Is the turning point in Southeast Asia of Corona's disaster approaching?Check the current situation in the Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam
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However, in the medium to long term, the preconditions for evaluating Vietnam have not changed.
Vice President Harris of the United States completed his first visit to Southeast Asia on August 8th.This time I'm visiting Singapore ... → Continue reading
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Assumptions in logic
A premise is a proposition that is the starting point of inference,ConclusionIs an antonym of.ア リ ス ト テ レ ス OfsyllogismThen, we put a general principle in a major premise and an individual fact in a minor premise, and call a proposition newly derived from it.
- The premise: all humans are mortal.
- Small assumption: Socrates is human.
- Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
Premises in linguistics
Linguistics(Semantics-PragmaticsIn ), a presupposition is a proposition that must be known in advance in order for a proposition to be properly spoken. The translation is the same, but it is a completely different concept from the above-mentioned premise. For example,
- He failed the exam again.
The phrase is usually used in the context where it is known that "he has (previously) failed an exam". In such a case, the proposition that "he has failed the examination" is a premise of the proposition that "he failed the examination again".
The concept of premise in this sense stems from the controversy in logic over the interpretation of.
- The present King of France is Bald.
Bertrand RussellSaid the statement was true when "there is only one present French king and it is bald."FranceCurrentlyRepublicAnd since there is no king, from Russell's standpoint this statement is false. On the other handPeter Frederick StrawsonStates that the proposition "there is one French king" is a premise, not a part of what is claimed by this sentence, and that the sentence has no truth value when the premise is not met.
Since the premise is not the content of the proposition, changing a sentence into a negative sentence does not affect it. By this nature, when proposition P and its negation ¬P both imply a proposition Q, we can define that Q is a premise of P. For example, the following two sentences usually both imply "I quit smoking", so it turns out that "I quit smoking" is the premise of these propositions.
- I regret having quit smoking.
- I have no regrets that I quit smoking.
On the other hand, for example, "he was killed" implies "he was dead", but the denial "he was not killed" does not mean "he was dead". Therefore, "he died" is a proposition that "he was killed" implies, but it is not a premise.
Implications basically cannot be overturned later. For example, "He was killed, but not dead" (apart from some rhetorical interpretation)contradictionIs. However, the premise is not always the case, and it is possible to say something like "I don't regret having quit smoking-because I haven't quit." Pointing to this property, the premise is defeasible. How to deal with undoability logically is a big issue. One possibility is to think that denial works meta-linguistically in this case (ie, "I can't say I regret having stopped smoking") Is.
An expression that causes a sentence to be predicated, such as "again" in "He failed in the examination again", is called a presupposition trigger. The following are known as premise triggers.
- Fixed description
- "The present King of France is Bald" → "Currently, there is one King of France"
- "I regret quitting smoking" → "I quit smoking"
- State change verb
- "I stopped running" → "I was running"
- Implication verb
- "He forgot to lock the key" → "He was trying to lock the key (should have)"
- "He failed the exam again" → "He has failed the exam"
- Judgment verb
- "She criticized Taro's actions" → "Taro's actions are bad (she thinks)"
- "I read a book before going to bed yesterday" → "I went to bed yesterday"
- "I didn't kill him" → "Someone killed him"
- Implicit split sentences with emphasized elements
- "Wrong,IYou didn't kill him! → "Someone killed him"
- Comparison / control
- "Tanaka is not as good a scholar as Sato." → "Tanaka is a scholar."
- Unrestricted relative clause
- "Aztec civilization once flourished in Mexico..." → "Aztec civilization once flourished in Mexico"
- Counterfactual condition statement
- "If Nobunaga hadn't died at Honnoji, he would have been united in unification." →"Nobunaga died at Honnoji."
- "Who broke the vase?" → "Someone broke the vase"
"My son is excellent" presupposes "I have a son", but "He thinks my son is excellent" is not (actually there is no son) Nevertheless, it can be interpreted that he is misunderstanding). In this way, when a sentence is embedded in a more complicated sentence, the problem of whether or not the assumption is carried over to the whole is called the problem of presupposition projection, and the mechanism is clarified vigorously. It is being appreciated.
Called a hole in which the premise is inherited as it is even if it is embedded in a compound sentence. For example, this is a narrative verb like "I regret ...". In addition, the expression whose premise is not inherited is called a plug. A verb such as "to say" corresponds to this. Furthermore, conditional statements and connectives may or may not carry the premise, and such expressions are called filters.
The premise is basically something that must be shared between the speaker and the listener before the utterance is made, but in reality this is not always the case. For example, the utterance "I'm sorry for the delay, my daughter got a fever" presupposes the proposition "The daughter has a speaker." You can accept and understand the utterance without any discomfort. This phenomenon is called presupposition accommodation.
- Taro also did a good job.
Such expressions are used only when it is clear to both the speaker and the listener from the preceding context that someone other than Taro performed well. Such preconditioning triggers that do not allow adjustment are called anaphoric.
- ^ Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatics. 1983. (Minoru Yasui・Translated "English Pragmatics" published by Kenkyusha, 1990)
- ^ Karttunen, Lauri. (1973) “Presuppositions of compound sentences.”Linguistic Inquiry 4: 169-193.
- ^ Kripke, Saul 1990,'Presupposition and Anaphora: Remarks on the Formulation of the Projection Problem', manuscript, Princeton University.