Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

💴 | A 3-year-old man who wants to FIRE and get married three years later.Is it difficult to completely retire even with 48 million assets?


写真 

A 3-year-old man who wants to FIRE and get married three years later.Is it difficult to completely retire even with 48 million assets?

 
If you write the contents roughly
[Daily necessities]
You will need shampoo, soap, tissue, toilet paper, detergent, cleaning tools (toilet, bath, water area), toothbrush, toothbrush, light bulb, garbage bag, etc.
 

Our professional financial planners answer your financial problems such as household expenses, insurance, loans, etc. → Continue reading

 MONEY PLUS

MONEY PLUS is an economic media that conveys financial and economic information in an easy-to-understand manner for people who are not good at talking about money.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Dentifrice

Dentifrice(Shimazai[1][2], Toothpaste[3],British: toothpaste [4][3]) IsdentifriceAt the time ofToothbrushUsed with[5]It has the effect of enhancing the effect of cleaning the tooth opening and preventing diseases of the tooth opening.[5],CosmeticsTarget andDrugOfProductIs the generic name of[5].ToothpasteAlso called (toothpaste)[5].

Long time agopowderToothpaste was the mainstream[1]..From that, general dentifriceJapaneseThen "tooth paste(Toothpaste) "[1][6], It is not obsolete as a word even in the present age when this type disappeared, and the toothpaste described later is also called by this name.[6]..Currently commonly used typestubeWithPasteAnd thenToothpaste""Toothpaste(Brushing toothpaste)[1][7]It is also called.Toothpaste is used to brush teeth by attaching an appropriate amount to a toothbrush, and after use, it is spit out without swallowing.

modernJapanThen,Act on ensuring the quality, effectiveness and safety of pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, etc.ByCosmeticsandMedicated cosmetics (quasi-drugs)It is classified into.

History

The first dentifrice was around 1550 BCAncient egyptThe contents of the medical book ofpapyrusIt is said that it is described in.In that Egypt4st centuryAroundSalt-Black pepper-mintLeaf / iris (Iris) A powdered dentifrice mixed with flowers was used.Ancient romeThen humanPeeIncluded inammoniaThought to whiten teeth and urine was used as a dentifrice[8].

18st century OfThe United States of AmericaThen burntBreadIt became clear that a dentifrice mixed with was used.Also, "Dragon's Blood (dragon's bloodA mixture called "ResinTocinnamonBurntAlumThere was also a dentifrice mixed with[9].

However, it was the reason why dentifrices became widely used in Europe and the United States.19st centuryIt is after that.1800 eraIn the beginning,dentifriceIs mainlyToothbrushAnd it was done only with water. Shortly thereafter, powdered dentifrice spread to the masses. Many of the dentifrices at that time were homemade,ChalkPowder, finely crushedbrick-SaltWas mixed well.1866 ,A familyEncyclopediaWas finely crushedcharcoalWas recommended for use as a dentifrice. The encyclopedia also cautioned the public that many dentifrices patented and marketed at that time were more harmful than beneficial.[Source required]

1900 By the timehydrogen peroxide,sodium hydrogen carbonateA paste-like dentifrice containing is now recommended. The paste dentifrice itself19st centuryWas already on the market, but it was replaced by powdered one.World War IWas around the end of. The paste-like dentifrice contained in a tube like today is1896 Toニ ュ ー ヨ ー クColgateFirst sold by.

1914 ,FluorineFor the first time, a dentifrice containing a compound has appeared.This fluorine-containing dentifrice1937 ToAmerican Dental Association (American Dental Association(ADA) Criticized.However, improvements continued after that,1950 era, ADA has certified fluoride dentifrice. Currently, the proper use and limits of fluoride vary from country to country.AfricaIn many countries, it is permitted to incorporate fluoride at slightly higher concentrations than in the Americas.

recently[When?]Has a high affinity with human bonesApatiteA dentifrice containing was developed.

Japan

Edo PeriodEarlyKanei2 years(1625 ),ButEdoReleased toothpaste called "Chojiya Toothpaste" and "Daimei Kayaku".The ingredients of this toothpaste are very fine, which can be found on the coast of Boshu.GrindIn the sandDing character,Dragon BrainVariousHerbal medicineIt is a mixture of "to whiten teeth" and "to remove the bad smell of the mouth"Selling complaintWas attached.The common people of Edo have this kind of toothpasteBamboo toothpickIt is a daily habit to brush your teeth usingSensoji TempleIt was so prosperous that there were as many as 200 toothpick shops in the area.[10].


1888 (Meiji21 years)Fukuhara ArinobuJapan's first private Western style run by La Sanseishapharmacy"Shiseido"(TokyoGinzaLaunched the first toothpaste in Japan, "Fukuhara Sanitary Toothpaste Soap"[11][Note 1].

1945 OfSoviet war against JapanAt the same time, when the Soviet army carried out thorough destruction and looting in the former Manchuria area, a large amount of toothpaste was brought back. Because cosmetics are not available,WhiteWas used instead of. for that reason,Lake BaikalMore women in the east have a smell of toothpaste[12].

Returning business for Koreans in JapanThe beginning ofnorth koreaSince there is only one kind of toothpaste, people who have lived surrounded by mountains of consumer goods will feel a shortage because there is only one kind of poor quality, the returnees said In the case of family members)[13].. Later, in the era when some tourists were accepted, multiple types appeared.GinsengThere is also a luxury product of 10 won that contains the scent of[14].. 『Der Spiegel] When a reporter from the magazine visited as a tourist, he wrote a report that "If there are few products in department stores and decent products come out, it will be a long line in both the pencil section and the toothpaste section",Takeshi InagakiIntroduced in his own book[15].

RabaulAlthough he was forced to support himself, he was told that "the only thing that Rabaul can't do is baby and toothpaste."[16]. Also,Itoko Nashimoto World War ISometimes, Utsunomiya Officer Women's AssociationMorisei The14th DivisionHe was the leader of the 28th Infantry Brigade. )soComfort bagAt the time of making, there were five half-papers, three pencils, fifty envelopes, five toothpicks, one paper roll, and three lion brushing sachets.[17](これは1914年10月14日の伊都子の日記に書き残されている。袋に入れた半紙は1銭7厘、鉛筆は1ダース18銭、封筒は100枚8銭、巻紙は9銭と書かれている。楊枝とはみがきの価格は書かれていない[18]).


Postwar (After World War II)ofHigh economic growth periodIn the era centered ontv setCMAnd paste-like dentifrice productsパ ッ ケ ー ジWas full of images and illustrations of the image of the paste being applied to the full width of the toothbrush head (brush).[19]..It is thought that the intention of the manufacturer to consume as much as possible was strongly reflected.[19], Such expressionsHeiseiIt disappeared around the time.Over-the-counter dentifrices are often made to be safe even if ingested in large amounts by mistake.FluorineIt does not matter unless it is out of the range of normal use, such as when a child orally takes a product with an extremely high content.[19]However, experts say that it is better to put a length that is about one-third of the whole small head and polish it.[19].

Chronological Table

Here, notable events (dentifrices and things that are somehow deeply related to them) are listed in chronological order without classification.

  • 1989 (Showa 64/HeiseiXNUMXst year) --Sunstar is JO Butler (currently JOButler.Sunstar AmericasSunStar Americas>) Will be acquired and the latter brand, "GUM" will be launched in Japan.
  • 1990 (2)- KaoBut"Clear cleanWas released.
  • 1993 (5)
    • 1. --In Japan, hydroxyapatite (Hydroxyapatite) Is approved by the authorities as a medicinal ingredient.
    • 2. - SangiHowever, "Hydroxyapatite's medicinal properties"Apa GuardWill be released in Japan.
  • 1998 (10)- Sun starReleased "Ora2".

ingredient

The basic ingredients of dentifrice areAbrasiveAnd foaming agent as the main component (however, both are not essential. Toothpaste without foaming agent is sometimes called "non-form toothpaste"), and other ingredients such as moisturizer and binder are added. There are times.Also,recent years[When?],FluorineThe number of dentifrices containing medicinal ingredients such as is increasing. In Japan, according to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, toothpaste containing only basic ingredientsCosmeticsToothpaste that contains medicinal ingredients in addition to the basic ingredientsQuasi-drugIt is classified as a dentifrice (Article 2 of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law).A few,MedicineToothpaste also exists[Note 2].

Basic ingredient

Abrasive (cleaning agent)

Calcium carbonate,Hydroxyapatite,Aluminum hydroxide,alumina(Aluminum oxide),silica(Silicon dioxide) is used.

Foaming agent

,Sodium lauryl sulfate,Sucrose fatty acid ester,Stone ken foundation,Alkyl glycosideEtc. are used.

Moisturizer

Sorbitol(Sorbit),Glycerin,Propylene glycolEtc. are used.

Binder

Sodium alginate,Carboxymethyl celluloseEtc. are used.

Medicinal ingredient

Fluoride(Sodium fluoride,,) are the most well-known and well-established medicinal properties[20]AndCariesIncluded for preventive purposes, 1990FDISurvey shows over 90% prevalence in developed countries of oral health[21].. In Japan, the share of dentifrice containing fluorine has been increasing in recent years,2008 89% of the dentifrices currently on the market are fluoride-containing dentifrices[22][21]. In JapanPharmaceutical Affairs LawFluoride ion concentration is regulated to 1000ppm or less by the, the concentration in the commercially available fluoride-containing dentifrice was from 900ppm to 950ppm,2017 May 3, Regulations were relaxed and the upper limit was 1500ppm[23].

AbrasiveTooth whitening effect is a powerful product ofFungicideTo which is addedGingivitisIt has a preventive effect.

OfDextranase[24]AndSterilization,PlaqueHas a formation-inhibiting effectChlorhexidine[25],convergence-edemaSuppressiveSodium chloride, With anti-inflammatory effectLysozyme chlorideAre known.

Incidentally,National Health Promotion Movement in the 21st CenturyAtSchool ageA target was set to raise the percentage of fluoride-containing dentifrice users to 2010% or more by 90.1991 According to the survey of 45.6%,Heisei 16According to the summary, the usage rate of fluoride-containing dentifrice in children aged 1 to 14 years was 52.5%, and the final report was 86.3%. It is considered that the actual number is higher, because it may not be recognized whether or not it is, and the percentage of dentifrice containing fluoride is currently about 90%.[26].

Addition of tap water fluorideIn the district, excessive swallowing of fluoride toothpaste between the ages of 1 and 3Dental fluorosisFor dentist boxes sold in the United States, use pea-sized (Greenpeace-sized) dentifrice for children aged 2 to 6 years, and adults should watch over and swallow the toothpaste. It is stated that you should consult your doctor or dentist for use under the age of 2 to minimize the amount of toothpaste.[27].

Product shape

As the shape of the dentifrice present as a product,Resin,金属The one packed in the tube is the most popular in the world. Other,can,bottleSome are packed in.

Shinichi HoshiCollected by the AmericanOne-frame cartoonOut ofDeath row prisonerIn this work, prisoners who are finally executed and come out of the solitary confinement to the toothpaste from the tubeWashbasinThere is a thing to squeeze out everything. Hoshi commented, “What a gorgeous pleasure. Although you can do it with some money, do you have the courage to try it?”[28].

For toothpasteSalt,Kuromoji,BetelEtc. may be used.Salted plumHow to brush your teeth withHamako TatsumiIs introduced. It says that you can refresh your morning tea and rice by refreshing your mouth.[29].

smokingGot on the teeth by the habit offatThere is also a product called "tooth removal toothpaste" to remove the dust, and this type is often packed in powder in a can.Smocha toothpasteProducts of the same name,Lion"Tobacco Lion" etc. are in cans[30].

Brushing

LionYamamoto’s use of dentifricePlaqueIt is known to promote removal and prevent redeposition/reformation[31].. However, due to the characteristics including the abrasive, long-term brushing of teeth results in excessive polishing of teeth, resulting in flaking of the enamel, which easily causes tooth decay. In addition, since the dentifrice contains an aromatic agent, a refreshing feeling can be obtained. For this reason, there is a problem that it is actually judged that the cleaning can be sufficiently performed even if the brushing is insufficient.[32].

In brushing infants, a dedicated toothbrush and a dedicated toothpaste are used. Teeth of infants are soft, and brushing with general dentifrice damages the tooth surface and becomes the base of caries.[Source required]This is because.

Main products

International brand[33] [34] [35]

Japanese company brand

  • Smocha toothpaste "Smoca Toothpaste" with the same name as the company name --- Kotobukiya (currently, 1925)Suntory Spirits) Was released.We took over the brand in 1932 (Showa 7) when Kotobukiya, who was in financial difficulty, gave up the brand.
  • Lion
    • Denter --Released in February 1964 (Showa 39).
    • Clinica --Released in 1981 (Showa 56).
  • Sun star
    • Aqua fresh - GlaxoSmithKlineThe brand was released under contract in 1981 (Showa 56). The contract ended in 1997 (Heisei 9).Currently (as of 2020)Earth PharmaceuticalIs sold under contract.
    • GUM (Gum) --JO Butler (JOButler. Present)Sunstar AmericasSunStar Americas>) Was acquired, and it was released in 1989 (Showa 64 / Heisei XNUMX).
    • Ora2 --Released in 1998 (Heisei 10).
  • Kao Clear clean --Released in 1990 (Heisei 2).
  • Sangi Apa Guard --Hydroxyapatite (Hydroxyapatite) Was released in 1993 (Heisei 5) when it was approved as a medicinal ingredient by the authorities.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Shiseido will enter the cosmetics business nine years later1897 (30th year of Meiji)[11].
  2. ^ Sato Pharmaceutical"Assess E" etc.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d Ide Dental (2019).
  2. ^ Nakadori Dental.
  3. ^ a b kb toothpaste.
  4. ^ "toothpaste". Eijiro on the WEB. Arc. October 2020th, 12Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d LFDL.
  6. ^ a b kb toothpaste.
  7. ^ kb toothpaste.
  8. ^ The History of Teeth Whitening – Smiles Through the Miles[Broken link]
  9. ^ Toothpaste History
  10. ^ Medical α "Toothpaste"
  11. ^ a b c kb Fukuhara Sanitary Toothpaste Soap.
  12. ^ Takeshi Inagaki "Postwar history of" Devil Exorcism " Speech and Responsibility of Progressive Cultural People" Bunshun library [I-36-2] ISBN 4167365049, 75-76p
  13. ^ Kazuhisa Kawakami "North Korea coverage See through information manipulation" Kobunsha new book 138 ISBN 4334032389, 69p
  14. ^ Toshio Miyatsuka "Life in North Korea Waifs and beauty corps" Shogakkan Library [Mi-15-1] ISBN 4094053514, 62-63p. Pictures are also posted on the color page at the beginning of the book. A caption is attached when 60% of the abrasive is mixed.
  15. ^ Takeshi Inagaki "Asahi Shimbun Blood Wind Record" Bungei Bunko [I-36-1] ISBN 4167365030, 195p
  16. ^ Kazutoshi Hanfuji+ Keiichi Yokoyama +Ikuhiko Hata+Takeshi Hara "Complete view of successive army generals Showa / Pacific War" Chuko ShinshoLacre 340 ISBN-978 4121503404, 173p
  17. ^ Kazutoshi Hando + Keiichi Yokoyama + Ikuhiko Hata + Takeshi Hara "Complete view of successive army generals Taisho hen』Chuko Shinsho Lacre 307 ISBN-978 4121503077, 249p
  18. ^ Yuji Otabe "The Diary of Itsuko Nashimoto Meiji, Taisho, Showa as seen by the royal consort] Shogakukan Bunko [O-26-1] ISBN-978 4094083255, 187p
  19. ^ a b c d Otonanser editorial department "Is it okay to fill my eyes? How much "toothpaste" can be applied to a toothbrush?"Otonanser" Advisor: Mariko Sonoda (Dentist, Medical corporation Masamikai Kichijoji Masamune Dental Clinic Director), Co., Ltd.Media Vague, August 2020, 12.October 2020th, 12Browse.
  20. ^ Valeria CC Marinho, Julian PT Higgins, Stuart Logan, Aubrey Sheiham; Translated by: Akihito Tsutsui, Translated by: Jun Aida; JCOHR (April 2008, 4).Fluoride dentifrice for the prevention of caries in children and adolescents (2008 issue 1,-)". Minds Medical Information Service Healthcare providers / Cochrane Review. FoundationJapan Medical Function Evaluation OrganizationEBM Medical Information Department. October 2010th, 7Browse.
  21. ^ a b ,,,,, "Chapter 1 Fluoride Preparation in Japan I Fluoride Toothpaste 3 Share of Fluoride Toothpaste (World and Japan)" "Fluoride Preparation in Japan-Past, Present and Future of Fluoride Application -”NPO corporation ,FoundationOral Health Association,TokyoToshima ward, March 2010, 3, 30th Edition, 8st Printing, pp. 1-9.ISBN 978-4-89605-259-6.
  22. ^ "Fluorine (fluoride)". Basics of oral care / basic knowledge of teeth and oral cavity. Lion. October 2010th, 7Browse.
  23. ^ "Precautions for using medicated toothpaste containing fluoride (PDF)". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (September 2017, 3). October 2017th, 10Browse.
  24. ^ ,,,, "In vitro plaque dissolving effect of Dextranase derived from Chaetomium gracile and clinical test results with mouthwash and dentifrice (1) (PDF) "Journal of the Japanese Society for Oral Health, Vol. 28, No. 2,"Japanese Society for Oral Health, November 1978, pp. 7-185, two:10.5834 / jdh.28.185, ISSN 0023 2831, NOT 40001201315,October 2011th, 11Browse.
  25. ^ ,Ishikawa Ichiro,,,, "Double-blind study of chlorhexidine-containing Tooth Paste (LS-5) for periodontal disease (PDF) "Journal of the Japanese Society of Periodontology," Vol. 25, No. 4,Japanese Society of Periodontology, November 1983, pp. 12-955, two:10.2329 / perio.25.955, ISSN 0385 0110, NOT 80001908181, ONLINEISSN 1880-408X JOI:JST.Journalarchive / perio1968 / 25.955,October 2011th, 11Browse.
  26. ^ ""Health Japan XNUMX" final evaluation (PDF)". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. October 2011th, 11Browse.
  27. ^ "Use of fluoride-containing dentifrices in younger children". National Institute of Health Sciences. October 2015th, 8Browse.
  28. ^ Shinichi Hoshi "Evolved Monkeys 1" Shincho Bunko [Ho-4-23] ISBN 4101098239, 24-25p
  29. ^ Hamako Tatsumi "Cooking Saijiki" Chuko BunkoBIBLIO [B-18-5] ISBN 4122040930, 89p
  30. ^ Kenichi Hatsumi "There are still more. Life miscellaneous goods" Ozora Pocket Bunko ISBN-978 4903175027, 26-27p ・ 114-115p
  31. ^ "Introduction to Inorganic Cleaning Bases in Toothpastes (PDF) "Journal of the Society of Inorganic Materials, Japan" Vol. 9, Society of Inorganic Materials, September 2002, pp. 9-333, ISSN 2185 4378, NOT 10009445095,October 2011th, 11Browse.
  32. ^ [Toothpaste] --Tooth Treatment Manual. http://www.dentalmenu.com/karte05/hamigakiko/. 
  33. ^ Procter & Gamble vs Colgate Pamorive (English)
  34. ^ See Wikipedia English Photo "Various Toothpaste Brands" (English)
  35. ^ See Wikipedia Chinese version of "List of dentifrices in the world" (Chinese)

Related item

外部 リンク

Toilet Paper

Toilet Paper(English: toilet paper, toilet paper) Means when you use a flightexcretionUsed to clean organspaperSay[*1].

Name

JapaneseIn, the paper for cleaning the stool is "Dropped paper/Dropped paper(Otoshigami)[1][2]However, it is unknown when this word has been used.However, the paper itself called drop paper has been used for a long time.EnglishOf originForeign words"Toilet Paper (toilet paper, toilet paper) ”Can be regarded as a type of drop paper, both as paper itself and as a word.ModernIt has been used since some time after that (the winding type isMeijiFrom the end of the era).Also, nose paper / flower paper (Runny nosePaper for wiping) and drop paper (paper for wiping)Drop-type toilet"Paper that is used for such purposes and thrown away underneath) and other versatile low-quality paperDust paper/Paper(Dust, dust) "[3]Therefore, the dust paper quality drop paper is sometimes called by its name.in addition,CylinderShape winding type (roll paper type)[*2]ToToilet roll(Japanglish: toilet roll) ”[*3][*4]..Besides, as a generic word, "Toilet paper(Benjogami) ”, but it cannot be said that it is widely used.dialectIt is often used as a name to distinguish the old-fashioned flat type from the cylindrical / winding type.

the same漢字CultureButChineseThen, the cleaning paper for defecation is "Simplified characters:toilet paper(繁体字:Hygiene paper)" "letter(letter)" "Toilet paper(Toilet paper)" "Paper towel(Paper towel) ”And so on (cf. wikt: zh: Toilet paper,wikt: en: Sanitary paper), Cylindrical / winding type is "Toilet paper(Toilet paper roll)”.

Overview

There is a distinction between the cylindrical and winding types depending on whether or not long papers are stacked. One sheet that does not overlap is called "single winding", and the one that stacks two sheets is called "double winding", which is rare but three sheets. There is also a layered "triple winding".

Paper materials and their colors vary greatly depending on the country / region and era, and there is nothing.bleach OfKraft pulpEtc.BrownColored natural paper,recycled paperBefore playing to bePrintuseイ ン クAnd fine impuritiesGrayEven if it is white with a whitish white color in the rolling paper state, it becomes gray or brownish when immersed in the water reservoir of the toilet bowl, and it is bleached.pulpAlthough it is pure white even if it is immersed in the water reservoir of the toilet bowl, it can be roughly divided into three types.Some products that use bleached pulp are light-colored to take advantage of their whiteness.pinksystem·黄色system·greensystem·light blueProducts of various colors such as series are on sale.

With the pictureCorporationName andLogo typeFrom the dawn of product history, if not a large number of products, such as those with information printed on paper for different purposes, such ascf. JC Gayetty NY ) It continues to be made.In the picture,Industrial designSome have been developed to suit certain women, children, etc.consumerSome are developed and sold according to the layer.quizAnd the answer,sayingCollection,jokeProducts with rich textual information such as collections are no longer so rare that they cannot be called unusual.

To improve usability, cleaning and absorbencyEmbossSome products have been processed.

coreAs for, the conventional products are common,EcologyFrom this point of view, products without core paper have also been developed and are distributed under names such as "coreless" which means "no core".For products with core paper, the material isCardboardWater melting paperHowever, the overwhelming majority are the former, which has been around for a long time and is inexpensive (■ There is an image in the right column).Besides, on the core paperspicesThere is also a product flavored with.

Whether to drain into the sewer

Toilet paperSewerThere is a problem of whether or not to flush[4][5]..Toilet paper is insoluble in water, and is deeply related to drainage facilities, clogging of pipelines, and sediments.infrastructureDepending on the above circumstances and the quality of the products in circulation, there are extremely large differences depending on the country / region.

One is that you can flush everything from toilet paper to paper products for cleaning toilet bowls, one is that you can only flush toilet paper, and the other is that you can't flush any paper (Trash canThere is another disposal method to throw away)[6]..To give specific examples by country / region,Greater China(Mainland ChinaHong KongMacaoExcluding> andTaiwan) Then,Flush toiletIt is considered an uncivilized and insane act to flush toilet paper.[4][5]I've been using it since the days when society as a whole was poor before thatnewspaperthe same as,Trash canIt is social decency to throw it away[5]. for that reason,JapanThe opposite act is pervading as social decency.CultureFor that reason, the local media has even introduced that you need to be careful when traveling in such areas.[5]..On the other hand, in the advanced toilet areas (advanced urban areas) in Greater China, "Water extraction horse tub (flush toilet)The cautionary note that "paper should not be washed away" has the opposite common sense.JapaneseExamples prepared for2010 eraSeen in the second half[4]It seems.The reason why toilet paper should not be drained into the sewer in mainland China or Taiwan is that the sewer infrastructure is underdeveloped.[4]The pipeline is thin and easily clogged[5]However, the second point is that the paper quality is "too good" and difficult to melt.[5]There are times (* However, Japanese products are not easy to melt due to poor paper quality, and as a result of pursuing quality improvement, it is a fact that products that melt and flow quickly have been developed.Water melting paperEtc. are currently the best. (Differences in characteristics between tissue paper and toilet paperSee also)).

History

Prehistory

Before the spread, rich peoplewool,race,hempOr use your hands directly for others, or leave,hay,cornSkin,moss,Wed,planeCrumbs(Plane),stone,shell,sand,snow, Rag cloth,In the vicinityPaperplantWas planted and leaves were used, etc.[Question].Ancient timesEtruriaToilet (public)Flush toiletIncluding)使 い 捨 てNatural as a tool that does notspongeIsspongeIs used, and this custom isAncient romeWas also inherited.JapanThen, as a tool that is not disposable, shellfishShit stick(A piece of wood used to maintain posture when crouching and defecation, and also used to scrape off stool when it adheres to the body) has been used for a long time.

Introducing cleaning paper

851 Traveled to ChinaArabAlthough it is described in the travel report of the Chinese that they wipe it with paper after adding it, it is recorded as a race that does not care about cleanliness because it is not washed with water.[7].

Imperial RussiaThen,emperorThe emperor's mark was made on a special paper by his vassals.King of englandHenry VIn the court of the royal family, a particularly trusted courtier was selected as the person in charge of the toilet to clean with bare hands after the royal stool, and many hoped for influence as an opportunity to face the king individually.JapanBut,Edo Period OfOokuThere is a custom similar to that, and I just can't get used to the finish that is wiped by the Ooku maid.Your kitchenIt is said that he sometimes wiped himself.

1857 May 12IsThe United States of America OfBusinessman(English edition [8], "JC Gayetty NY (J ・ C ・ Guyity ・ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク) "透 か しPrintRoll-up type toilet paper placed on the paper with[8] OfMedicalStarted production as a product[9], This is the world's first toilet paperIndustrial productsMet[8].

JapanThen,MeijiFrom around the middleused paperIs the raw materialDust paperpulpWas mainly used as raw material drop paper[Source required]..Also, from the end of the Meiji era, roll-up toilet paper began to be used, but at that timeImported goodsWas occupied by[10]..Still, those changes are in urban areas,RuralIn the departmentTaishoUntil the time of the timesstrawBesides, the ancientShit stickContinued to be used[2]..The earliest company in Japan to release roll-up toilet paperPaper museumAccording to the record, as far as the record remainsKobe CityIt is said that it is the trader Shimamura Shokai (Shimamura Shokai) that was inside.[10].1924 (Taisho 13), Shimamura ShokaiKochiWe asked our factory to manufacture base paper, and the company finished it into toilet paper and delivered it to foreign steamers.[10]..With the progress of water and sewage maintenance1955 (ShowaAround 30 years), the style of the toilet changed from "pit latrine" to "flush toilet" and from "Japanese style toilet" to "Western style toilet", and the production of roll-up toilet paper also increased.Usage is from 2008 to 2011JapaneseApproximately 8 per person per yearkilogramEstimated[11]It is a daily necessities so that it can be used in peacetime in case of emergencyStockpilingIs desired. As of 2020, 97% of the products in circulation are domestically produced, and the raw materials are also procured domestically, making them highly self-sufficient products.[12].

Installation

Cigarette

Install with a paper roll of special furniture.

Double paper rolls arranged side by side in parallel eliminate the inconvenience of running out of paper[13]For furniture that is installed in public facilities and has two vertical rolls, remove the used core paper and use a new one.

Triangular folding

In Japan, there is an example of folding the tip of the winding start into a triangle.Triangular foldingIt is derived from "Fire Hold", which was aimed at quick response even during stools when receiving an emergency dispatch order at the American fire department.[*5]It is talked about variously, and it is scattered in public places such as hotels, theaters, stores, etc.[*6]Is done.

vending machine

In Japan, mainly at the toilet entrance of railway stationsvending machineMay be installed, but it is decreasing[14].

specification

Rewind-type toilet paper is usually used by attaching it to a dedicated fixture in a private toilet room, so standardization is required, but the roll diameter and width differ slightly depending on the national circumstances.In addition, some countries / regions have standardized the ease of loosening (decomposability) in order to avoid problems such as clogging of toilets, drainage facilities, pipelines, and deposits.[6].

JIS

JapanThen,Paper cartonApproximately 4% use a lot of various recycled pulpShizuokaManufactured in, as "tish paper and toilet paper"Household goods quality labeling methodIn the application target of[15]In addition, quality and dimensions etc.Japanese Industrial Standard(JIS)[*7]There is a rule in.

Commercially available products are officially defined as 1, 27.5, 32.5, 55, 65, 75 meters per roll and a tolerance of +100 according to the JIS standard, but most mass-produced products are 3 meters roll.

Commercial use for public use is adapted to high-frequency demand of 150 to 210 per roll, up to 500 meters, but the weight of one roll is up to 1 to 1 kilograms, and the frequency of replacement is to be attached to a large fixture with a vertical axis. It is a product that aims to reduce.

Also in Japan1993 From (5), the ease of loosening test (degradability test) of toilet paper has been added to JIS.[6].

Movement of standardization in ISO

カナダThen, paper products such as toilet cleaners that are labeled as flushable to the toilet have increased the cost of treating clogging in toilets, drainage facilities, pipelines, deposits, screen residue, and sludge.[6]. for that reason,2014 In January, Canada proposed to ISO / TC1 (Water and Sewerage Service Operating Standards Review Committee) standardization of "products that can be flushed into the toilet".[6].

GermanyOpposes ISO standardization, saying that only toilet paper should be flushed into flush toilets.[6]..In Japan, the Japan Sewerage Association has pointed out a problem that the standard for the looseness test (degradability test) of the ISO draft is significantly looser than JIS P 4501.[6].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ As a definition in other dictionaries, "Daijisen』\ In the second edition, paper for poop.
  2. ^ There are two types of paper that have become commercial products: flat format (hiraban) and winding / winding (makitori).Roll paper is a type of the latter, and the most accurate phrase for roll-up type toilet paper is "toilet paper roll."The source isKoto bank"Flat" and "winding"
  3. ^ In dictionaries, it has not been confirmed as a common term (as of 2018).
  4. ^ English(British English) But there is this word, but it means "one roll of toilet paper".The English equivalent of the Japanese "toilet roll" is "toilet paper roll"There is.
  5. ^ 1870 eraToilet paper was popular in the United StatesFire departmentSo, it was devised with the aim of prompt response when receiving an emergency dispatch order during a flight.The source isIyo Fire Department Office Fire Department(Official website, archived version).
  6. ^ in Japan1900 eraMidwayImperial HotelStarted using it as a means of communication between employees that "cleaning has been completed" in the guest roomCigaretteThere is also an interpretation that the users who saw it together with the "cleaned" label at the top used it at home etc., and those visitors at home imitated and spread after returning home.[Source required].
  7. ^ Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS P 4501)

Source

  1. ^ "Dropped paper / dropped paper". "Daijirin』3rd edition. Koto bank. October 2018th, 6Browse.
  2. ^ a b "Dropped paper". "DigitalDaijisen], [World Encyclopedia".Kotobank. October 2018th, 6Browse.
  3. ^ "Dust paper". "Digital Daijisen", "Daijirin" 3rd edition.Kotobank. October 2018th, 6Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d Megumi Nakajima (Freelance Journalist) (April 2016, 4). "<Hell will be resolved? Before & After of the Great Toilet Revolution in China> Live-action version" Present, Past, and Future of Nihao Toilet "". YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). http://sp.yomiuri.co.jp/fukayomi/ichiran/20160418-OYT8T50072.html?page_no=4 October 2018th, 6Browse. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Kenji Murayama (June 2018, 6). "Reason why" used toilet paper "is thrown away differently in Japan and China = Chinese media". Searchina (SBI Searcher). http://news.searchina.net/id/1661003?page=1 October 2018th, 6Browse. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "About ISO standardization of "products that can be flushed to the toilet"”. Japan Sewage Works Agency. October 2018th, 2Browse.
  7. ^ Translated by Christopher Lloyd, Kakatako Nonaka, "The Story of 137 Billion Years: The Whole History from the Beginning of the Universe to Today" Bungei Shunju 18th Edition 2014 p.303
  8. ^ a b c Robert Hendrickson (2000). The Facts on File Dictionary of American RegionalismsInfobase Publishing. Pp. 679–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2992-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=yXY0yQnvmmUC&pg=PA679 
  9. ^ Cowboy Bob (2013). Gayetty's Medicated Paper. Cowboy Bob's Dictionary. http://www.lemen.com/imageGayetty1.html 
  10. ^ a b c “Kobe toilet paper, the oldest in Japan or obtained by a man in Kyoto”. Kobe newspaperNEXT (Kobe Shimbun). (November 2016, 12). https://www.kobe-np.co.jp/news/shakai/201612/0009719366.shtml October 2018th, 6Browse. 
  11. ^ I'm curious about toilet paper! ??Consumption report SSS Sangyo Archive Edition Retrieved July 2018, 7.
  12. ^ "Toilet paper inventory is sufficient" Industry association for hoarding movement - NHK[Broken link]
  13. ^ "Tidbit ~Blister about water around~". TOTO. October 2013th, 5Browse.
  14. ^ “Disappearing station dust vending machines are no longer“ endangered ””. J-CAST News (Jay Cast). (November 2016, 12). http://www.j-cast.com/2016/12/28287117.html October 2016th, 12Browse. 
  15. ^ "Miscellaneous goods industrial product quality display regulations". Consumer Affairs Agency. October 2013th, 5Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close