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💴 | Hajime Syacho Is the purchase of a mansion and YouTuber shopping accepted as expenses?


Photo from Hajime Syacho's video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obF6JSJAJMA)

Is Hajime Syacho Mansion Purchase and YouTuber Shopping Accepted as Expenses?

 
If you write the contents roughly
I think it is important to be aware of general standards and market prices when making real estate decisions, not just taxes.
 

A video of YouTuber Hajime Syacho saying "I bought a mansion of 8 million yen!" On August 28 (http… → Continue reading

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Decision making

Decision making(I'm sorry,British: decision making) IsPeople,GroupThe best of several alternatives in a situation to achieve a particular goal.solutionIs a human cognitive act that seeks[1].

Overview

Decisions are made in every situation,Business Administration,Military scienceFor various areas such as decision making, it is required to make a rational choice. Decision-making thinking methods include the recognition of correct goals and the collection of necessary information, devising and comparing measures to achieve the goals, selecting the best measures and formulating action plans, and supervising the implementation of the plans. It is a thing. It can be regarded as valid from individual decision making to collective decision making. However, as to the model of strict decision making, a plurality of models are considered as described later.

Decision-making process in each country

世界

The decision-making process varies depending on the national and ethnic background. For examplenorth korealikeOne-party dictatorshipIntop downHowever, the general democratic nations are governed differently. Also, while taking the appearance of a democratic state,America,FranceDiversity is recognized as leader decision-making can have a particularly strong influence, as in.

Japan

Japanese decision making has traditionallycourtesy,ConsensusIt is often said that the speed of decision making itself is slow due to the fact that what is actually done is different from the content stipulated in the nation or company against the background of culture that values[2].. As a cause, it is said that it is slow in the overseas business due to the problem of English level, and it is also said that the division of roles and responsibility range of each person is unclear and ambiguous.[3].

Also, in companies,Consultant,AdviserIt is recognized that OBs such as OBs have an influence on the active management team, and that positions that are not actively involved in decision-making have the greatest authority.Corporate governanceThe decision-making process unique to Japanese companies inToshibaMalicious companies represented byScandalEspecially occurred2015 In addition, discussions about the demarcation of management system oversight and execution heightened. For this reasonCanonThen,2016 In January, the company changed its executive structure, reducing the number of directors from 1 to 17, and taking the view that ambiguous role delineation could lead to confusion in the command and command systemCorporate OfficerAnnounced that it will renovate the system to concentrate on[4].

Research history

1978 OfNobel Prize in EconomicsWonHerbert SimonIs famous.

University of CaliforniaOf San FranciscoBenjamin RivetDoctor 1980 eraWent toExperimentaccording to,Human capitalHas been decided to be made in the following time series.[Source required].

1, ``brain motionEmits a command signal of
2, "OwnwillI'm going to move my finger with
3, "actually finger movement"

Generally, it seems that it will be done in the order of 2, 1, and 3, but the experimental results are as above. The motion command signal occurred 0.35 seconds before the subject's decision-making time. This problemBrain scientistThere was a great controversy between the two. If the experimental results are taken in a straightforward manner, "free will" is denied, but if the subject's decision-making first occurred and brain activity was triggered by it, the first decision-making occurred in a place other than the brain. Then, separated from the brain, "精神"Or"HeartExistence (dualism) Has to be assumed, which is unacceptable in traditional science.

Osaka UniversityProfessor Rivet has obtained many similar results in addition to Professor Rivet's experiment, and decision-makingConsciousnessBefore going up to無意識It can be considered to be conscious after being decided by. Consciousness does not control human behaviors and thoughts, but rather they are performed in the unconscious area, and consciousness is a check mechanism for grasping the situation, thoughts, and behaviors of one's own. He says it's natural to think that he is likely to be working. In other words, the brain has already begun to move toward a decision before humans are aware of it. From this, the feeling that "I am acting here and now with my own will" isfantasyIt is pointed out that[5].

It was discovered that people with depression, anxiety, or any of the common symptoms struggled to keep up with the changes and therefore made the wrong choice.Focusing on past successes allows you to make better decisions[6].

approach

For decision makingapproachIncludes economic approach, business approach, system analysis approach, behavioral science approach, organizational behavioral approach, etc. This is an approach that considers the ambiguity of human behavior and the limits of human ability, in order.

モデル

Various models have been created to capture decision making. There are a decision process model that models the decision itself and a decision support model (system) or analysis model that supports the decision.

However, the decision-making process model literally shows the process in which decision-making is performed, but the support model assists decision-making and is not strictly a model of decision-making.

Decision process model

There are really various types of decision process models, and the basics are

  • Information gathering
  • Creating an alternative
  • Choosing an alternative
  • feedback

It consists of the process of. However, researchers have different opinions. For example,US Air Force OfJohn BoydColonel (John boyd) Advocated byOODA loopIn theory, information gathering andSituation judgment, A model in which a cycle of decision making and execution is repeated is shown.

Among the decision-making process models, there is one that is especially famous. It is a model that considers people, problems, and solutions as garbage, and puts the garbage in a "decision-making opportunity" that looks like a trash can, and when the decision-making opportunity is full, a result is obtained. Its characteristic is that it is premised on the idea that "human beings cannot make rational decision making" instead of "rational decision making" based on the past model.

Support model

The decision support model includesDecision tree (Decision Tree), OR (Operations Research),AHP,Game theoryThere is.

The support model mainly supports decision making by quantifying the value of evaluation criteria and alternatives.

In addition, the group by the computerDecision support systemFor that reason, the use of computers has important implications in decision making, especially in terms of speed.

Generalized anxiety disorder

People with anxiety and depression often have a hard time making the right decisions.

Studies show that people with generalized anxiety disorder anxiety and depression may improve their judgment if they focus on past successes rather than mistakes.

People with depression, anxiety, or any of the common symptoms have struggled to keep up with the changes and have therefore found that they have made the wrong choice.People with depression and anxiety focus on what they did wrong and worry about making other mistakes, while people without disabilities used it as guidance to improve their past choices. ..It was pointed out that those with anxiety and depression, and those who are struggling to make decisions, can help gain more confidence by learning to focus on past successes rather than failures.

People who have shown symptoms of anxiety and depression, such as excessive anxiety and feeling unwell about the future, but who have not been clinically diagnosed, can make better decisions by focusing on past successes. it can[7].

References

  • Nakajima Hajime "Introduction to decision making" Nihon Keizai Shimbun ISBN 4532014255
  • Innan Ichiji Psychology of "excellent decision making" Judgment and choice Chuokoron Shinsha ISBN 4122039614
  • Nozomu Matsubara "Series: Science of Decision Making" Asakura Shoten

footnote

  1. ^ Kotobank-Commentary on the Encyclopedia of Britannica Encyclopedia
  2. ^ http://newsphere.jp/business/20140616-3/ Ambiguous expression of Japanese, advantageous in business?Overseas media point out the reason
  3. ^ http://bizgate.nikkei.co.jp/article/75643916_4.html Undecided decision-making even in overseas projects
  4. ^ http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLZO96620510Y6A120C1TI1000/ Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  5. ^ "Newton" separate volume "What is time?" revised edition. Cooperation: Shigeru Kitazawa "I decided!"...is it really now? May 2013, 5
  6. ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. “Focusing on past successes can help you make better decisions". Harvard Health. October 2021th, 4Browse.
  7. ^ "Focusing on past successes can help you make better decisions" (English). Harvard Health (September 2021, 4). October 2021th, 7Browse.


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