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Wide range of disaster prevention measures

Disaster prevention

Disaster prevention(Disaster prevention) is in a narrow sensedisasterIt is a concept that summarizes prevention and disaster emergency measures.[2]..This may include disaster recovery (meaning to return to the state before the disaster).[2]..In other words, "disaster prevention" may refer only to damage prevention to prevent disasters, damage reduction to prevent the spread of damage, and damage from disasters.restorationMay be included[3][4]..In addition, regional disaster prevention plans will create a new and better society in the affected areas.reconstructionMay be included[2].

Of disasterconceptIs wide, soNatural disastersNot only that, it may also include responses to man-made disasters.As a synonym, it is distinguished when disaster prevention refers only to damage control.Disaster reduction, A slightly broader concept than disaster preventionCrisis managementand so on.

Disaster prevention and crisis management

Crisis management elements for disaster prevention

Crisis management elements for disaster prevention consist of three phases: preparation, emergency response, and convergence in chronological order.[2].

ready
Disaster prevention preparation consists of three elements: prediction, preparation, and inspection training.[2]..Prediction is a prediction of a crisis such as a natural disaster or an incident / accident.[2]..It is prepared for people, goods, money, information, mechanisms, etc. for the predicted crisis, and it is also a turning point whether it is possible to turn to the support side in the event of a disaster or whether a secondary disaster will occur.[2]..Inspection training is to confirm that the preparations are effective.[2].
Emergency response
Emergency response refers to how to reduce the damage caused by the crisis that has occurred.[2].
convergence
Convergence is the stage to return to normal, and consists of investigating the cause, checking for deficiencies in emergency response, and examining and implementing countermeasures.[2].

Disasters are also associated with a variety of multiple crises such as population decline, financial deterioration, infectious disease spread, corporate migration, and crime outbreaks.[2].

Types of disaster prevention and management

Disaster prevention measures can be broadly divided into two types.[5].

  1. Damage control
    Measures to be taken to prevent damage.Land use management, river improvement, earthquake resistance of buildings, disaster forecasting / warning, etc.
  2. Damage reduction
    Measures to be taken to reduce damage even if it occurs and to make recovery smoother.Disaster response manual[6] And disaster prevention plan[7] Creation, disaster prevention system development, human resource development, disaster forecasting / warning, etc.

On the other hand, the response after a disaster can be roughly divided into two.[5].

  1. First aid
    Rescue, fire extinguishing, medical care, shelter management, etc.
  2. restoration-reconstruction
    Reconstruction of housing and life, mental care, etc.

In addition to these, it is also important to know the incentive external force.Specifically, research on the mechanism of natural disasters and technologies for deterring them, disaster prediction (hazard analysis), dissemination of such knowledge (disaster prevention education), etc.[8].

Comprehensive disaster prevention conducted by organizations such as governments and companies requires adjustment of knowledge, technology, funds, and interests.business AdministrationA (management) perspective is required.Therefore, disaster prevention is (crisis management) in this field.Risk managementIs recognized as part of.

In disaster management (disaster management) or emergency management (emergency management), the above actions are positioned in one cycle as shown in the figure on the right.In this figure, damage control and damage mitigation are defined in the category of risk management, and emergency response and recovery / reconstruction are defined in the category of crisis management, but they may be defined more broadly.[5].

In addition, deepen the understanding of disaster risks, and consider improvements while implementing the seriousness and acceptability (disaster prevention goals according to the seriousness), reliable warnings, measures to have evacuation instructions followed, and methods to elicit evacuation. To pile upRisk communicationTo say[9]..On the other hand, it is said that improvement studies will be repeated while implementing a method of providing information while considering the victims who are in a psychological state peculiar to the disaster at the disaster site after the disaster.

Damage control / mitigation

Disaster prevention measures are large, and hardware that prevents external forces that cause disasters by structures (hard) Side measures and software that improves disaster prevention capabilities that are the predisposing factors for disasters through knowledge and systems (soft) It is divided into two measures.If the external force is small, most of it can be prevented by measures on the hard side, but as the external force increases, the role played by the measures on the soft side becomes more important and important.As a feature, hardware measures are often managed by the government and management is specialized, while software measures are open to non-specialists and are often handled by residents and communities.[10][11][12][13].

Hard side

Soft side

  • Legal regulations on buildings and civil engineering structures (Seismic standardSetting, fire prevention standard setting, evacuation equipment standard setting, etc.)
  • Considering disaster preventionLand use planningsettings of
  • LocallyDisaster prevention town developmentActivities
  • Legal regulations on dangerous places in floods and landslides (building restrictions, designation of dangerous places, etc.)
  • Against floods, landslides, wind and snowProtected forestsettings of
  • Establishing a system for disseminating information from the government to residents in the event of a disaster (public relations vehicles, sirens, etc.)
  • Establishing a communication system and news system from the disaster prevention organization in the event of a disaster to the news media
  • Development of disaster medical system
  • Development of a system assuming a disaster,emergency training(Evacuation drillsbyEvacuation routeConfirmation etc.)
  • Depends on the administrationHazard mapCreated and published
  • school education,Region-Administration-CompanyDisaster prevention education in

Emergency response / restoration / reconstruction

Taking an earthquake disaster as an example, we will show a guideline for crisis management by elapsed time from the occurrence.[15].

  • Immediate response (within 1 day) --Rescue / escape / first aid, disaster medicine, prevention of secondary disasters, emergency convocation of local government staff, collection / analysis and response of disaster information, safety information, etc.As improvement measures, stockpiling of rescue tools that can be used by residents, work management of local government staff, reduction of burden considering the degree of damage, stockpiling and information sharing at medical institutions, etc.[15].
  • Emergency response (2nd day-1 week) --Opening and functional enhancement of evacuation shelters, securing and controlling traffic on trunk roads, distribution of relief supplies, forwarding of seriously injured patients, etc.As an improvement measure, strengthening the provision of information to disaster victims at evacuation shelters, etc.[15].
  • Emergency response (2nd week-1 month) --Construction / occupancy of temporary housing, continuation of logistics management, restoration planning and implementation, living support, volunteer activities, etc.Improvement measures include moving into temporary housing that does not divide the local community, making overall adjustments to improve the work efficiency of infrastructure restoration, and training volunteers.[15].
  • Recovery support (2nd month-6 months)- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) care, debris removal, reconstruction planning, etc.Improvement measures include strengthening volunteers to care for the mind, streamlining and facilitating debris removal, and reducing the burden of creating a reconstruction plan based on estimated damage in advance.[15].
  • Reconstruction response (after 7 months) --Disaster experience and lessons learned, disaster-resistant community development, life reconstruction, etc.[15].

In addition, this is for the earthquake disaster that suddenly comes by "sudden hit" after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake[16]It was created in Japan, and does not necessarily apply to disasters such as floods and storm surges that can be predicted to some extent and progress slowly.In floods and storm surges, warnings and evacuation advisories can be issued before the disaster level is reached, it is necessary to consider inundation measures for evacuation centers, storage warehouses, government buildings, etc., and there is a high risk of infectious diseases as a secondary disaster. Things are different[15].

Self-help / mutual help / public help

In the event of a disaster, depending on the subject, "self-help" to respond by oneself, "mutual help" to help each other in a community such as a neighborhoodFire,MunicipalitiesIt can be divided into three categories: "public assistance" to get help from.In the present age when the division of roles between the citizens and the government has been strengthened, there is a part that depends on the government in daily life, and the citizens expect that "public assistance" will function as an extension of this even in the event of a disaster.However, as one survey reports that the ratio of self-help: mutual assistance: public assistance is 3: 7: 2 in the event of a disaster, "public assistance" functions only in a limited way and the disaster is serious. The more the function of "public assistance" is reduced.This is especially noticeable in the case of an earthquake that causes a large number of victims in an instant.For example, in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, of the 1 people who were laid under houses, 16 (4%) escaped on their own, and 12 (9%) were rescued by neighboring residents. , 8 people were rescued by the police, fire department, and Self-Defense Forces, but about 2% of the people rescued by the neighboring residents were alive, while the survival rate of those rescued by the police etc. took a long time to arrive. Due to the influence, it remains at about 7%.Therefore, "self-help" and "mutual help" are very important.[17][18][19].

Mutual assistance includes things that are not visibly organized like neighbors,Fire brigade,Flood control team,Voluntary disaster prevention organizationSome are organized like this.

In a country where modern law was passed (in Japan)MeijiOr later),政府,AdministrationThe idea of ​​"public assistance" has permeated.First aid,Fire,Policemen,army(SDF) Or a specialized agency (JapanDisaster Countermeasures Headquarters,America'sFEMA, RussianMinistry of Emergency SituationsThe roles of) are clarified, and each is responsible.Even in the event of a large-scale disaster, the government and government are usually responsible for restoration and reconstruction.On the other hand, the idea of ​​"public assistance" by volunteers is also evolving.Company,NPOAssistance byvolunteer(Disaster volunteer) Activities are also carried out.

Outline of disaster prevention history and major issues in recent years

Since ancient times, disaster prevention has been a part of daily life, and it is thought that the action of "disaster prevention" was not consciously distinguished.However, by the politicianWater controlWhen is done, the division of roles begins.This is mainly in JapanEdo PeriodThat is.further,Meiji EraAfter that, hydraulic control will be under the jurisdiction of the government, and it will be specialized and technical improvements will be made.In such a trend, measures for facilities (hardware) such as dams and embankments have made great progress, and research on the disaster itself has progressed to deepen understanding.While Japan's disaster prevention is said to have top-level technological and research capabilities, it is questionable whether society and citizens understand and understand the need for such facilities and research, and non-facility such as evacuation. (Soft) Measures are relatively inadequate.The background to this is that disaster prevention, including hydraulic engineering, has moved away from daily life due to the specialization of disaster prevention.[20][21].

in Japan1950 eraDuring the seven years from 1942 to 1948, there were many large earthquakes and typhoons, and the death toll from natural disasters exceeded 7 each year.Although disaster prevention projects were resumed due to postwar reconstruction, the damage was not reduced due to the fragility of society due to urbanization. In 1,000Disaster Countermeasures Basic LawThe enactment of the government clarified the responsibility of the government and advanced disaster countermeasures.1970 eraAround 500 people a year, and more1990 eraSince then, the number has been steadily decreasing to dozens per year.However, even under such circumstances, 1995Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeAnd 2011Great East Japan EarthquakeOccasionally major disasters occur, leaving many issues for disaster prevention.[22][23][24].

in JapanSecond World WarLater, the focus has been on controlling damage through facility (hardware) measures such as river improvement and earthquake resistance.However, when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995 revealed its limits, the idea that damage reduction and restoration should be emphasized became stronger, and we will focus on minimizing damage by taking measures.Disaster reductionThe idea of. This issue was recognized again in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, and the proposal of the Reconstruction Initiative Council was to "escape" =EvacuationDisaster prevention education based onHazard mapEmphasis is placed on non-facility (soft) measures such as maintenance[3][4][25].

The main issues of disaster prevention in Japan are evacuation, disaster prevention plans and system execution capabilities.While the technology of forecasting and warnings, which are guidelines for evacuation, has improved, it is often reported that evacuation was sluggish after a disaster occurred, and evacuation information was sought for safe escape. There is.In addition, although disaster prevention plans, disaster prevention manuals, and disaster prevention information systems have been suddenly prepared as major movements after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, it is being questioned whether they can function effectively in the event of an actual disaster.[21].

In addition, there is a problem that small local governments may not be able to respond satisfactorily due to limited personnel and budget for disaster prevention, and a problem of cooperation in wide-area disasters across municipalities and prefectures.[26], The question of how to raise awareness of disaster prevention that residents do not depend on the administration, which leads to voluntary evacuation.[27] Is mentioned.

Japan's disaster legislation

Japan's disaster legislationDisaster Countermeasures Basic LawIt was enacted based on (Disaster Countermeasures Law) and other lessons learned from past disasters.Disaster Relief ActThere are many laws such as[28].

National / local government

Under the Disaster Countermeasures Law, the first response to a disaster is市町村Is stipulated to be responsible (Articles 5, 62, etc. of the Disaster Countermeasures Law).The mayor of the municipality is responsible for notifying related organizations and residents of the disaster (Article 56), evacuation advisories and evacuation orders, authority to set warning areas (Articles 60 and 63), and properties to prevent the spread of disasters. The authority to request demolition (Articles 59 and 64) is given.Also,PrefecturesIs responsible for logistical support and coordination of municipalities (Article 68), is also responsible for clerical work based on the Disaster Relief Act, and is permitted to take measures on behalf of municipalities if they fail due to a disaster (Article 73).[29].

The national government is responsible for further logistical support for prefectures and municipalities (Article 77 of the Disaster Countermeasures Law).It is also a national institutionJapanese Meteorological AgencyAbout weather, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.forecast,alarmIs obliged to announce (Meteorological Service Law)[30].

In the event of a disaster, the mayor of the municipality will be the head of the headquarters.Disaster Countermeasures HeadquartersTo play the role of a command tower for disaster response (Article 23 of the Disaster Countermeasures Law).In this regard, the national government shall be headed by the Minister of State, such as the person in charge of disaster prevention, in the event of a large-scale disaster that requires national involvement.Emergency Disaster Response Headquarters(Article 24), and in the case of a more severe disaster, an emergency disaster countermeasures headquarters headed by the Prime Minister will be established (Article 28-2).The "warning headquarters" and "reconstruction countermeasures headquarters" established by municipalities and prefectures are optional and are not based on the Disaster Countermeasures Law.[31].

There are disaster prevention councils and disaster prevention plans as a mechanism to decide a comprehensive disaster prevention policy.These are top-down systems, in which the national government plays a central role, and prefectures and municipalities make plans and implement them based on that policy.The national government establishes a central disaster prevention council to formulate a disaster prevention basic plan, and central ministries and agencies formulate a disaster prevention work plan.Prefectural governments set up prefectural disaster prevention councils to formulate prefectural regional disaster prevention plans, and municipalities set up municipal disaster prevention councils to formulate municipal regional disaster prevention plans.While it has been pointed out that there are harmful effects due to top-down, it is also pointed out that the citizen check function expected for the disaster prevention plan that is reviewed once a year is not working.[32].

Specialized institution

FireIs a permanent institution, but is responsible for disaster prevention work.Firefighteras well as the FirefighterIs stipulated to protect the lives, bodies, and property of the people from disasters, such as controlling (preventing and removing) disasters such as water fires and earthquakes, reducing damage, and transporting the injured and sick.Fire Service Act,Fire Service Organization Law).Firefighting is one of the few people who has specialized skills in emergency response such as rescue and emergency.In the event of a disaster, it will be installed in a city with a certain population size.Special rescue team(Rescue squad)Advanced rescue teamIn addition to (Ministerial Ordinance that sets standards for the formation, equipment, and placement of rescue teams)Mountain rescue team,Water rescue team,Chemical Mobile Company,Emergency fire support teamSpecialized units such as are active.However, since the fire department is in charge of the municipality, there is a drawback that the personnel and equipment depend on the financial strength of the municipality.[33].

PolicemenIs also a permanent institution, but is responsible for disaster prevention operations such as search and rescue, evacuation guidance, and traffic security.However, legally, it is a duty to protect the life, body, and property of an individual, which is a provision in peacetime (Police lawArticle 2) is interpreted as an extension, and there is no clear provision for disaster countermeasures.[34].

SDFIs also a permanent institution, but is responsible for disaster prevention work.The prefectural governor dispatches the Self-Defense Forces when it is necessary to protect human life and property due to a natural disaster, etc. (Disaster dispatch) Has the authority to make requests (Article 83 of the Self-Defense Forces Act).In addition, the mayor of the municipality has the authority to request the governor to dispatch (Article 68-2 of the Disaster Countermeasures Law).The actual work of the Self-Defense Forces is not limited to search and rescue, but also includes a wide range of life support such as preparing meals.Also, the Self-Defense ForcesSupply,LodgingIt is characterized by being a self-contained unit that can secure itself, and activities that make use of it are required.In addition, according to the survey conducted by the government in 1995 and 2012, the purpose and expected role of the Self-Defense Forces was to surpass the security and security maintenance of the country, and disaster dispatch was ranked highest, and the people's expectations are high.Furthermore, it is reported that there are many people who feel rewarding and proud "for disaster relief" as a member's consciousness.However, the main mission of the Self-Defense Forces is to protect the peace and independence of the country and protect it from aggression, and in principle, disaster dispatch is limited to when requested.[35][36].

other than this,Flood control team TheFlood controlOn the basis ofFlood damageIn addition to sometimes carrying out flood prevention activities such as the operation of hydraulic facilities,Japan Coast Guard TheJapan Coast Guard ActOn the basis ofWater shortage-Marine accidentProvide rescue and navigation support.

First aid

The Disaster Relief Act stipulates emergency response to disasters.Shelter, MealsCooking,SuppliesOffer,Temporary housing, Removal of obstacles, corpseburialAnd so on.The Disaster Relief Act itself consists of only simple articles in order to operate flexibly according to the actual conditions of the site. Specifically, the standards (general standards) set by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and the prefectures under its jurisdiction are in the situation. According to the standards (special standards) set in consultation with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, it is issued in the form of notifications and office communications.For example, according to the 2011 general standards, food costs are within 1 yen per person per day, shelter opening period is within 1 days, and temporary housing costs are within 1,010 yen per unit.However, this is a very difficult situation, so in reality, according to special standards, evacuation shelter operation for more than 7 days, use of hotels and inns as a substitute for evacuation shelters, and temporary housing costs of about 1 million yen per unit The amount has been increased[37].

However, there are many cases in which problems arise as a result and the victims are dissatisfied due to insufficient elastic operation.In particular, with regard to benefits, there are very strong calls for cash payments, but the national government says that "when a disaster occurs, supplies are scarce and procurement becomes difficult, so money is almost useless." There is a problem that they are not admitted and are concerned with the in-kind supply.There is also a misconception that cash payments are unprecedented, but in fact there are cases in which 1953 yen per household was paid to flood victims as livelihood funds in 1.As an effort to avoid such institutional problems, in 1Unzen FukenIn the eruptionNational Land AgencyとNagasakiImplemented a system to choose between in-kind meals and cash for long-term evacuees, and in 2000Mt. UsuHokkaido in the eruptionAbuta TownImplemented a system to pay evacuees living expenses.All of these are done outside the framework of the Disaster Relief Act.[37].

restoration

The mayor of the municipality is responsible for the recovery of the disaster (Article 87 of the Disaster Countermeasures Law).However, because the cost is hugeNational treasuryIt requires a burden,Civil Engineering Facility Disaster Burden Law,Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Facility Disaster Burden Law, Etc., determine the subsidy rate.The disaster recovery project cost is paid by the disaster assessor of the competent ministry that conducts the project.Ministry of FinanceWitnesses witness the site and make assessments (disaster assessment witness system).As a general rule, disaster recovery projects are limited to prototype restoration, that is, restoration to the original function (original restoration principle), from the provisions of the Public Civil Engineering Facility Disaster Recovery Project Cost National Treasury Burden Law, etc. There is a problem that it will end up.For example, if the embankment is raised to recover from tsunami damage or the railway line is changed for safety, the subsidy rate will decrease.Although Article 88 of the Disaster Countermeasures Law states that sufficient consideration should be given to the construction and improvement of facilities (improvement restoration principle), it is an issue.In addition, it should be notedBasic Law for Great East Japan Earthquake RecoveryThen, the basic idea is to set out an attitude that goes beyond restoration of the original shape.On the other hand, the economy, livelihoods, communities, etc. of areas that are not facilities are not subject to these laws.[38].

In addition,Severe Disaster LawRecognizes disasters that have suffered damage above a certain level as "catastrophic disasters" and raises the national treasury subsidy rate.If certifiedSpecial allocation taxSince it will be possible to receive subsidies from the national treasury for a large amount of restoration costs, it will be easier for local governments to get a business outlook.It also has the advantage of being able to target a wide range of businesses, including non-facility.[39].

As public assistance to the victimsDisaster Condolence LawDisaster condolence money, disaster disability condolence money, disaster relief fund loan, andDisaster Reconstruction Life Support ActThere is a subsidy for residents whose houses have been completely or partially destroyed based on the above.From the 1990s to the 2000s, these were enacted, revised and expanded in light of reflections on repeated disasters.However, he also pointed out problems such as the amount of disaster condolence money varies greatly depending on whether or not he is the "main livelihood maintainer", the standards for disaster disability condolence money are strict, and the scope of support money is limited and certification is not smooth. Has been[40].

In the event of a disaster, donate in good faithDonationAre collected and distributed to the victims.However, there is a problem that the amount of money allocated per person varies depending on the disaster, such as the number of victims and how it is reported.Also, the balance between speed and fairness is often an issue for allocation.[41].

Individuals joininsuranceIn the category, although the disclaimer for natural disasters is stipulated in the contract for many products, it may or may not be applied, and it varies depending on the case.Fire insuranceIn many cases, it does not apply, but some products pay a part as a tribute.It was created to make up for the shortcomings of fire insurance.Earthquake insuranceHowever, you have to take out a set with fire insurance, etc., and the amount is limited.To make up for these shortcomings, for exampleHyogoHas its own "Housing Reconstruction Mutual Aid System" that pays mutual aid money according to the degree of damage regardless of the type of natural disaster and the age of the house.on the other hand,Life insuranceIn many cases in the past, payments have been made without applying the disclaimer.[42].

reconstruction

Enacted in 2013 as a law that generally regulates disaster recoveryLaw on recovery from large-scale disastersThere is.Municipalities that have been damaged to meet certain requirements can create a "reconstruction plan" that stipulates relocation and livelihood reconstruction, and stipulates deregulation, strengthening of authority, and national treasury subsidies in line with this.[43].

About reconstruction projectsUrban redevelopment law,Land readjustment methodThe law of peacetime is applied, but problems may occur because it is not in line with reconstruction.In the Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeDisaster Urban Reconstruction Special Measures Law, Was enacted in the Great East Japan Earthquake, and deregulation by land use and extension of building restrictions were carried out.Disaster prevention group relocation promotion projectUnder the law concerning special financial measures of the country related to the group relocation promotion project for disaster prevention, the cost is subsidized only for the relocation of housing, but public facilities are also covered.Dense urban development lawbased onDisaster prevention district maintenance businessThen, you can assist in rebuilding and recommend the removal of dangerous buildings.Land improvement lawThen, disaster prevention projects with state subsidies can be carried out through the improvement and conservation of farmland.Residential area improvement lawbased onResidential area improvement projectThen, disaster prevention business can be done through the acquisition and transfer of defective houses.Besides this, it is not legally bindingOutlineThere is a business called "summary business" that is carried out based on the above, and subsidies may be disbursed.[44].

On the other hand, there are few laws regarding the reconstruction of industry.Only in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, based on the lawmutual aidThere is a system.In other industries, there are only special loans for small and medium-sized enterprises under the severe law.Often by government-affiliated financial institutions or credit guarantee associations for each disasterLoanHowever, the backup may be insufficient.As a backup for the Great East Japan Earthquake, capital injection into financial institutions based on the law, by the Industrial Reconstruction Organization and the Business Revitalization Support OrganizationReceivableIs being bought[45].

Each field

The following laws stipulate civil engineering work for disaster prevention[46].

In addition, there are the following laws that stipulate countermeasures according to the type of disaster.[46].

Initially, nuclear disasters were planned to be dealt with based on the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law.JCO criticality accidentSince we left issues in, we will specify specific measures.Nuclear Emergency Preparedness ActWas enacted.In the event of a nuclear disaster, the national government will announce a nuclear emergency declaration, establish a nuclear disaster response headquarters headed by the Prime Minister, and establish a local response headquarters and off-site center in the field. Has been done.HoweverFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentHowever, there were still issues such as insufficient public relations and evacuation order transmission to residents, and the withdrawal of off-site centers.On the other hand, compensation for damage caused by an accidentNuclear Damage Compensation LawIt is stipulated in.In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, there are multiple special legislations that stipulate accident investigation, decontamination, compensation, industrial reconstruction, etc., but issues have also been pointed out.[51].

Building Standards LawIs the minimum to keep the building safeSeismic standardIs shown.The predecessor Urban Building Law was 1948Fukui earthquakeIt was enacted in 1978, and the current new earthquake resistance standard is XNUMX.Miyagiken-oki EarthquakeIt was revised in the wake of.On the other hand, it was revised in 2012Urban Renewal Special Measures ActHas stipulated that evacuation shelters and storage warehouses should be secured in stations and private buildings in designated areas of major cities.[52].

Disaster legislation and division of roles in each country

The division of disaster legislation and major organizations in major countries is as follows as of 2012.[53].

  • Germany ――The basic law is "Act on Civilian Protection and Federal Disaster Prevention Support".Originally for dealing with wartime emergencies (Emergency law), A system that applies this to natural disasters.The military is the center of disaster response.
  • France --The basic law is the "Act on the Renewal of Private Security on August 2004, 8".Disaster response is divided into five stages, and each stage has different authority such as the mayor of the municipality, the prefectural governor, the governor of the district, and the minister of state.
  • The United Kingdom -"Civil Contingencies Act 2004Is the basic law.The Queen or the administrative government has the right to establish emergency rules.
  • ロシア --Originally based on the emergency legislation, there are basic laws called the "Natural Disaster Emergency Law" and the "Emergency Declaration Law".In areas where the declaration is applied, the federal system will be suspended and will be under government control, and economic activity will be restricted.
  • America -"Robert T. Stafford methodIs the basic law.The purpose is disaster response.Of a permanent organization specializing in disaster responseFederal Emergency Management Agency There is (FEMA) and it operates separately from the military.In principle, each state handles disaster response, but when the president issues a state of emergency, FEMA coordinates and assists the division of roles of each institution. Year 2005Hurricane KatrinaThe issue of FEMA was also pointed out in the response.
  • New Zealand --The basic law is the "Civil Defense Emergency Management Act 2002".The state of emergency strengthens the authority of the administration.
  • South Korea --There are many laws such as "Disaster and Safety Management Basic Law", "Natural Disaster Countermeasures Law" and "Civil Defense Basic Law".There is also an unclear point in the division of roles.

The disaster legislation of European countries has been expanded based on the emergency legislation, but there is an idea that it is better to clearly distinguish between the emergency legislation and the disaster legislation.Japan's disaster legislation is characterized by its clear distinction from emergency legislation, its disaster prevention-centric principle that emphasizes disaster prevention and mitigation rather than emergency measures and recovery and reconstruction, and its lack of emergency legislation. ..It is similar to France in that it carefully formulates a disaster prevention plan and responds step by step.However, while the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law imposes responsibility on municipalities, the Disaster Relief Law gives authority to prefectures, and there are some twists in the law, and the authority is not organized as in France.In addition, the method by which the government establishes a countermeasures headquarters based on the same ministry allocation as in normal times is similar to the United States, except that there is no permanent organization.[53].

Land use management

In disasters where land factors are major vulnerabilities such as floods, tsunamis, landslides and debris flows, for example, housing construction is prohibited in the lowlands along rivers.Land useIf it can be managed properly, the damage can be greatly reduced.But in reality it is very difficult.The background to people's use of dangerous land is the convenience of living and economic activities, the merit of forming villages and cities by gathering people and goods, and the safer the land price, the higher the land price. This is because it is difficult to choose to sacrifice those benefits in daily life for rare disasters due to circumstances such as high prices.[54].

List the measures that are considered to be the main problems related to disasters and land use.

Evaluation of land prices based on convenience promotes the use of dangerous land with low land prices, and leads to subdivision of residential land (reduction of residential land area) to reduce land costs, resulting in highly dangerous overcrowded residential areas There is a problem of being born.In response, risk is factored into cost.InternalizationEfforts = A system that incorporates danger and safety into the evaluation of land prices and measures that legally regulate the use are effective.For example, in AmericaNational Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) sets the insurance premium rate according to the flood risk in each area, and prohibits / restricts development and flood resistance structure in dangerous areas (NFIP)PilotiEtc.), and by reducing the insurance premium rate according to the progress of flood countermeasures in the region, we are curbing the use of dangerous land and promoting countermeasures.[54].

Ownershipbased onlandPrivate ownership is acceptable as an individual right, but it also invites land use that ignores safety and increases the risk of damage.For this,Land use planningAppropriate regulation is required in[54]..The disaster prevention group relocation promotion project and the cliff-proximity dangerous housing relocation project in Japan have no regulatory nature, and are a system that only encourages individuals to voluntarily relocate.Building Standards LawThe "disaster risk area" in Japan imposes building restrictions according to the designation of each local government, but it is difficult to reach an agreement with the residents.Isewan TyphoonI made a designation laterNagoya cityAs in the current situation, it is difficult to make a designation without a chance.[55]..As another systemEarth and sand disaster caution area, In individual casesYokosukaThere are public buildings and large-scale development regulations near active faults in[55].

Disaster prevention education / disaster drill and evacuation

Appropriate evacuation

Protecting human lives in disasters that cannot be prevented by strengthening facilities such as embankments and earthquake resistance of buildingsEvacuationIs.One of the purposes of disaster prevention education and drills is to cultivate the ability to judge evacuation at an appropriate method, place, and time in the event of a disaster.

The guideline that society presents when determining evacuation methods and locations is the evacuation site andEvacuation route, Disaster prevention facilities, disaster prevention bases, etc. are shown on the disaster prevention map.Shows dangerous places such as cliff collapse and floods caused by floodsHazard mapIn some cases, the contents of the risk prediction diagram are included.

The guideline that society presents when deciding when to evacuate isalarm,Evacuation advisoryInformation such as.Taking the example of river flooding,Heavy rain warning,Record short-time heavy rain informationRainfall information, such asFlood danger water levelWater level information, such asFlood warning information,Flood warningThere is information on evacuation standards such as, and information on evacuation calls by local governments such as evacuation advisories.

However, in determining the actual evacuation method, place, and timing, both the guideline presented by society and the experience and values ​​of the individual act.The options depend on how the individual evaluates the information on the various hazards.Disaster prevention education and drills are required to correct these judgments and lead to better choices.

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Source

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kagiya Hajime, "How the Local Disaster Prevention and Crisis Management Works of Local Governments, Illustrated" by Gakuyo Shobo, 2019, page 13.
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References

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