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In addition, recent brain science research has shown that the more the frontal lobe is activated, the clearer the head and the higher the performance, and the easier it is to control emotions, such as being kind to people * 1.
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Brain science(Ask,British: brain science) IsHuman capitalincludingAnimal OfbrainAnd it producesFeatures ResearchToLearningIt is a field.The target brain functions include those related to sensory input processing such as visual cognition and auditory cognition, those called higher cognitive functions such as memory, learning, prediction, thinking, language, and problem solving, and those related to emotions.
Main methods / sub-fields
There are various methods or fields as follows, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses. You may do more than one field at the same time.
Example: Measuring the firing of dopamine neurons with an extracellular electrode when a monkey is given a reward task (= computational neuroscience + electrophysiology).This is an experiment by the famous Schultz et al. (1993).
- Electrophysiology: Using the patch clamp method in animals and intracellular electrodes, cortical electrodes, electroencephalograms, magnetoencephalograms, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), etc. in humans and animals, micro-macro electrical activity related to nerve cell excitement Look at the level of.
- Neuroanatomy: Investigate the internal structure of nerve cells, connections between nerve cells, dynamic changes in cell structure, etc. using an optical microscope, electron microscope, freeze-cutting method, immunostaining, etc.
- Molecular biology: Investigate the characteristics of nerve cells at the genetic and protein levels.
- Functional brain imaging: A method of visualizing brain activity using various devices.
- Brain function mapping: A method of "mapping" how each part of the brain works in functional brain imaging and injured brain research, as if the brain were like a map.
- Animal behavior experiments: Observe the behavior of animals such as monkeys and mice by administering drugs or manipulating genes.
- Psychological research, psychophysical research: By inferring brain function by having the subject human perform various tasks and observing behavior (eg, visual interference stimulation experiment).
- Theoretical neuroscience: Research is conducted by reproducing the functions of nerves on a computer or creating theoretical models such as cognition and learning.Computational neuroscienceetc.
How to use the term
The term "brain science" is widely used in academic fields as follows.For example, the word "brain science" is used in the following organizations as the name of a public research organization in Japan.
- Ministry of education Brain Science Committee
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Brain Science Research Strategy Promotion Program
- National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology System Brain Science Research Group
- RIKEN Brain Science Research Center
- Hokkaido University Brain Science Research and Education Center
- Tohoku University Brain Science Center
- University of TsukubaGraduate School of Kansei Cognitive Brain Science
- University of Electro-Communications Brain Science Life Support Research Center
- Tamagawa University Brain Science Institute
- Doshisha UniversityGraduate School of Brain Science
- Japan Brain Science Society
- Japan Brain Science Association
- Applied Brain Science Consortium
- Brain Science Young People's Association
In addition, books that can be regarded as specialized books that include the term "brain science" include "development of functions from the perspective of brain science.", "Molecular Brain Science", "Series Brain Science", "Invitation to Brain Science"and so on.
Difference between "brain science" and "neuroscience"
Director of RIKEN Brain Science InstituteTonegawa SusumuIs the subject of research at this center, "A variety of disciplines including engineering, computational theory, and psychology, with research subjects ranging from molecular structures in the brain to neural circuits, cognitive / memory / learning mechanisms, health and diseases, etc." We are aiming for interdisciplinary and integrated research against the background of the field. In recent years, it connects neurobiology, which deals with microscopic levels such as molecules and cells, with macroscopic levels such as cognition and computational theory. Focuses on neural circuit research. ".
On the other hand, according to the description of "Japan Neuroscience Society", "Japan Neuroscience Society promotes basic, clinical and applied research on the brain and nervous system, returns the results to society, and eventually improves the welfare and culture of humankind. It is an academic organization that brings together neuroscience researchers to contribute. "..The subject of neuroscience includes the brain, and research on neuroscience requires research on nerves.If you dare to classify it, it can be said that the difference is that neuroscience has a wider conceptual range because nerves include other than cranial nerves.
Works and games with the theme of "brain science"
"Brain scientist" is useful to the Japanese mass media, has appeared on many TV programs, and has written many books.
In the publication of "Brain Scientist", "Brain revolutionThere are also best-selling ones such as "Adult calculation drill that trains the brain".Especially, "Adult calculation drill that trains the brain" is "Adult DS training to train your brainIt was made into a game on the Nintendo DS and became a popular software in the early days of the DS.
Japanese brain scientist
In alphabetical order.Includes people known through media appearances and writing activities related to brain science.
The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor
Books such as "The brain that has evolved too much" and "The brain makes excuses for something"
Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo
Books such as "Brain Blueprints"
Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University
Books such as "Sex is life" and "Brain and libido"
Professor, Institute of Aging Medicine, Tohoku University
Books such as "Brain training for modern people" and "Farewell brain boom"
Professor Emeritus of Keio University
Books such as "The book that makes you smarter"
Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University
Books such as "Hands and Brains" and "Running and Brains"
Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo
Books such as "Brain Science of Language"
Professor, Faculty of International Communication, Musashino Gakuin University
Books such as "Brain Structure and Evolution of Intelligence: Introduction to Biology of the Mind" and "Selfish Brain"
Professor, Nippon Medical School
Books "Brain and Computer" "Consciousness and Brain"
Professor, Suwa University of Science Common Education Center
Books such as "37 Habits That Change to" Immediate Brains ""
Professor Emeritus, Hamamatsu Medical University
Books such as "Mechanisms of illness caused by stress"
Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo
Books such as "Memory Mechanism" and "Nurturing the Brain"
Professor Emeritus, Hosei University
Books such as "Cerebral Physiology of Memory"
Director, Brain Research Institute, Japan Psychiatric Center
Books "History of a Brain Researcher" "What is a Conditional Reflex?"
Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo
Works such as "Brain Story" and "Brain and Human"
Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Books such as "My Brain Science Lecture"
Carnegie Mellon University Cylab Fellow
Books such as "Brainwashing Principles"
Professor, Center for Child and Mental Development, University of Fukui
Books such as "Parents who hurt children's brains"
Specially Appointed Professor, Higashi Nippon International University
Books such as "What people in the world always do" and "Prayer" from the perspective of brain science
Professor, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University
Works such as "Monkeys who love music" and "Monkeys with mobile phones"
Senior Researcher, Sony Computer Science Laboratories
Books such as "Brain and Virtual" and "Now, from here to everywhere"
Nihon University Professor
Books such as "Game Brain Horror"
- ^ http://www.lifescience.mext.go.jp/council/board.html
- ^ http://www.nips.ac.jp/srpbs/
- ^ https://unit.aist.go.jp/hiri/hi-sys-neuro/
- ^ http://www.brain.riken.jp/jp/about/
- ^ http://www.hokudai.ac.jp/recbs/
- ^ http://www.bsc.tohoku.ac.jp/
- ^ http://www.kansei.tsukuba.ac.jp/
- ^ http://www.uec.ac.jp/facilities/research/blsc/
- ^ http://www.tamagawa.jp/research/brain/
- ^ http://brainscience.doshisha.ac.jp/
- ^ http://jsfbs.com/
- ^ http://www.brainscience-union.jp/
- ^ http://www.keieiken.co.jp/can/
- ^ http://brainsci.jp/
- ^ Satoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hono (ed.). Development of functions from the viewpoint of brain science. Minerva Shobo, 2003. ISBN-4 623-03799-1.
- ^ Masayoshi Mishina (ed.). Molecular Brain Science. Chemistry Dojin, 2015. ISBN 978-4-7598-1519-1 .
- ^ Series Brain Science [6 volumes]. University of Tokyo Press website.
- ^ Michiichi Matsumura. Invitation to Brain Science. Science, 2002. ISBN-4 7819-1018-1.
- ^ http://www.riken.jp/research/labs/bsi/
- ^ http://www.jnss.org/whats/
Frontal lobe(Let's go,British: Frontal lobe) Ismammalian OfbrainIs part of.Cerebrum OfleafOne of.The frontal lobe is located in the anterior part of the bilateral cerebral hemispheresParietal lobeFront side ofTemporal lobeLocated in front of the top.Between the frontal lobe and the parietal lobePrimary motor areaExists.The primary motor cortex is central to the specific body part associated with the precentral gyrusVoluntary movementIs in control.
It is said that the frontal lobe fully matures around the age of 25, which is a sign of cognitive maturation in adulthood.UCLA By the study of Arthur Toga of the frontal lobeWhite matter OfMyelin sheathWas found to increase in adult subjects younger than teenage subjects.In early adulthoodschizophreniaTypical onset is inadequateMyelinIt is associated with the formation and the inefficient binding between cells in the frontal region caused by it.
Cerebral cortexMost of them are in the frontal lobe.DopamineThe system isRemuneration,Notes,Long-term memory, Associated with planning and motivation.DopamineThalamusIt is said to be related to the limitation and selection of sensory information transmitted from the front to the front.According to a report from the National Institute of Mental HealthPrefrontal cortexCauses a decrease in dopamine activity inGenetic mutation TheWorking memoryIt has been reported to be associated with poor performance in the task and poor functioning of the prefrontal cortex during the task, with a slight increase in the risk of schizophrenia.
The ability of the frontal lobe, called the executive function, is the perception of future consequences of current behavior, the choice of better behavior, the nullification and suppression of unacceptable social responses, and the similarities and differences of things. It is related to the ability to judge.
Frontal lobe is not task-basedLong-term memoryIt also plays an important role in the retention of.They are oftenLimbic systemDerived from the input fromEmotionThe memory associated with.The frontal lobe regulates such emotions to meet socially favorable norms.
In the early 20th centuryMental illnessAs a cure forPortugal OfNeuroscientist OfEgas MonizFirst developed by the frontal lobeLimbic systemA method was used to damage the path connecting the two.FrontalRobotmy We succeeded in reducing the patient's anguish by (also known as frontal lobe lobotomy), but as side effects, emotions, intentions, etc.PersonalityWas slowed down.The indiscriminate use of this psychosurgery method, combined with serious side effects and the risk of surgery, has eroded its reputation.PsychiatryIt disappeared as a typical therapy.
Very rarely, more accurate forms of psychosurgery are still used occasionally. (anterior capsulotomy) (heat damage on both sides) and bilateral cingulotomy (bilateral cingulotomy)Anterior cingulate gyrusTreatments such as (damage) are difficult to treatObsessive-compulsive disorder,depressionUsed for.
Frontal lobe disorders cause a variety of phenomena.
- Decreased mental flexibility and spontaneity.However, IQ does not decrease.
- Dramatic increase or decrease in conversation.
- Impaired sensation regarding risk management and compliance with rules.
- Increase or decrease in sociability.
- Orbitofrontal cortexDisorders cause unique sexual behavior.
- Disorders of the dorsolateral frontal area cause a decrease in sexual interest.
Orbital surface of the left frontal lobe (OrbitJust above, that is, the part that can be seen when the frontal lobe is viewed from below)
- Frontal lobe signs
- Broca's area
- Prefrontal cortex
- Orbitofrontal cortex
- Phineas Gage --A railroad worker who survived an accident where a metal rod pierces the frontal lobe
- ^ Kimberg, DY, Farah, MJ A unified account of cognitive impariments following frontal lobe damage: the role of working memory in complex, organized behavior. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 1993 122 (4): 411-28
- Frontal lobe --Keio University Pathology Department Kazuya Funato
- Frontal lobe - Brain science dictionary
- Frontal lobe anatomy --Brain surgeon Yutaka Sawamura
- Frontal lobe anatomy --Mitsutake Kawamura, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- When the frontal lobe is damaged --Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience
|Cerebrum OfLobes of the brain|
|Outer side||Lateral sulcusInterior and pole||Inner surface|
|Outer side||Lateral sulcusinternal||Inner side-top|
|Bottom of the brain-orbital surface||Bottom of the brain- Temporal lobe荳||Inner side-bottom|