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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

laptop

laptop(Notebook personal computer,Laptop, laptop,British: Laptop, laptop computer, notebook computer, notepad computer, etc) IsmonitorDisplay screen, such askeyboard,pointing deviceSuch asInput device,battery(Power Input)etcComputerIntegrated with the main body,userDesigned on the assumption that it can be moved to any location and used (carried), it is a bi-fold and lightweightPersonal computerIs a general term for.

Overview

A laptop computer mainly functions as a personal computer (so-called "personal computer").All-in-oneHowever, the emphasis was on portability and transportability, but at the beginning, it required a certain amount of physical strength to carry around as described later. Miniaturization and weight reduction by incorporating various technological advances later (Downsizing) Is progressing.

In the old days, since the size and density were high and the manufacturing cost was high,Desktop personal computerInevitably, the selling price tends to be higher than that of the above.In addition, the expandability is limited as an all-in-one type of fate, and because the module uses exclusive parts, the function can be improved by replacing parts like a desktop machine. However, there were difficulties, such as the fact that they were expensive and did not support parts replacement in the first place.

However2000 eraDesktop computer for many usersExcess performanceAt the same time, the price of laptops has fallen and the need for internal expansion has decreased. Due to this process, laptop computers have become accepted as the main computer by general users.

For manufacturing laptops,Electronic partsSmall and lowpower consumptionAndmachineOfConstruction(rigidity-impactAgainst pressureStrength·versusWedAdvanced wettability etc.)designComprehensiveTechnologyIs required for a long timeJapan OfFamily artMet. However1998 From around that time, production of large modelsTaiwan,ChugokuTransfer toManufacturerThere are also a number of manufacturers who outsource design and production to local companies and withdraw from their own design and manufacturing. Most of the products currently produced in Japan are directly-manufactured manufacturers, and prompt response is required for the domestic market.BTOIs being assembled.

in recent yearsElectronic partsHigh performance, high density,partsImplementationImprovement of technology,Material OfPerformanceDue to improvements such as improvement, miniaturization and weight reduction are progressing,CalculationPerformanceHas also improved dramatically. In addition, the improvement of battery performance has also contributed greatly to the development of notebook computers. Various functionsmoduleIt is easy to implement in the form ofMultifunctionalIs still in progress.

Market trends

in Japan住宅Depending on the circumstances,2000 Since then, laptop computers have become the mainstream of the personal computer market, and there are manufacturers that make their own computer lineup only notebook types. In the pastCost performanceWith emphasisDesktop personal computerWas the mainstreamThe United States of America,EuropeBut the priceCleaning upNot only power saving[1]=地球Consideration for the environmentFrom this point of view, replacement of desktop PCs with laptops is progressing.

This is because one of the popularization of notebook computers is that "performance necessary and necessary to use as a main computer" can be realized at a price that is not so high compared to desktop machines. Choosing a laptop computer not only saves energy and space in a company, but it also has the advantage that you can work in the environment you normally use when you are out or on a business trip. In this demand for inexpensive space-saving PCs,Space-saving PCThere is also the option of (desktop machine), and in order to use the "large screen", "easy to input (full) keyboard", and "easy-to-use pointing device" that the laptop cannot help but miniaturize. , There is a point of view to choose a space-saving computer instead of a laptop computer.[2].

It will be described later in 2009.ネ ッ ト ブ ッ クDriven by low-priced sub-notebooks such as, the overall price of laptops has fallen, and laptops now account for more than 50% of the PCs sold worldwide.[3].. However, for low-priced netbooks,Tablet terminalThe popularity of PCs is becoming less popular, and the market for the entire PC is expected to grow.[4].

Name

The name "notebook computer" isJapanglishAnd is called a notebook (Notebook, Notebook computer) worldwide. Laptop (Laptop, Laptop computer) CalledCategory(Part of), a laptop that fits in a briefcase that weighs less than 3 kg is called a notebook.Ultra book (Called Ultrabook). in Japan"Laptop computerOften referred to as a smaller and lighter personal computer, or all laptop equivalent products are called notebook computers. It is sometimes called "no-paso" or "note-paso" for short. In Japan as of 2017, the term "laptop" is almost obsolete, and all double-fold portable computers, including large desk notebooks, are called notebook computers.

Incidentally,1989 When the PC in this field appeared in Japan, the name was not unified,Mass mediaAnd PCmagazineHowever, at the beginning, there were many names such as "book type personal computer" and "book personal computer", but Epson (currentlySeiko Epson Corporation) Is 286 NOTE,NEC 98NOTEThe name "notebook computer" became popular because each of them was marketed as a "notebook computer".[5].

History

Before laptop

The concept of a personal and portable computerAlan KayPublished in 1972 byDynabookIt is drawn in detail with the concept. Before the notebook typedesktopOf sizecomputerHowever, these were not portable (portable) in terms of shape (size and weight).IBMWas in 1973Portable computerAnnounced the prototype IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable (SCAMP), which was the world's first commercially available portable computer in 1975.IBM 5100Released[6].

1980 eraIn the beginning, the first portable PCtrunk,suitcaseIn a large enclosureCRT,Auxiliary storageIt was a product that was stuffed with and assembled into a state that could be carried around.Portal R2E CCMC,Osborne Computer OfOsborne 1AndCompaq OfCompaq PortableIs the root. However, these required an external power source rather than battery drive, and they were at a level that they could manage.

Later, a portable computer of about A4 size was developed,Handheld computerWas called. fullkeyboardAnd smallLiquid crystal displayIt was possible to drive with a battery.Micro cassette,PrinterSome were equipped with input/output devices such as, but basically were not compatible with desktop type PCs, and were treated as separate products.Epson OfHC-20,TRS-80 Model 100AndNEC OfPC 8201Is an early example. These display sizes are extremely small (data and typing can be displayed from one line to several lines) and are not compatible with desktop type PCs, so it can be said that they are different systems from the current laptop. OtherPocket computerThere was also a genre called.

Birth of a laptop computer

In 1982,Bill MogridgeDesigned byGrid Systems CorporationDeveloped byGrid Compass 1101The world's first clamshell type, that is, by folding it in half, a small PC that combines a full keyboard and a screen and can be carried in a folded state was released.[7].. This established the prototype of the notebook PC[8] However, because it was a high price and the OS was a minor original OS, the userNASA,U.S. ForcesIt was a special layer, and it was not widely spread. In 1983, the same clamshell typeDulmont MagnumBut in 1984Sharp PC-5000, Ampere[9]AndGavilan SC, In 1985Bondwell-2Was released. In 1985, IBM PC/XT compatible laptop from Toshiba as the first commercially successful laptop for the general marketPC T1100Was released[10].

These products that appeared from the early 1980s,chairSat onKneeIn the sense that you can operate onLaptop computerIt was called "Laptop Computer", but in the early days there were many heavy products,Macintosh PortableSince there were products that weighed over 10 kg,WrapcrusherI was sometimes ridiculed as (Knee breaking)[11].

In 1989, the firstPalmtop pcIsAtari PortfolioWas released. It had a palm-sized, horizontally long clamshell housing with a display and keyboard. In this field, Poqet PC, Sharp, and HP continued to release products.

Evolution to laptop

Meanwhile, as a product that is A4 notebook size, light weight of 2.7 kg, equipped with a minimum interface, equipped with a large liquid crystal display, and compatible with desktop type PC,1989 Announced on June 6, in July of the same yearToshibaReleased byDynaBook(Current dynabook) J-3100SSShocked at a price of 19 yen. Announcement Epson OfPC 286Although NOTE executive was ahead (announced on June 1989, 6, released in September of the same year, weight 7 kg, 9 yen), it did not compete in terms of price. These were released by NEC in October 2.2. PC-9801n At the same time, it opened a new market for "notebook PCs," commonly known as "notebook PCs." The basic design became the prototype of the notebook PCGrid CompassThe term laptop is now being used to distinguish it from its older, heavier laptops, though not much. (Note: In the late 1990s, laptop and laptop were used interchangeably.)

In 1991Apple Computer PowerBookLaunched series, in front of keyboardPalm restとpointing device(At that timeTrackball) Of the current laptopDesignIt became the prototype of.ThinkPad(IBM/Lenovo) Has its ownTrack pointHas been adopted.

Current laptop

Currently,Touch pad,Pointing stickPointing device such asEthernet,無線 LANNetwork functions such as these have become features that must be installed in any laptop. The liquid crystal display has a large screen and color,BluetoothIncludingwirelessThe connection function has made remarkable progress, and the processing speed of the processor and the installed memory capacity have also improved significantly. As a result, it is generally used as a personal computer to be purchased first and as a main machine, not as a supplement to a desktop personal computer. Depending on the productpresentationForprojector,tv setAs a design considering screen output,D-Sub15 pin terminal,HDMIIt has a terminal. Also, for personal entertainmentBlu-ray Disc,DVDOptical drives such asDigital broadcastingIt also has a built-in receiving device, making it a strong video device to carry around. Functions related to video output are mainlyEducational institutions,CompanyIt is often used for the purpose of providing information to many people.

またUSBProvides extra connectivity that supplements the scalability that previous laptops were not good at, and provides external storage devices, various input/output devices, user interface devices, and expansion functions.(I.e.Many are used by users in addition to the convenience of connecting external devices via Bluetooth as described above.

Construction

Basically, the structurePersonal computerThis is more than the function ofComputer architectureIt follows thatAll-in-oneAs a model, display equipment, arithmetic unit, external storage device,Input device(User interface) And so on. Also, when carrying电源Power for use in places wherebattery) Is built-in, it is possible to use the internal power supply and external power supply.

Since the personal computer itself is a general-purpose product, some products may have some functions added to improve the convenience of certain user groups, but they are summarized with only basic functions and expanded by the user depending on the application. FunctionOptionsThere are many products that are supposed to be added in. For models that require miniaturization and portability,optical driveThe bulky function is designed for external connection.

Display device

For weight reduction and battery operation,Display deviceMainly toLiquid crystal displayIs used, and it is basically folded in half with the main body part, but by rotating the screen part and folding it with the screen facing upTablet pcThere are also types that can be used. The screen size is diagonally the same as on a desktop computer,inch(In stores, etc.型Notation[Annotation 1]). Previouslyaspect ratio(Long side:short side) was mainly "4:3",2000 eraThe so-called wides of "16:10" and "16:9" have become mainstream since the middle of the year. In the early days, there were problems with miniaturization, technical issues, and costs.モ ノ ク ロSome products have adopted screens, and display in 16 colors or 256 colors (Color depth4-bit and 8-bit) such as limited color display, but now almost without exception is possible color display comparable to desktop machines.

Regarding liquid crystal displays, initially it started with black and white liquid crystals, and it is relatively inexpensive as it becomes colorized.DSTN LCDThe products that adoptedTFT liquid crystalIt has become.BacklightAbout up to recent yearsCold cathode tube(Extra fineFluorescent tube) Is used, but from the fourth quarter of 2008LEDBacklight (edge ​​light type) has been introduced.

Case

Regarding the size of the case, it is in the state when the laptop is closedPaper dimensionsIt is categorized like columns A and B. Further, the expression “file size” which is slightly larger than the size of paper is also used. However, as mentioned above, products with a wide screen aspect ratio have also appeared on the side.

Slim notebook(EnglishReviewFor example, note that laptops that are called Thin rather than Slim are said to be relatively thinner than laptops of a particular size category.[12].

电源

The power supply is basically a battery as a built-in power supply and an external power supply (Commercial power supplyFor direct use or charging the batteryAC adapterTo use. To use an external power source for large models and past onesTransformer,rectifierThere was also a product with a built-in, but as an element that hinders the reduction in size and weight of the main body, the mainstream is to connect an AC adapter to the outside, mainly for small models. Although there is significant technological innovation in batteries, higher performance in other parts of the computer also tends to increase power consumption, and manufacturers are struggling with the balance between practical uptime and portability. There is.

It can be said that it is not only a laptop computer,Secondary battery TheChargeDischargecycleThere is a problem that the effective capacity decreases as the above procedure is repeated, and the aged battery may need to be replaced. Depending on the usage conditions, such as repeated charge and discharge or over discharge, the battery mayWarranty periodSince the capacity may decrease even within the range,Expendable partsIn most cases, it is not covered by the warranty due to handling.

The AC adapter attached to the laptop is used to operate from an external power source and to charge the built-in battery, but it is located outside the area where the laptop is sold (purchased) as a portable device.TravelingIt may also be taken out on business trips overseas, so it is possible to respond to power supply conditions around the world,AC frequencyThere is also a product designed to automatically convert the difference (100 to 240 volts, 50/60 Hertz) into a direct current with a voltage that matches the function of the notebook computer.OutletSince there are various standards for the shape and it varies depending on the country/region, we can find products that support plug conversion. other than this,Passenger car OfAccessory socketYou can also see various products such as adapters that can use.

In addition, the use of CPUs, liquid crystal panels (especially backlights), and various drives that consume high power even as the voltage of semiconductor products continues to decrease is another factor that hinders battery miniaturization. OldDry cellDriven byThinkPad 220There was also a laptop computer that can be used by replacing the battery and battery box as needed, but it is difficult to drive the laptop computer practically at the present time because the performance of the computer has increased and the power consumption has increased. I can't find a battery-powered product on my laptop (apart from mania remodeling). Therefore, it is necessary to bring an AC adapter and secure the power supply to take it outside and drive it for a long time. Instead of rechargeable batteries at some manufacturers,alcohol(methanol) To generate electric powerFuel cellAlthough it is under development, it can be said that it is a product with a high need for technological innovation.

If you use the AC adapter in public facilities,Electric theftThere is a risk of (electricity theft).On the other hand, various including laptopsElectronicsAs a result of the popularization of mobile devices asShinkansen(Tokaido-Sanyo-Kyusyu OfN700 series,Tohoku OfE5 series,Yamagata OfE3 series 2000 series,Akita OfE6 series,Hokuriku OfE7/W7 series) AndLimited express train(Mainly manufactured after 2009JR,Private railway Ofvehicle),family restaurant,fast foodAn increasing number of facilities, such as stores, are equipped with outlets for charging laptop computers and mobile phones in the audience.

Also, the battery is not only a power source for carrying, but also for a sudden power outage.Uninterruptible power systemAlso works.

Size and division

ShapeimageFeatures
B4 or moreLCD pixels 1920x1200
(17 type WUXGA)
Dell Studio 17

Large as a laptopCaseAndDesk notesOrAll-in-one laptopAlso called. The liquid crystal is from 16 inches up to about 20 inches,aspect ratioHas a horizontally wide LCD (mainly B16 size) such as "10:16" or "9:4",Screen resolutionThe mainstream is 1680x1050 WSXGA+ to 1920x1200 WUXGA. In many cases, a high-speed CPU is used as a CPU, and it weighs about 3 to 5 kilograms. Some models do not have a battery, and are large in weight and size.Advance Your CareerIt is not suitable for carrying around and usingDesktop personal computerIt is expected to be used as an alternative deferment.

Due to the size of the case, features that are not found in small machines can be seen, and the keyboard is independentNumeric keypadIs placed,Memory card reader,ア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ンMany have many startup buttons. Also, there is a lot of feverク ロ ッ ク OfCPUとVideo cardImplementation ofHDDWith two built-inRAIDCorresponding to mobileWork stationThere is also a model.

It is a size and category that has been popular since the early 2000s,Blu-ray DiscEquipped with a drive, 3D shooting gameCADHighPerformance,マ ル チ メ デ ィ アMany are intended for use.

A4, A4 file, B4LCD pixels 1600x1200
(15 type UXGA)
EPSON Endeavor NT-5000

It is the mainstream size for laptops. Liquid crystal orRetina displayIn addition, those with a size of 13 inches (A4) to 15 inches (B4) (30 cm to 35 cm) are used.

以前は、アスペクト比4:3の1024x768 XGA~1400x1050 SXGA+が主流であったが、現在ではワイド液晶のもの(ワイド液晶移行当初はアスペクト比16:10の1280x800 WXGA~1680x1050 WSXGA+を経て、16:9の1366x768 HD~1600×900 HD+)が主流になりつつある。Retina displayWith the spread of, the resolution has become 2560x1600 pixel standard resolution and is becoming higher and higher year by year.

It weighs a few kilograms, and is usually carried on foot (mobile) Not suitable for use, but for stationary useDesktop personal computerHas the advantage of requiring less space. It has been the most popular size for both office and home use since ancient times.ネ ッ ト ブ ッ クThere is a wide lineup ranging from low-priced models to slightly higher than. With the miniaturization of batteries for mobile phones such as mobile phones, the weight of laptops has become lighter and weighs about 1.4 to 2 kilograms.mobile)It's being used.

Long time agoFloppy disk drive(FDD),Hard disk drive(HDD) andcompact disc3 with built-in (CD)spindle(Details will be described later) The configuration is common and as an interfaceSerial port,Parallel portEtc.Legacy deviceWas installed,Windows XPIs in the transition period2002 HDD from the latter half ofoptical drive2 spindles ofLegacy deviceIs USBportIt has been almost eliminated as a substitute for. HDD andoptical driveWith the evolution of laptopsSSDWas replaced by, which led to weight reduction.

Transportable personal computer(Portable computer) orPortable PCIt is sometimes called (Carrier PC).

A4/A4 fileLCD pixels 1024x768
(12.1 type XGA)
Dynabook SS 2000-DS80P

Compact notebookCalled the liquid crystal orRetina displayIs about 12 to 14 inches (A4 to B4 size) (30 cm to 35 cm). Once 2spindle, 1 spindle was mixed. In the 1990s, there were relatively many 13.3 inch models. The screen resolution used to be 4x3, which had an aspect ratio of 1024:768, but nowadays, it is mainly dominated by 1280x800 HD through 1366x768 WXGA wide liquid crystal.

For a two-spindle notebook with a built-in CD drive, the FDD was usually included until the late 2s as a separate external cable or USB cable. Also, for the 1990-spindle type thin notebook, there is a docking base that attaches a device with a CD/FDD separately or is sold separately.2000 eraIt was released until the previous term (mostly distributed to corporations as business notes).

2001 Since then, due to technological advances, thin-type notebooks with 1 spindle that have a large-screen liquid crystal display and weighed in the 1 kilogram range, and then 2 spindles with thin and lightweight notebooks of the first half of the kilogram have appeared from various companies. did. As a personal computer that can be easily carried around and has a good key input environment, demand for compact notebooks increased, especially among young people. 2011 To become andSSDProducts that adopt2012 Comes in a screen size of 13 inches and cuts less than 1 kilogram.

12 inch (A4) size is the difference in performance, weight of display, SSD, memory and the difference from ordinary A4 size laptops, and it is a model with low price version with only CPU specs lowered Is becoming mainstream.

B5/B5 files/A4/A4 filesLCD pixels 1024x768
(10.4 type XGA)
IBM ThinkPad s30

Sub laptopAlso called liquid crystal orRetina displayIs about 10 to 12 inches (B5 to A4) (25 cm to 30 cm). It weighs about 1 to less than 2 kilograms, and is often assumed to be carried and used. For this reason, most of them have only one spindle with a built-in hard disk drive, but models with two spindles with built-in optical drives such as HDD and CD have also appeared.

Due to the size of the housingLegacy deviceFew models were fully equipped with ports, and many were via separate port replicators, but now they are replacing USB ports.

After 2008, like the mini notebook PCs in the category of B5 size or less, which will be described later, in some models, instead of HDDSSDThere is also a zero spindle equipped with.

mainlyTablet pcThe mold is the mainstream and it weighs less than 650 g and is very light.

B5 or lessLCD pixels 1024x600
(7 type WSVGA)
Koshasha SH6KX04A

Mini notebookIt is also called, and is cut into smaller pieces. The liquid crystal is less than 10 inches and the resolution is lowword processor-SpreadsheetThere are some difficulties in using applications such as. Weight is up to over 1 kilogram. Since the size of the keyboard is also reduced, many models have difficulty in inputting and touch typing.

The main focus is on the 1-spindle model with only HDD, but in 2008, SSD was adopted as an alternative to the HDD, and a zero spindle model was released.

Japanese manufacturers added some value such as mobile camera and tablet functions.UMPCThere were many types called2007 ThanEee PCFocused on low cost with little added valueネ ッ ト ブ ッ クThe so-called type has become popular, and many Japanese manufacturers have since entered the market (note that2012 With this, the netbook has finished new development and sales). At the beginning of the introduction of UMPCs and netbooks, there were many models of small LCD displays such as 7 inches and 8.9 inches, but since 2009, the main products are slightly larger than 10 inches.

mainlyTablet pcIs also equivalent to this.

Other classification methods

Built-in devicespindlenumber(motor軸, IeDisk driveThe number may be classified as follows.

Zero spindle (spindleless, non-spindle)
Do not use a mechanical recording drive.HDDInstead of usingSSDEquipped with. Even notebook computers began to appear in mini notebook computers around 2005. High reliability and low power consumption because no mechanical parts are used. SSDs are expensive for their capacity, so they were only a few before 2007, but if the capacity is divisible, it is possible to reduce the price.Eee PCIt is also used in low-priced mini-notebooks (netbooks) and is gradually becoming popular. It is expected to be widely used in business computers and mobile computers.
1 spindle (single spindle)
HDDBuilt only. Almost all subnotebooks that emphasize lightness and miniaturization in consideration of portability, and almost all mininotebooks have this form (even in the subnote class, some models have an optical drive). Data is exchanged with the outside using a network or an external drive.
Also, in the case of a large model equipped with a CPU for desktop PCs, it is necessary to take in a large amount of cooling air due to the large amount of heat generation, and the location where the optical drive is installed is used as the cooling air passage. Because of this, the optical drive cannot be installed, and as a result, there is one that has one spindle.
2 spindles
HDD andoptical driveBuilt in. There used to be a floppy disk drive that was not equipped with an optical drive, but nowadays most laptops weighing 1.5 kg or more have a built-in HDD and optical drive. Even in the sub-notebook class of a little over 1 kilogram, there are some with built-in HDD and optical drive. It has become the mainstream of current laptop computers.
3 spindles
Built-in optical drives such as HDD, FDD and CD-ROM. Most large A2002 size machines up to around 4 had a built-in HDD, FDD and CD-ROM, but since around 2002 there is a tendency that FDD will not be built-in (use an external USB-connected FDD). Almost no new 3-spindle type laptop computer is found.
In addition, some large machines have two built-in HDDs.[Annotation 2]There are also those that take the form of "dual storage" that uses both HDD and SSD.

Classification by performance/application

Popular machine (low-end to standard)

Low endFrom lowermainstream OfCPU(As of 2015AMD OfE series, A series,Intel OfCeleron,Pentium,Core i3, i5,i7(However, in the case of Core i7, most of the low voltage specification version has 2 cores/4 threads) and a model equipped with 13 to 15 inch class liquid crystal. The size and weight are large due to the price-priority design, but the CPUbottleneckGeneral applications that are difficult to become (such as Internet access, low-resolution video playback, document creation and spreadsheets)Office suiteEtc.) is a necessary and sufficient performance, and it is a cheap product because it is cheap.ChipsetAlso, low-end products for mobile are often used (with some exceptions),But by the full GPU acceleration techIs also integrated into the chipset. Inside無線 LANSome models omit[Annotation 3].. Also, from around 2012, USB 3.0 interface and someBlu-ray DiscModels equipped with drives (especiallyToshiba,NEC,Fujitsu) Also exists.

High end

16 to 18 inch class LCD with the highest performance level CPU (as of 2019 mainly 6 core/12 thread version Intel Core i7) and high end GPU (sameNVIDIA OfGTX 1070, 1080A model equipped with. Video editing,DTM,online game,CADFor applications that require sufficient machine power, such as analysis applications. "Gaming laptopSome are sold under the name "Mobile workstation". Some models are equipped with SSDs for high-speed operation, large-capacity Blu-ray Disc drives, and tuners. Generally, it is heavier than a popular machine and is not suitable for carrying and moving.

As of July 2014, the manufacturers selling in JapanLenovo(Former IBM), Toshiba, Fujitsu, NEC,Dell,Epson direct,Hewlett Packard,Acer,AppleThe feature is that the color of each company is clearly displayed in each shop brand.

High-end mobile

A model that combines a 14-inch class or smaller LCD and a high-performance CPU. It has both high portability and high performance. The GPU may use a built-in chipset to reduce power consumption and ensure portability, or it may be mounted in the middle range with an emphasis on performance. In recent years, the number of intermediate models with business mobile has increased, and the distinction from business mobile has become unclear.

Business mobile

It is a model that is designed to be carried around for business, with emphasis on portability, robustness, and battery life. Can be easily put in a business bag (Japan)At rush hour OfCommuting TrainIf you get caught in it, it won't breakMagnesium alloy,Carbon fiberMaterialHave a sturdy housing such as. Low-voltage version is also adopted for the CPU, and fine power control is performed.Energy savingWe are paying close attention to extending the operating time with batteries. There are also other products that adopt a mechanism to reduce the load and impact on the hard disk, or that have no problem if water is spilled on the keyboard.

However, including the above-mentioned materials, it is a small and lightweight design, it is high price, and the battery performance is prioritized so that the CPU performance is secondary.[Annotation 4], There are disadvantages depending on the size of data to be handled and the type of application.

This field has traditionally beenPanasonic[Annotation 5],IBM(CurrentLenovo)[Annotation 6],Fujitsu[Annotation 7] I was good at, but recently NEC andSony(CurrentV) Also sells a model to counter it, and other companies are showing signs of pursuing.

Ragged PC

Derived from business mobile, withstanding for outdoor use as the main usevibration・Withstandimpact・DustproofSplashproofA model with greatly improved performance. mainlyarmy-Policemen-FireHowever, it is often used as an in-vehicle terminal due to its strong resistance to vibration. This field used to be Panasonic,General dynamics(Itronix),Getac (English version)Used to dominate the market, but now NEC, Dell, Hewlett-Packard,MotorolaHave also entered ((TOUGHBOOK,en: Rugged computerSee also).

Tv pc

On a computerTV broadcastA model for seeing. This directionAnalog broadcasting-8-bit personal computerIt has existed since the era of (desktop machines),TV tunerThe condition is that theTerrestrial digital TV broadcastingAs of 2012 after the start, from a large notebook equipped with a terrestrial digital tunerOne SegWidely released up to 1 spindle machine equipped with a tuner.

Not only the performance as a personal computer, but also the ease of use of application software for broadcasting or viewing video software is required. Since it has a built-in tuner, it has a reasonable weight (Toshiba Qosmio weighs 4 kg or more, which is heavy for a laptop computer), but the model that takes a tuner externally and connects with a USB cable is a telepaso. However, it weighs almost the same as the model without a TV tuner. Even if you do not have a TV tuner, connect an external XNUMXSeg tuner that is connected via USB.NHK Plus-NTV live distribution-Tokyo Metropolitan Television OfEmcas, Etc.) to watch TV programs.

Shopland PC

Sold by manufacturers outside JapanBarebone,Computer shopA personal computer that is assembled and sold by.BTO(Made to order) is the basis. The wide range of settings such as CPU grade, memory, and HDD capacity allows you to cut down waste to the limit, so you can get a personal computer with low cost and unnecessary functions and application software. However, since there is no support center (depending on the level of support of the dealer), even if a problem occurs, it can be resolved (isolated) on its own.skillIs required by users. There are some models that are notebook but do not have a battery.

Dell,Hewlett PackardDirect salesBTO(Or CTO=Custom to order) manufacturer's products are not as good as shop brands, but the number of shops where you can actually touch the product and ask questions is limited. In exchange, if you make good use of occasional campaigns, you can get a low-cost PC that does not contain unnecessary application software like the shop brand, and you can select support contents step by step according to your preference. In many cases, users of intermediate level or above who can obtain information on electronic bulletin boards purchase the information.

In addition, many of the major manufacturers (NEC, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Sony, etc.) that are sold at consumer electronics mass retailers also sell directly on their own websites in parallel, and as a direct sales model, In many cases, the products of the contents are sold at low prices, and depending on the manufacturer, a longer 3-year warranty than usual, some contents such as CPU and memory capacity can be changed, and it is also offered as an optional service at large mass retailers. In some cases, the setting service after delivery to your home can be selected.

In the case of BTO sales, as of October 2015, it was not available on general distribution routesWindows 7There is also a product that can be selected (most of which is a 32-bit version of 7 Professional) (especially products for corporations of major PC manufacturers, PC shops, and direct BTO manufacturer products).

Ultra book

A laptop computer with a built-in 14-inch class LCD screen and a low-end to high-end mobile class CPU packed in a thin housing.SSDSince it is equipped with, it provides comfortable performance when using Web services and business applications. A simple structure with no optical drive and extensibility, and relatively low price. It has an excellent balance of performance, portability, and price, and is expected as the next-generation mainstream notebook computer that replaces the niche of popular type, business mobile, and high-end mobile.

Ultra mobile pc

A small notebook computer with a small LCD display of about 7-10 inches, a CPU with relatively low performance and ultra-low power consumption, and an optical drive omitted (Tablet pc) Standard2006 Has been established, the products were announced by each company. In the CPU, initiallyIntel A100Celeron M-based CPU such as, orVIA C7,AMD GeodeWere the mainstream, but recentlyIntel AtomMost products are equipped with. However, the high cost due to high added value such as multiple operation mechanisms such as pen input and pointing stick, which is a feature of the Ultra Mobile PC, and a folding mechanism that can display the screen, CPU andmemoryDoes not match the ability ofOS (Windows Vista) ButPre-installedSales were sluggish because it was being done. However, regarding the OS, there are changes in Microsoft's OS supply policy after the netbook mentioned later began to spread,loadThere is less Windows XP to be installed. However, both netbooks have become popular since 2010.Tablet computerWas extinguished by, and eventually disappeared.

ネ ッ ト ブ ッ ク

2007 In addition, mini-laptops of around 10 inches, which are called netbooks that are simpler and have lower added value than laptop PCs, have rapidly become popular. In the background of popularity, personal computers are in most applicationsExcess performanceIt has a large capacitystorageAnd does not require high processing powerWeb applicationIs widespread. There are products that combine inexpensive modules in a form that suppresses low performance, and due to the explosive spread around 2008, it is a big market that includes even Microsoft, which releases OS from integrated circuit manufacturers Was formed. At this time, Microsoft is reviewing the OS license fee, which is a bottleneck for price reduction.ULCPCThis is the standard of the netbookspecIt also affects the upper limit.

However, like the Ultra Mobile PCs mentioned above, this position moved to tablet computers and was discontinued in 2010.

More

Laptops are common to all computersComputer architecture(So-calledPC/AT compatible) Is adopted, it is compatible with other PCs, but it is not compatible, it has a form similar to a laptopMobile deviceAs,Smart bookThat genre has also appeared. These are in order to avoid various inevitable restrictions that hinder miniaturization and low power consumption when adopting a PC/AT compatible architecture.ARM architectureな どSmartphoneThere are products that adopted it, these areインターネットTerminalAsCloud computingIt has only limited functions such as terminals.

The so-called activated since 2010Tablet terminalIn these, which are also familiar with, there are also products that cut into both genres, for exampleAsus Eee Pad TransformerAs shown, the keyboard and the tablet PC, which is the main body, can be separated, and both conveniences can be used as needed.

Extension

ExtensionReference imageFeatures
PC cardslotPC card slot
PC card slot
This is the main expansion mechanism of old laptops, and it was provided in most models until around 2005. On a desktop PCPCIAs a general-purpose expansion slot equivalent to a slot, interface cards for various input/output systems such as communication and memory cards can be installed. Some mobile laptops come with a PC card slotCompact flashSome models have slots.

From around 2005, as a new incompatible standard,ExpressCardModels with slots have also appeared, and at the beginning of 2007, models with PC card slots and ExpressCard slots, or models with only ExpressCard were sold, but as of 2009 most The only product is the ExpressCard slot. However, PCs for Cardbus are often adopted as before for personal computers. On the other hand, ExpressCard slots are not installed in UMPCs and netbooks, and expansion card slots themselves are often omitted.

I/O portConnecting terminal
USB
USB Connector.jpg
Until the 1990s, the large one was used as the main unit, and the small one was used as a port replicator or docking unitLegacy deviceI was able to use many input and output ports,2000 After that, these input/output ports are omitted, and the general-purpose input/output terminals are USB terminals only or USBIEEE 1394Most of the models are equipped with. However, for corporate models,2006 Up to parallel terminals are often installed as standard. Even if it's not runningBIOSThere are many computers that can turn the USB power output on and off depending on the settings.

other than this,projectorOr as an output terminal for connecting an external displayVGA terminalOrDVIOrDisplayPortWill be installed. In some modelsHDMI,S terminalMay also be installed.

As a voice input/output terminalHeadphonesOutput terminalラ イ ンInput terminal,MicrophoneEquipped with input terminals. They may also be used as optical digital input/output terminals.

optical driveDetachable CD-ROM drive
Detachable CD-ROM Drive
The adoption of DVD drives compatible with the writing function is progressing in notebook computers for the general public, and in high-end modelsBlu-ray DiscDrive adoption is increasing. On the other handCost performanceFor corporations as a measure against information leakageCD-ROMSales of notebook PCs with drive specifications are continuing.

Normally, it is still built into the main body, but there are models where the optical drive unit can be attached and detached, and a second HDD or a spare battery can be attached instead of the optical drive. It may come with a bay blind cover adapter for removal and use for weight savings.

Subnotebooks and netbooks (mini laptops andTablet pcIn most cases, no optical drive is installed. If you want to use a CD or DVD for some reason, connect it to a LAN and temporarily set the optical drive of another PC, or use a general-purpose external drive connected by USB to initialize the system. ..

Ethernet-modemPC card type wireless LAN card
PC card type wireless LAN card
EthernetPreviously, it was connected using a PC card, but around 1998, a model with standard built-in appeared mainly for offices,ADSLSuch asBroadband internet connectionIt began to be installed as a standard from around 2002 when it began to spread, and further無線 LANModels with built-in modules are increasing.

Dial-up connection(OrFAXModem for sending (as a terminalPublic switched telephone network2 cores to connect toModular terminalRegarding ), due to the nature of the laptop computer that you carry around, most of the models had it, but since the mid 2000s,Public wireless LANConnection,Mobile data communication flat rate systemWith the increased use of services, modems have been removed mainly for large models, and furtherInternet faxAs a result of the expansion of services and the removal of modems from even small models, most of the products sold as of 2014 do not have modems. If you can only make a dial-up connection in the local situation, you will use a USB-connected modem.

Floppy disk driveExternal floppy disk drive
External floppy disk drive
Floppy disk drive is for data exchange and backup,BIOSIt was installed for the startup disk used for updating. The large ones are built-in, and for compact and subnotes, an external device that connects to a dedicated terminal (USB terminal from around 2000) was used.

CD-R andUSB memoryFloppy drive is removed from the standard installation due to the spread of, the simplification of BIOS update, etc., and most of them are treated as options. When using a floppy disk, use a universal USB external drive.

MoreWeb camera (black dot at the top center of the screen)
A laptop computer (MacBook) with a built-in webcam (iSight) at the top of the screen
Fingerprint authentication
User authentication of laptop computer using fingerprint
Depending on the model,Memory card reader/writer,Webcam,Fingerprint authenticationEtc. may be built in. Web cameras may be installed mainly in individual models, and fingerprint authentication may be installed mainly in corporate models.

Typical laptop

Brands for sale

Past brands

Major manufacturer

More than 90% of notebook PCs are OEM/ODM produced by Taiwanese manufacturers.

  • Quanta computer(Taiwan)
    The world's largest manufacturer of laptops. Although it has no own brand, it is engaged in manufacturing PCs of major brands in the world and Japan.
  • Compal Electronics(Taiwan)
    Competing with Quanta Computer for world title[13]
  • Inventech(Taiwan)
  • Wistron(Taiwan)
    AcerOEM manufacturing department separated from
  • FOXCONN(Taiwan)
  • ASUS(Taiwan): Launched own brand and OEM contract ratio has been lower than before.
  • (Taiwan): Used as a base unit for Japanese direct sales manufacturers

Health problems

It has been pointed out that the long-term use of a laptop computer has an effect on the human body. In the case of a laptop computer, the display is below the line of sight, and it is necessary to always work with the neck bent. by thisShoulder stiffness,headache,long-termdiseaseThere is concern that it will lead to. For this reason, symptomatic treatments such as resting and massaging at regular intervals and methods such as connecting to an external display that is visible without dropping the line of sight in environments other than mobile are recommended.

It also has a high feverCPUIf the output of the cooling fan is low or the output of the cooling fan is low, the battery may overheat or ignite, or the internal heat generated from long-term use (may exceed 40-50°C) (low temperature)scald[15] Is also suffering. To prevent this, a commercially available note cooler pad orUSB fanIt is necessary to lower the temperature of the laptop computer.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Measurement LawThe use of "inch" in commercial transactions is prohibited by the regulations.
  2. ^ In a general laptop computer, only one HDD is often built in due to internal space limitation, and few HDDs are built in.
  3. ^ AdsIn order to expand the price range to the lower side and keep the apparent price low, in addition to the best-selling model, allspecThere are low models available.
  4. ^ From 2004 to 2007, many models were equipped with a 1.8-inch HDD, which slowed down the processing speed.
  5. ^ Let's note
  6. ^ Xs/X series
  7. ^ LOOX T series

Source

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