the TV screen.Panoramic picturesKind of.Advanced Photo SystemStandard (APS-H).
- 3: 2 - 35 mm filmStandards that occupy most of.
- 4: 3-General TV screen (NTSC) And computerdisplaySame as. Mainstream for compact digital cameras.
ECDThe standards for photographic paper printed by "Frontier" and "QSS" in stores are as follows. Photographs printed from film at DPE stores are not the limit of silver halide photography, and (arbitrary) color correction and density determination at DPE stores are often inappropriate.
- DSC size (89 x 119 mm) ... Popular print size for digital cameras. Abbreviation for Digital Still Camera. Equivalent to L size.
- L size (89 x 127 mm): A popular print size for film cameras.
- HV size (89 x 158 mm): DSC size with an extended width. Used for printing 16: 9 photos.
- KG size (102 x 152 mm) ... Print size common in Europe and the United States. With an aspect ratio of 3: 2,PostcardClose to size.
- DSCW size (127 x 169 mm) ... Used in digital cameras. Equivalent to 2L size.
- 2L size (127 x 178mm): A size that doubles the area of the L size.
It is said that the longer the aspect ratio is on the long side compared to the short side, the more tension is created in the photograph.
Before the invention of photography
Photograph is invented19st centuryPreviously, attempts were made to project light onto a plane. The painters16st centuryBy the time, to project a three-dimensional landscape onto a flat surfaceCamera obscuraUsing a device called, I drew a picture that resembled the actual scene, resembling the image projected in it. These early "cameras" could not fix the image (not the photographic term "fixing"), but simply projected the image onto the wall of a darkened room through an opening in the wall. The room is "bigPinhole cameraWhat I did. "Camera obscura Means a dark room.18st centuryIs said to turn black when exposed to a mixture of silver and chalk.Johann Heinrich Schulzeby1724Including the discovery ofSilver chlorideAnd silver halide, etc.SilverIt is known that some of the compounds change color when exposed to light, and they have been used for games, but there was no idea to combine this with a camera obscura.
After the invention of photography
19st centuryat first,Camera obscuraMany photographic techniques have been invented at almost the same time to fix the image by combining the image and the photosensitizer. At this time the artNeoclassicalismとRomanticismIt was a time of coexistence. In addition, the demand for portraiture was increasing due to the large number of middle classes born. AndLithographThe technology was used for newspaper illustrations and reproductions, and was spreading. The oldest surviving photo in the world is1825ToFake Fall Niepce"Horse pulling man" taken byUn cheval et son conducteur).
Modern photo processing1840Based on a series of improvements from the first 20 years.Fake Fall NiepceAfter the first photo by1839ToDaguerreotypeWas announced, immediately afterCarotypeWas also announced. The spread of photography is the trend of portrait photography,1851 OfWet collodion methodInvention of1871 OfGelatin plateContinued to the invention of.1884, New YorkGeorge EastmanHas developed a method of applying dry gel to paper, and photographers no longer have to carry a dry plate box or toxic chemicals.1888Founded by Eastman in JulyKodakThe camera entered the market with the touch that "you just push a button and Kodak will do the rest." In this way, development service companies appeared, and in an era where anyone can take pictures, it is no longer necessary to have complicated image processing tools on their own.1901To KodakBrownieWith the advent of, the photo has entered the market.1925,LeicaWith the advent of such products, generality, portability (easiness to carry the camera), mobility, and ease of film replacement have increased, and snapshots have become widespread. Since the 20th century, color film (multicolor film), autofocus (automatic focusing: but not always automatic focusing) and autoexposure (automatic exposure) have become widespread. The image is also widespread.
Nowadays, instant preview is possible on the LCD screen of digital cameras, and it is said that the resolution of high-quality models exceeds that of high-quality 35mm film. The price of compact digital cameras has dropped significantly, making it easier to take pictures. But for photographers who use manual-exposure, manual-focus cameras and black-and-white film exclusively, it's almost unchanged since the introduction of Leica in 1925.2004In January, Kodak announced that it would discontinue production of 1mm reloadable cameras at the end of 2004. Although perceived as the end of film photography, Kodak's role in the film camera market at the time was small.2006January,NikonAlso announced that it will discontinue production of film cameras except for the high-end F6 and low-end FM10. same yearMay 5,CanonAnnounced that it would stop developing a new film SLR camera, but it wasn't until 1 that the number of film SLR cameras sold became one.2004Since the announcement of Nikon in January, it has been supplying as many as four models of film SLR cameras. Prices for 1mm cameras and APS compact cameras have fallen. Probably due to direct competition with digital cameras and the expansion of the used film camera market.
Use of photos
From the time the photo was bornNatural scientistMany asscholar,ArtistHas shown an interest in photography.scholarUsed the photographs for recording and research.軍隊,PolicemenAlso uses photographs for data recording such as reconnaissance, investigation, investigation, and trial. Pictures are also taken for commercial purposes. There are options for how to use photos in organizations that need them. Someone in the group is in charge of shooting, hiring an outside photographer, acquiring the right to use photos, soliciting photos, etc.
For example,Edward MybridgeThere is a study on human movements using a series of photographs (1887). It captures momentary movements that were previously invisible to the human eye, and had a great impact on people. Also, recorded photographs of expeditions, anthropological surveys, archaeological surveys, etc. taken around the world since the latter half of the 19th century, orAstrophotography,microscopePhotography has changed the knowledge of mankind.PictorialismThe movement was strongly influenced by painting, and photography was expected to be painting itself in the olden days... On the other hand, assuming that recording the shape of a clear object is the original characteristic of photography.Straight photographyAlso appeared.journalistHas used photographs to record incidents, wars, and people's lives. The sprouting of news photographs appears in the battlefield record photographs of the Crimean War immediately after the invention of the photographs.
ArtistWas also interested in these aspects, but also explored aspects other than the optical and mechanical copying of reality.Dominique anglePainters such as are said to have been surprised at the reproducibility of photographs. However, even if a photograph is good at reproducing a plane, it cannot create a sense of space or form like a painting. Ingres criticized ostensibly photography but actually used it for painting, but this is what he has traditionally supported the roots of painting so that it does not leak into photography. Probably because I knew it was there. Of the painter in this regardFernand KnopfNo matter how much the light source and lighting are devised, even if you make full use of dodging and burning, it is outstanding as seen in paintings.LightnessIt states that (color value) cannot be constructed. This isPictorialismAnd cast a shadow on the photo in its extension. In addition, Fernand Khnopff also deals with colored photographs and colored photographs, which includes what can be called a variant of his masterpiece. Other painters mentioned about their relationship with photography,Edgar Degas,フ ラ ン シ ス · ベ ー コ ン,Gerhard Richter,David Hockney, And so on. By the way, it is also known that Degas respected Angle.VermeerAlthough some researchers think that the camera obscura is inspired by Pointier, but does not use the camera obscura for direct drawing, he logically states his theory. further"Painting artThere is a survey that yellow books can be seen in ", but there were no yellow books at that time."The milkmaidSince the inconsistency in the one-point perspective projection of the table and the wall surface is often introduced, it can be inferred that there was no fixation on the accuracy of the record or the strict correspondence between the work and the facts (in front of the eyes). Some criticize the use of photography by painters in modern times, but the use of photography and cameras in modern times and the use of the camera obscura by old painters is essentially and fundamentally a matter of fact. The quality is not different. And many painters use photographs as the basis of iconography in their production. Generally speaking, the photographs that can be taken by a writer such as a painter are limited compared to the photographs taken by a photographer, and it may be difficult to produce because it is flatter than the actual scene. However, if a photograph is of great utility to his own production, the artist should not hesitate to use it in his production. Currently,snapshotThere are many people who take pictures of events and everyday scenes.
Photography and art
During the 20th century, both fine-art photography and documentary photography became part of the English-speaking art world. It has been accepted by the industry. In the United States, a fewcuratorBut he spent his life trying to get photography into that industry. Among them, the outstanding curators and editorsAlfred Stieglitz,Edward Steichen,, and.
"Fine-art photography"1920 eraIntroduced as the latest trend in Japan1921In TokyoShinzo FukuharaIs a photographic art company, and prior to that in OsakaUeda Chikuo(Also known as: Toranosuke Ueda, Toranosuke Chopsticks, Rakuto Takeken) started an art photography company with his second son Fumio Chopsticks and photographer Kenji Fudo, and published a magazine to promote it actively. Not only Tokyo but also Osaka was one of the centers of fine art photography at this time, and many "photo clubs" were active. CartoonistOsamu TezukaFather of·Tezuka YutakaIs one of these photo clubsTampei Photo Club, And presented his work as an amateur photographer.
Whether photography is an art is often debated. These arguments have existed since the early days of photography. Photography has often been attacked as "just a recording technique, not an art." Some argue that it is just a mechanical production of images.
Some artists actively incorporate photography into their work. For example, in JapanYasumasa MorimuraHas acquired a new style of expression by "invading" himself (sometimes more than once) in a masterpiece.Tomoko SawadaBeginning with his own image taken with an automatic ID photo machine, he is developing photography activities that make full use of self-portraits.Michiko KonHas photographed modeling using fish, vegetables and clothing. All three may be within the scope of "mechanical production of images", but all are included in the photographer, artist or artist.
The photograph reflects the photographer's attitude toward the mind and the world, depending on the selection of the object, the physical distance between the object and the photographer, the mode of the object, and the timing of photography. Photography is certainly a photographer's creation and a means of expression, at least in this sense. At the same time, it is also a product of the skill of engineers who intervene in the output of photographic paper. In addition, it can be said that the ideas and skills of the author (creator) surely belong to the art (art: visual art) depending on the subject to be photographed and the image processing technology.
However, the fact that "every photograph is an art like a painting or sculpture" is more valuable as a means of recording and communication than other means of expression (News photo,Photos for WikipediaEtc.) That's not possible. It is the same as saying that "laws and instruction manuals are not literary arts and literature", and photographs can withstand "neutrality" and "verifiability" to some extent.媒体Because it is. In other words, "photographs are more than just art."pencilSo, I can write novels, poems, rules, manuals, and draw sketches and pictures.カメラIt means that the kind can also perform the function with the same spread.
Even now, there is "painting" as a means of communicating information, but rather, paintings that give up one step to photography in terms of objectivity and realism due to the development of photography are the construction of the tone of the painter (writing, writing). It can be interpreted that he has come to specialize in art that is desired to reflect the subjectivity of the creator by brush strokes and others.
In this respect, "whether photography is art" is fundamentally different from the question "whether graffiti painting is art".
- ^ If you squeeze it like a pinhole, the image will be blurred due to the diffraction phenomenon (so-called) due to the absolute darkness of the image.Small aperture blur) Will eventually result in an out-of-focus image, so an appropriate aperture for this purpose will be a certain value based on various specifications. One guideline is the minimum aperture setting built into many products (some devices, such as microscopes, are designed to be optimal without aperture). In general, after setting the focus appropriately, the closest distance in the range to be focused and the circle of confusion at infinity are narrowed down to the point where they are within the intended allowable range.
- ^ George GershwinCousin,Leopold GodowskyIs the son of.
- ^ The photosensitive resin inevitably deteriorates during storage.
- ^ Originally, 35mm film was a movie film, and since this format is one frame size of movie film, it was "cinema version = cine version", but the Leica version, which fixed 1mm film for photography, is "35mm full size". From this idea, it has become established as "half size" in photographic applications.
- ^ Quote: Kanenori Masui "Japanese Genhiro Dictionary" Minerva Shobo
- ^ "Hoshio Lupo Cooling Camera Hitsuji Toshimasa Furuta" "Astronomy guideSeparate volume Astrophotography NOW ”No. 1,Seibundo Shinkosha, 1977, p. 54.
- ^ Benjamin S. Beck (December 2011, 12). “First color photo" (English). 2012/1/8Browse.
- ^ Japanese Society of PhotographyHen "Basics of Photographing <Non-Silver Salt Photography>",Corona, December 1982, ASIN B000J7IV3C, ISBN 9784339065640.
- ^ Shinichi Kikuchi, "Between electrochemistry and photographic chemistry"Production Research," 1969, Vol. 21, No. 8, p.479-486, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo
- ^ "Organic non-silver salt photosensitive material", Society Publishing Center, January 1992, ISBN 9784762257117.
- ^ Society of Polymer ScienceHen "Optical Functional Materials",Kyoritsu Publishing, December 1991, ISBN 9784320042810.
- ^ Akira Sasai, "Trends in alternative photography"Television," 1965, Vol. 19, No. 11, p.795-799, two:10.3169 / itej1954.19.795
- ^ a b "Asahi camera],Asahi Shimbun, February 2006.
- ^ Gold disc that keeps data for 300 years-ITmedia News
- ^ Double life with gold reflective film DVD-R for long-term storage released by Mitsubishi Kagaku Media-ITmedia News
- ^ "Fine Print Techniques: All about High Quality Monochrome Prints"Photo Industry Publishing Company<Photo expert>, 1992.National bibliographic number:93030321.ISBN 4-87956-029-4.OCLC 675466171.