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📢 | Visualization of rejuvenating ingredients Beauty serum "Rejuing Serum-" is now on sale!  


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Visualization of rejuvenating ingredients Beauty serum "Rejuing Serum-" is now on sale!  

 
If you write the contents roughly
Fucoidan, an ingredient contained in seaweed collected in the sea of ​​Tonga, creates a smooth moisturizing protective film on the surface of the skin and protects the skin from dryness and allergens.
 

Viest Cosmetics Co., Ltd. (Location: Chuo-ku, Osaka, CEO: Fumie Maeda) sees the rejuvenating ingredient "NMN" ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Allergen

Allergen(German: allergen) IsAllergiesOf people with illnessantibodyReacts specifically withantigenThat thing.Generally, it refers to a substance that causes the allergic symptoms.Even in people who are sensitized but do not have specific symptoms, antigens that react with the antibody are also called allergens.More broadly, allergies to itpatientSubstances that can be a cause of allergies, such as many.It is made in Japan and is sometimes referred to as "allergen" or "allergen".

To be precise, it refers to the substance (antigen) itself that reacts with the antibody and causes allergies, but it often refers to the substance (food, etc.) containing the antigen.for exampleJapanese cedar pollinosisAllergens in are contained in pollen such as Cry j 1proteinHowever, the allergen of Japanese cedar pollinosis is generally recognized as Japanese cedar pollen.

Allergic substanceIt is also called (especially, it is called "substance that can be a cause of allergies" or "substance containing allergen").

ImmunologyOne of the reactionsAntigen-antibody reactionInantibodyThe anti-body (antibody), Antigen (antigenantigens) However, allergen is a coined word that combines antigen and allergy.A disease called allergy (mechanism) AdvocateAustriaThe pediatrician called it that way.

Type/Classification

The relationship between allergies and allergens is classified into types I to V as follows.

Classification of allergic reactions (Gell and Coombs)[1]
ReactivesynonymantibodyantigenDieter cytokinePassive communicationSkin reactionRepresentative diseases
Type I reactionImmediate type
Anaphylactic type
IgE
IgG4 (?)
Foreign antigenhistamine
ECF-A
Leukotriene
PAF, etc.
serumImmediate type Maximum redness and wheal in 15-20 minutesAnaphylactic shock, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, atopic dermatitis (?)
Type II reactionCytotoxic type
Cell lysis type
IgG
IgM
Foreign antigen (hapten)
  • Drugs such as penicillin

Self-antigen

  • Cell membrane/basement membrane antigen
Complement systemserumHemolytic anemia due to incompatible blood transfusion, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, drug-induced hemolytic anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia,Goodpasture syndrome
Type III reactionImmune complex type
Arthus type (Arsus reaction)
IgG
IgM
Foreign antigen
  • Bacteria, drugs, heterologous proteins

Self-antigen

  • Denatured IgG, DNA
Complement system
Lysosomal enzyme
Late erythema and edema maximal 3-8 hoursSerum illness,SLE,Rheumatism, Glomerulonephritis, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (III + IV?), ABPA (I + III + IV?)
Type IV reactionDelay type
Cellular immunity
Tuberculin type
Sensitized T cellsForeign antigen
  • Bacteria, fungus

Self-antigen

Lymphokine
IL-2
IFN-r
Cytokine
T cellsLate onset 24-72 hours of maximal erythema and indurationContact dermatitis, allergic encephalitis, atopic dermatitis (?), Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (III + IV?), Transplant rejection, tuberculous cavities, epithelioid cell granulomas

The representative of these ishay feverPollen, perennialallergic rhinitis,Bronchial asthma,Atopic dermatitisIndoor dust that causesHouse dust) And so on.Fungi are also important, especially in bronchial asthma.Anaphylactic shockIt is in food allergies that it is easy to get into a serious condition such as being prone toJapanese buckwheat noodlesAndbee(ofpoison) Etc. are well known.

Even if it is not well known as an allergen, if it is indirect with the substance for a long period of time due to occupational circumstances, sensitization will gradually progress and allergies may eventually develop.

However, allergens are contained in the above substances.proteinorsugarMost of them are proteins, which are different from the proteins that make up the human body (called heterologous proteins), so the principle of exclusion works to produce antibodies, which causes allergic symptoms, which is an excessive immune response. It is believed to wake up.In that sense, it is considered that anything that cannot be recognized as a foreign substance even if it enters the body cannot be an allergen.for exampleWed,saltEtc. cannot be antigens or allergens (excluding those that can be haptens below).

食物アレルギーでは、牛肉、大豆、ピーナッツなど多様である。日本での調査では、全年齢の食物アレルギーの原因食物は鶏卵38.7%、牛乳20.9%、小麦12.1%、ピーナッツ4.8%、魚卵4.3%、果物4%、甲殻類3.9%、魚類2.5%、ソバ2.4%、木の実1.7%、大豆1.5%であり、0歳児では卵55.6%、牛乳27.3%、小麦9.6%で大半を占めるがその後耐性を獲得することも多く、20歳では小麦23.3%、甲殻類22.2%、果物類18.9%、魚類12.2%とその内容は変化する[2].

In patients with allergic diseases, it is important to avoid contact as much as possible by eliminating allergens in such an environment.It is said that even if you are sensitized, you do not have to forcibly avoid it if you have not actually developed allergies, but from the standpoint of the precautionary principle, some controversy remains.

Cross reaction

For example, in the pollen of various grasses, the characteristics of the antigens contained in them are very similar, so it is known that even if only one type of pollen is sensitized, it causes an allergic reaction to the same type of grass pollen. ing.Such a thingCross reactionThat is.That is, different antigens can also be allergens.It is said to have cross-antigenicity.

Also, some of these hay fever patients respond to non-pollen ones.BirchCommonly seen in patients with hay feverOral allergy syndromeBut that's itApple,Peachな どroseI feel itching and numbness when I eat fruits of the family.It seems that there is no problem as long as there are no symptoms with these fruits, but if itching occurs, it may lead to dyspnea and anaphylactic shock, so caution is required.You can also test for allergies to fruits at medical institutions.Found in people who often come into contact with rubber products in businesslatex(rubber) I have allergies, but this isAvocado,banana,ChestnutHas cross-antigenicity with foods such as.Latex fruit syndromeThat.

Pseudoallergen

Not the allergen itself, but involved in the mechanism of allergy onsetChemical mediatorPseudoallergens are substances that are thought to exacerbate symptoms when ingested in large amounts, such as by containing substances similar to the above.especiallyFood allergyIn, it is thought that there are the following (don't be afraid unnecessarily because it may vary depending on the freshness).It is thought to have little effect other than food allergies.Some people question avoiding these in terms of their effects on actual symptoms, but even if you are not an allergic patient, you may not be able to use stale ingredients.histamineIt may cause food poisoning such as poisoning.

Haptens and adjuvants

It is said that a new antibody against it will not be produced due to its small molecular weight, but there are substances that react with existing antibodies.These substances are called haptens.Also called incomplete antigen or partial antigen.The mechanism involved in the onset of allergies isproteinProteins that work in this way are called carriers.In some metal allergies, the mechanism by which the metal and protein combine to form an allergen and cause allergy is considered.

In addition, it is thought that there are substances that increase the allergen property of allergens, that is, if they are type I allergies, they have the effect of increasing the ability to produce IgE.AdjuvantCalled.The detailed mechanism has not been clarified.In a broad sense, substances that can exacerbate allergic symptoms are sometimes called adjuvants, but they tend to be too broad.It should be considered as an exacerbating substance, a stimulant, etc.

Allergen deactivation

As mentioned above, most of allergens are proteins, and due to their nature, their structure changes when heated, and they may lose or weaken their allergen properties.For example, eggs are heated more than raw調理It is known that those who do have a weaker ability to cause allergies.fruitIn the case of patients with oral allergy syndrome, raw apples cannot be eaten, but they may not cause symptoms if they are heated or canned.However, care should be taken as these sensitivities vary from individual to individual.

Supplemental

Currently,Food Sanitation ActBased on the foodパ ッ ケ ー ジIf the raw material label of the product contains eggs, milk, wheat, shrimp, crab, buckwheat, or peanuts as allergens, it is stipulated that the label must indicate that they are being used.

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